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503 Research products, page 1 of 51

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chiara Borrelli; Anna Sabbatini; Gian Marco Luna; Maria Pia Nardelli; T. Sbaffi; Caterina Morigi; Roberto Danovaro; Alessandra Negri;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Italy, France
    Project: EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    Benthic foraminifera are an important component of the marine biota, but protocols for investigating their viability and metabolism are still extremely limited. Classical studies on benthic foraminifera have been based on direct counting under light microscopy. Typically, these organisms are stained with Rose Bengal, which binds proteins and other macromolecules, but does not allow discrimination between viable and recently dead organisms. The fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) represents a new and useful approach to identify living cells possessing an active metabolism. Our work is the first test of the suitability of the FISH technique, based on fluorescent probes targeting the 18S rRNA, to detect live benthic foraminifera. The protocol was applied on <I>Ammonia</I> group and Miliolids, as well as on agglutinated polythalamous (i.e., <I>Leptohalysis scottii</I> and <I>Eggerella scabra</I>) and soft-shelled monothalamous (i.e., <I>Psammophaga</I> sp. and saccamminid morphotypes) taxa. The results from FISH analyses were compared with those obtained, on the same specimens assayed with FISH, from microscopic analysis of the cytoplasm colour, presence of pigments and pseudopodial activity. Our results indicate that FISH targets only metabolically active foraminifera, and allows discerning from low to high cellular activity, validating the hypothesis that the intensity of the fluorescent signal emitted by the probe is dependent upon the physiological status of cells. These findings support the usefulness of this molecular approach as a key tool for obtaining information on the physiology of living foraminifera, both in field and experimental settings.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fredrick Tamooh; K. Van den Meersche; F. Meysman; Trent R. Marwick; Alberto Borges; Roel Merckx; F.A. Dehairs; Sabine Schmidt; J Nyunja; Steven Bouillon;
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (DE)
    Countries: Belgium, Belgium, Netherlands
    Project: EC | AFRIVAL (240002)

    We studied patterns in organic carbon pools and their origin in the Tana River Basin (Kenya), in February 2008 (dry season), September–November 2009 (wet season), and June–July 2010 (end of wet season), covering the full continuum from headwater streams to lowland mainstream sites. A consistent downstream increase in total suspended matter (TSM, 0.6 to 7058 mg l−1) and particulate organic carbon (POC, 0.23 to 119.8 mg l−1) was observed during all three sampling campaigns, particularly pronounced below 1000m above sea level, indicating that most particulate matter exported towards the coastal zone originated from the mid and low altitude zones rather than from headwater regions. This indicates that the cascade of hydroelectrical reservoirs act as an extremely efficient particle trap. Although 7Be / 210Pbxs ratios/age of suspended sediment do not show clear seasonal variation, the gradual downstream increase of suspended matter during end of wet season suggests its origin is caused by inputs of older sediments from bank erosion and/or river sediment resuspension. During wet season, higher TSM concentrations correspond with relatively young suspended matter, suggesting a contribution from recently eroded material.With the exception of reservoir waters, POC was predominantly of terrestrial origin as indicated by generally high POC : chlorophyll a (POC : Chl a) ratios (up to 41 000). Stable isotope signatures of POC ( 13CPOC) ranged between −32 and −20‰and increased downstream, reflecting an increasing contribution of C4-derived carbon in combination with an expected shift in 13C for C3 vegetation towards the more semi-arid lowlands. 13C values in sediments from the main reservoir (−19.5 to −15.7 ‰) were higher than those found in any of the riverine samples, indicating selective retention of particles associated with C4 fraction. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest during the end of wet season (2.1 to 6.9 mg l−1), with stable isotope signatures generally between −28 and −22 ‰. A consistent downstream decrease in % organic carbon (%OC) was observed for soils, riverine sediments, and suspended matter. This was likely due to better preservation of the organic fraction in colder high altitude regions, with loss of carbon during downstream spiraling. 13C values for soil and sediment did not exhibit clear altitudinal patterns, but values reflect the full spectrum from C3-dominated to C4-dominated sites. Very low ratios of organic carbon to mineral surface area (OC : SA) were found in reservoir sediments and suspended matter in the lower Tana River, indicating that these are stable OC pools which have undergone extensive degradation. Overall, our study demonstrates that substantial differences occur in both the quantities and origin of suspended sediments and organic carbon along the river profile in this tropical river basin, as well as seasonal differences in the mechanisms causing such variations. AFRIVAL

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    E. Terzić; E. Terzić; P. Lazzari; E. Organelli; C. Solidoro; S. Salon; F. D'Ortenzio; P. Conan;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Italy, France
    Project: EC | REMOCEAN (246777)

    Abstract. The present work is based on a dataset comprised of 31 Biogeochemical (BGC) Argo floats that collected 0–1000 m vertical profiles of biogeochemical and optical data from 2012 to 2016 in the Mediterranean Sea. The dataset was integrated in 1-dimensional model simulations following the trajectories of each float and considering measured photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) profiles as the reference light parameterization. The simulations were aimed to be consistent with data measured by float sensors, especially in terms of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) depth. Moreover, we tested several light models in order to estimate their impact on modeled biogeochemical properties, including self-shading dynamics based on chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) concentrations. The results, evaluated with the corresponding in-situ BGC-Argo chlorophyll data, indicate that the proposed approach allows to properly simulate the chlorophyll dynamics and illustrate how PAR and vertical mixing are essential environmental regulation factors driving primary producers dynamics. The higher skills are reached using in-situ PAR, but some of the alternative bio-optical models here presented show comparable skill in reproducing DCM depth spatial variability. Simulation results show that during the stratification phase the diel cycle has significant impact on the surface chlorophyll regimes. The approach here presented serves as a computationally smooth solution to analyse BGC-Argo floats data and to corroborate hypotheses on their spatio-temporal variability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Antoine Nowaczyk; Francois Carlotti; Delphine Thibault-Botha; Marc Pagano;
    Country: France

    Abstract. The diversity and distribution of epipelagic metazooplankton across the Mediterranean Sea was studied along a 3000 km long transect from the eastern to the western basins during the BOUM cruise in summer 2008. Metazooplankton were sampled using both a 120 μm mesh size bongo net and Niskin bottles in the upper 200 m layer at 17 stations. Here we report on the stock, the composition and the structure of the metazooplankton community. The abundance was 4 to 8 times higher than in several previously published studies, whereas the biomass remained within the same order of magnitude. An eastward decrease in abundance was evident, although biomass was variable. Spatial (horizontal and vertical) distribution of metazooplankton abundance and biomass was strongly correlated to chlorophyll-a concentration. In addition, a clear association was observed between the vertical distribution of nauplii and small copepods and the depth of the deep chlorophyll maximum. The distinction between the communities of the eastern and western basins was clearly explained by the environmental factors. The specific distribution pattern of remarkable species was also described.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    F. A. C. Le Moigne; Morgane Gallinari; E. Laurenceau; C. L. De La Rocha;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, France, France, France, Germany, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933), EC | CALMARO (215157)

    Abstract. To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths) and microzooplankton (rotifers). Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM in suspension or in aggregates), of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic particulate matter, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM by zooplankton in the water column. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in a more rapid initial rate of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wagner, Bernd; Wilke, Thomas; Francke, Alexander; Albrecht, Christian; Baumgarten, Henrike; Bertini, Adele; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; D'Addabbo, Michele; Donders, Timme H.; +41 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Netherlands ...

    Abstract. This study reviews and synthesises existing information generated within the SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep drilling project. The four main aims of the project are to infer (i) the age and origin of Lake Ohrid (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia/Republic of Albania), (ii) its regional seismotectonic history, (iii) volcanic activity and climate change in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (iv) the influence of major geological events on the evolution of its endemic species. The Ohrid basin formed by transtension during the Miocene, opened during the Pliocene and Pleistocene, and the lake established de novo in the still relatively narrow valley between 1.9 and 1.3 Ma. The lake history is recorded in a 584 m long sediment sequence, which was recovered within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) from the central part (DEEP site) of the lake in spring 2013. To date, 54 tephra and cryptotephra horizons have been found in the upper 460 m of this sequence. Tephrochronology and tuning biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters revealed that the upper 247.8 m represent the last 637 kyr. The multi-proxy data set covering these 637 kyr indicates long-term variability. Some proxies show a change from generally cooler and wetter to drier and warmer glacial and interglacial periods around 300 ka. Short-term environmental change caused, for example, by tephra deposition or the climatic impact of millennial-scale Dansgaard–Oeschger and Heinrich events are superimposed on the long-term trends. Evolutionary studies on the extant fauna indicate that Lake Ohrid was not a refugial area for regional freshwater animals. This differs from the surrounding catchment, where the mountainous setting with relatively high water availability provided a refuge for temperate and montane trees during the relatively cold and dry glacial periods. Although Lake Ohrid experienced significant environmental change over the last 637 kyr, preliminary molecular data from extant microgastropod species do not indicate significant changes in diversification rate during this period. The reasons for this constant rate remain largely unknown, but a possible lack of environmentally induced extinction events in Lake Ohrid and/or the high resilience of the ecosystems may have played a role.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    S. Tran; Bernard Bonsang; Valérie Gros; Ilka Peeken; Roland Sarda-Esteve; Anja Bernhardt; Sauveur Belviso;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Countries: France, France, Germany

    Abstract. During the ARK XXV 1 + 2 expedition in the Arctic Ocean carried out in June–July 2010 aboard the R/V Polarstern, we measured carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and phytoplankton pigments at the sea surface and down to a depth of 100 m. The CO and NMHC sea-surface concentrations were highly variable; CO, propene and isoprene levels ranged from 0.6 to 17.5 nmol L−1, 1 to 322 pmol L−1 and 1 to 541 pmol L−1, respectively. The CO and alkene concentrations as well as their sea–air fluxes were enhanced in polar waters off of Greenland, which were more stratified because of ice melting and richer in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) than typical North Atlantic waters. The spatial distribution of the surface concentrations of CO was consistent with our current understanding of CO-induced UV photoproduction in the sea. The vertical distributions of the CO and alkenes were comparable and followed the trend of light penetration, with the concentrations displaying a relatively regular exponential decrease down to non-measurable values below 50 m. However, no diurnal variations of CO or alkene concentrations were observed in the stratified and irradiated surface layers. On several occasions, we observed the existence of subsurface CO maxima at the level of the deep chlorophyll maximum. This finding suggests the existence of a non-photochemical CO production pathway, most likely of phytoplanktonic origin. The corresponding production rates normalized to the chlorophyll content were in the range of those estimated from laboratory experiments. In general, the vertical distributions of isoprene followed that of the phytoplankton biomass. These data support the existence of a dominant photochemical source of CO and light alkenes enhanced in polar waters of the Arctic Ocean, with a minor contribution of a biological source of CO. The biological source of isoprene is observed in the different water masses but significantly increases in the warmer Atlantic waters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sabatier, Pierre; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Colin, Christophe; Frank, Norbert; Tisnerat-Laborde, Nadine; Bordier, Louise; Douville, Eric;
    Countries: France, France, Germany
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384), EC | KNOWSEAS (226675)

    Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of two corals from the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, Røst Reef, north of the Arctic circle off Norway. Colonies of each of the two species that build the reef, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were collected alive at 350 m depth using a submersible. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and trace element compositions were studied. 210Pb and 226Ra differ in the way they are incorporated into coral skeletons. Hence, to assess growth rates, we considered the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb, as well as the increase in 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra and contamination with 210Pb associated with Mn-Fe coatings that we were unable to remove completely from the oldest parts of the skeletons. 226Ra activity was similar in both coral species, so, assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time, we used the 210Pb-226Ra chronology to calculate growth rates. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata was 31 yr with an average linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr−1 (2.6 polyps per year). Despite cleaning, a correction for Mn-Fe oxide contamination was required for the oldest part of the colony; this correction corroborated our radiocarbon date of 40 yr and a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr−1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in aquarium experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long L. pertusa colony, metal-oxide contamination remained in both the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton despite cleaning, inhibiting similar age and growth rate estimates. The youngest part of the colony was free of metal oxides and this 15 cm section had an estimated a growth rate of 8 mm yr−1, with high uncertainty (~1 polyp every two to three years). We are less certain of this 210Pb growth rate estimate which is within the lowermost ranges of previous growth rate estimates. We show that 210Pb-226Ra dating can be successfully applied to determine the age and growth rate of framework-forming cold-water corals if Mn-Fe oxide deposits can be removed. Where metal oxides can be removed, large M. oculata and L. pertusa skeletons provide archives for studies of intermediate water masses with an up to annual time resolution and spanning over many decades.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ratmaya, Widya; Soudant, Dominique; Salmon-Monviola, Jordy; Plus, Martin; Cochennec-Laureau, Nathalie; Goubert, Evelyne; Andrieux-Loyer, Francoise; Barille, Laurent; Souchu, Philippe;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The evolution of eutrophication parameters (i.e., nutrients and phytoplankton biomass) during recent decades was examined in coastal waters of the Vilaine Bay (VB, France) in relation to changes in the Loire and Vilaine rivers. Dynamic linear models were used to study long-term trends and seasonality of dissolved inorganic nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl a) in rivers and coastal waters. For the period 1997–2013, the reduction in dissolved riverine inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations led to the decrease in their Chl a levels. However, while dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased only slightly in the Vilaine, they increased in the Loire, specifically in summer. Simultaneously, phytoplankton in the VB underwent profound changes with increase in biomass and change in the timing of the annual peak from spring to summer. The increase in phytoplankton biomass in the VB, manifested particularly by increased summer diatom abundances, was due to enhanced summer DIN loads from the Loire, sustained by internal regeneration of DIP and dissolved silicate (DSi) from sediments. The long-term trajectories of this case study evidence that significant reduction of P inputs without simultaneous N abatement was not yet sufficient to control eutrophication all along the Loire–Vilaine–VB continuum. Upstream rivers reveal indices of recoveries following the significant diminution of P, while eutrophication continues to increase downstream, especially when N is the limiting factor. More N input reduction, paying particular attention to diffuse N sources, is required to control eutrophication in receiving VB coastal waters. Internal benthic DIP and DSi recycling appears to have contributed to the worsening of summer VB water quality, augmenting the effects of anthropogenic DIN inputs. For this coastal ecosystem, nutrient management strategies should consider the role played by internal nutrient loads to tackle eutrophication processes.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Preprint . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    M.-H. Radenac; J. Jouanno; C. C. Tchamabi; M. Awo; M. Awo; M. Awo; B. Bourlès; S. Arnault; O. Aumont;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | TRIATLAS (817578)

    Abstract. Ocean color observations show semiannual variations in chlorophyll in the Atlantic cold tongue with a main bloom in boreal summer and a secondary bloom in December. In this study, ocean color and in situ measurements and a coupled physical–biogeochemical model are used to investigate the processes that drive this variability. Results show that the main phytoplankton bloom in July–August is driven by a strong vertical supply of nitrate in May–July, and the secondary bloom in December is driven by a shorter and moderate supply in November. The upper ocean nitrate balance is analyzed and shows that vertical advection controls the nitrate input in the equatorial euphotic layer and that vertical diffusion and meridional advection are key in extending and shaping the bloom off Equator. Below the mixed layer, observations and modeling show that the Equatorial Undercurrent brings low-nitrate water (relative to off-equatorial surrounding waters) but still rich enough to enhance the cold tongue productivity. Our results also give insights into the influence of intraseasonal processes in these exchanges. The submonthly meridional advection significantly contributes to the nitrate decrease below the mixed layer.

Advanced search in Research products
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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
503 Research products, page 1 of 51
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chiara Borrelli; Anna Sabbatini; Gian Marco Luna; Maria Pia Nardelli; T. Sbaffi; Caterina Morigi; Roberto Danovaro; Alessandra Negri;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Italy, France
    Project: EC | HERMIONE (226354)

    Benthic foraminifera are an important component of the marine biota, but protocols for investigating their viability and metabolism are still extremely limited. Classical studies on benthic foraminifera have been based on direct counting under light microscopy. Typically, these organisms are stained with Rose Bengal, which binds proteins and other macromolecules, but does not allow discrimination between viable and recently dead organisms. The fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) represents a new and useful approach to identify living cells possessing an active metabolism. Our work is the first test of the suitability of the FISH technique, based on fluorescent probes targeting the 18S rRNA, to detect live benthic foraminifera. The protocol was applied on <I>Ammonia</I> group and Miliolids, as well as on agglutinated polythalamous (i.e., <I>Leptohalysis scottii</I> and <I>Eggerella scabra</I>) and soft-shelled monothalamous (i.e., <I>Psammophaga</I> sp. and saccamminid morphotypes) taxa. The results from FISH analyses were compared with those obtained, on the same specimens assayed with FISH, from microscopic analysis of the cytoplasm colour, presence of pigments and pseudopodial activity. Our results indicate that FISH targets only metabolically active foraminifera, and allows discerning from low to high cellular activity, validating the hypothesis that the intensity of the fluorescent signal emitted by the probe is dependent upon the physiological status of cells. These findings support the usefulness of this molecular approach as a key tool for obtaining information on the physiology of living foraminifera, both in field and experimental settings.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fredrick Tamooh; K. Van den Meersche; F. Meysman; Trent R. Marwick; Alberto Borges; Roel Merckx; F.A. Dehairs; Sabine Schmidt; J Nyunja; Steven Bouillon;
    Publisher: European Geosciences Union (DE)
    Countries: Belgium, Belgium, Netherlands
    Project: EC | AFRIVAL (240002)

    We studied patterns in organic carbon pools and their origin in the Tana River Basin (Kenya), in February 2008 (dry season), September–November 2009 (wet season), and June–July 2010 (end of wet season), covering the full continuum from headwater streams to lowland mainstream sites. A consistent downstream increase in total suspended matter (TSM, 0.6 to 7058 mg l−1) and particulate organic carbon (POC, 0.23 to 119.8 mg l−1) was observed during all three sampling campaigns, particularly pronounced below 1000m above sea level, indicating that most particulate matter exported towards the coastal zone originated from the mid and low altitude zones rather than from headwater regions. This indicates that the cascade of hydroelectrical reservoirs act as an extremely efficient particle trap. Although 7Be / 210Pbxs ratios/age of suspended sediment do not show clear seasonal variation, the gradual downstream increase of suspended matter during end of wet season suggests its origin is caused by inputs of older sediments from bank erosion and/or river sediment resuspension. During wet season, higher TSM concentrations correspond with relatively young suspended matter, suggesting a contribution from recently eroded material.With the exception of reservoir waters, POC was predominantly of terrestrial origin as indicated by generally high POC : chlorophyll a (POC : Chl a) ratios (up to 41 000). Stable isotope signatures of POC ( 13CPOC) ranged between −32 and −20‰and increased downstream, reflecting an increasing contribution of C4-derived carbon in combination with an expected shift in 13C for C3 vegetation towards the more semi-arid lowlands. 13C values in sediments from the main reservoir (−19.5 to −15.7 ‰) were higher than those found in any of the riverine samples, indicating selective retention of particles associated with C4 fraction. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest during the end of wet season (2.1 to 6.9 mg l−1), with stable isotope signatures generally between −28 and −22 ‰. A consistent downstream decrease in % organic carbon (%OC) was observed for soils, riverine sediments, and suspended matter. This was likely due to better preservation of the organic fraction in colder high altitude regions, with loss of carbon during downstream spiraling. 13C values for soil and sediment did not exhibit clear altitudinal patterns, but values reflect the full spectrum from C3-dominated to C4-dominated sites. Very low ratios of organic carbon to mineral surface area (OC : SA) were found in reservoir sediments and suspended matter in the lower Tana River, indicating that these are stable OC pools which have undergone extensive degradation. Overall, our study demonstrates that substantial differences occur in both the quantities and origin of suspended sediments and organic carbon along the river profile in this tropical river basin, as well as seasonal differences in the mechanisms causing such variations. AFRIVAL

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    E. Terzić; E. Terzić; P. Lazzari; E. Organelli; C. Solidoro; S. Salon; F. D'Ortenzio; P. Conan;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Italy, France
    Project: EC | REMOCEAN (246777)

    Abstract. The present work is based on a dataset comprised of 31 Biogeochemical (BGC) Argo floats that collected 0–1000 m vertical profiles of biogeochemical and optical data from 2012 to 2016 in the Mediterranean Sea. The dataset was integrated in 1-dimensional model simulations following the trajectories of each float and considering measured photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) profiles as the reference light parameterization. The simulations were aimed to be consistent with data measured by float sensors, especially in terms of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) depth. Moreover, we tested several light models in order to estimate their impact on modeled biogeochemical properties, including self-shading dynamics based on chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) concentrations. The results, evaluated with the corresponding in-situ BGC-Argo chlorophyll data, indicate that the proposed approach allows to properly simulate the chlorophyll dynamics and illustrate how PAR and vertical mixing are essential environmental regulation factors driving primary producers dynamics. The higher skills are reached using in-situ PAR, but some of the alternative bio-optical models here presented show comparable skill in reproducing DCM depth spatial variability. Simulation results show that during the stratification phase the diel cycle has significant impact on the surface chlorophyll regimes. The approach here presented serves as a computationally smooth solution to analyse BGC-Argo floats data and to corroborate hypotheses on their spatio-temporal variability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Antoine Nowaczyk; Francois Carlotti; Delphine Thibault-Botha; Marc Pagano;
    Country: France

    Abstract. The diversity and distribution of epipelagic metazooplankton across the Mediterranean Sea was studied along a 3000 km long transect from the eastern to the western basins during the BOUM cruise in summer 2008. Metazooplankton were sampled using both a 120 μm mesh size bongo net and Niskin bottles in the upper 200 m layer at 17 stations. Here we report on the stock, the composition and the structure of the metazooplankton community. The abundance was 4 to 8 times higher than in several previously published studies, whereas the biomass remained within the same order of magnitude. An eastward decrease in abundance was evident, although biomass was variable. Spatial (horizontal and vertical) distribution of metazooplankton abundance and biomass was strongly correlated to chlorophyll-a concentration. In addition, a clear association was observed between the vertical distribution of nauplii and small copepods and the depth of the deep chlorophyll maximum. The distinction between the communities of the eastern and western basins was clearly explained by the environmental factors. The specific distribution pattern of remarkable species was also described.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    F. A. C. Le Moigne; Morgane Gallinari; E. Laurenceau; C. L. De La Rocha;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, France, France, France, France, Germany, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933), EC | CALMARO (215157)

    Abstract. To examine the potentially competing influences of microzooplankton and calcite mineral ballast on organic matter remineralization, we incubated diatoms in darkness in rolling tanks with and without added calcite minerals (coccoliths) and microzooplankton (rotifers). Concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM in suspension or in aggregates), of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and of dissolved inorganic nutrients were monitored over 8 days. The presence of rotifers enhanced the remineralization of ammonium and phosphate, but not dissolved silicon, from the biogenic particulate matter, up to 40% of which became incorporated into aggregates early in the experiment. Added calcite resulted in rates of excretion of ammonium and phosphate by rotifers that were depressed by 67% and 36%, respectively, demonstrating the potential for minerals to inhibit the destruction of POM by zooplankton in the water column. Lastly, the presence of the rotifers and added calcite minerals resulted in a more rapid initial rate of aggregation, although not a greater overall amount of aggregation during the experiment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wagner, Bernd; Wilke, Thomas; Francke, Alexander; Albrecht, Christian; Baumgarten, Henrike; Bertini, Adele; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; D'Addabbo, Michele; Donders, Timme H.; +41 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Netherlands ...

    Abstract. This study reviews and synthesises existing information generated within the SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep drilling project. The four main aims of the project are to infer (i) the age and origin of Lake Ohrid (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia/Republic of Albania), (ii) its regional seismotectonic history, (iii) volcanic activity and climate change in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (iv) the influence of major geological events on the evolution of its endemic species. The Ohrid basin formed by transtension during the Miocene, opened during the Pliocene and Pleistocene, and the lake established de novo in the still relatively narrow valley between 1.9 and 1.3 Ma. The lake history is recorded in a 584 m long sediment sequence, which was recovered within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) from the central part (DEEP site) of the lake in spring 2013. To date, 54 tephra and cryptotephra horizons have been found in the upper 460 m of this sequence. Tephrochronology and tuning biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters revealed that the upper 247.8 m represent the last 637 kyr. The multi-proxy data set covering these 637 kyr indicates long-term variability. Some proxies show a change from generally cooler and wetter to drier and warmer glacial and interglacial periods around 300 ka. Short-term environmental change caused, for example, by tephra deposition or the climatic impact of millennial-scale Dansgaard–Oeschger and Heinrich events are superimposed on the long-term trends. Evolutionary studies on the extant fauna indicate that Lake Ohrid was not a refugial area for regional freshwater animals. This differs from the surrounding catchment, where the mountainous setting with relatively high water availability provided a refuge for temperate and montane trees during the relatively cold and dry glacial periods. Although Lake Ohrid experienced significant environmental change over the last 637 kyr, preliminary molecular data from extant microgastropod species do not indicate significant changes in diversification rate during this period. The reasons for this constant rate remain largely unknown, but a possible lack of environmentally induced extinction events in Lake Ohrid and/or the high resilience of the ecosystems may have played a role.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    S. Tran; Bernard Bonsang; Valérie Gros; Ilka Peeken; Roland Sarda-Esteve; Anja Bernhardt; Sauveur Belviso;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Countries: France, France, Germany

    Abstract. During the ARK XXV 1 + 2 expedition in the Arctic Ocean carried out in June–July 2010 aboard the R/V Polarstern, we measured carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and phytoplankton pigments at the sea surface and down to a depth of 100 m. The CO and NMHC sea-surface concentrations were highly variable; CO, propene and isoprene levels ranged from 0.6 to 17.5 nmol L−1, 1 to 322 pmol L−1 and 1 to 541 pmol L−1, respectively. The CO and alkene concentrations as well as their sea–air fluxes were enhanced in polar waters off of Greenland, which were more stratified because of ice melting and richer in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) than typical North Atlantic waters. The spatial distribution of the surface concentrations of CO was consistent with our current understanding of CO-induced UV photoproduction in the sea. The vertical distributions of the CO and alkenes were comparable and followed the trend of light penetration, with the concentrations displaying a relatively regular exponential decrease down to non-measurable values below 50 m. However, no diurnal variations of CO or alkene concentrations were observed in the stratified and irradiated surface layers. On several occasions, we observed the existence of subsurface CO maxima at the level of the deep chlorophyll maximum. This finding suggests the existence of a non-photochemical CO production pathway, most likely of phytoplanktonic origin. The corresponding production rates normalized to the chlorophyll content were in the range of those estimated from laboratory experiments. In general, the vertical distributions of isoprene followed that of the phytoplankton biomass. These data support the existence of a dominant photochemical source of CO and light alkenes enhanced in polar waters of the Arctic Ocean, with a minor contribution of a biological source of CO. The biological source of isoprene is observed in the different water masses but significantly increases in the warmer Atlantic waters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sabatier, Pierre; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Colin, Christophe; Frank, Norbert; Tisnerat-Laborde, Nadine; Bordier, Louise; Douville, Eric;
    Countries: France, France, Germany
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384), EC | KNOWSEAS (226675)

    Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of two corals from the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, Røst Reef, north of the Arctic circle off Norway. Colonies of each of the two species that build the reef, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were collected alive at 350 m depth using a submersible. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and trace element compositions were studied. 210Pb and 226Ra differ in the way they are incorporated into coral skeletons. Hence, to assess growth rates, we considered the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb, as well as the increase in 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra and contamination with 210Pb associated with Mn-Fe coatings that we were unable to remove completely from the oldest parts of the skeletons. 226Ra activity was similar in both coral species, so, assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time, we used the 210Pb-226Ra chronology to calculate growth rates. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata was 31 yr with an average linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr−1 (2.6 polyps per year). Despite cleaning, a correction for Mn-Fe oxide contamination was required for the oldest part of the colony; this correction corroborated our radiocarbon date of 40 yr and a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr−1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in aquarium experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long L. pertusa colony, metal-oxide contamination remained in both the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton despite cleaning, inhibiting similar age and growth rate estimates. The youngest part of the colony was free of metal oxides and this 15 cm section had an estimated a growth rate of 8 mm yr−1, with high uncertainty (~1 polyp every two to three years). We are less certain of this 210Pb growth rate estimate which is within the lowermost ranges of previous growth rate estimates. We show that 210Pb-226Ra dating can be successfully applied to determine the age and growth rate of framework-forming cold-water corals if Mn-Fe oxide deposits can be removed. Where metal oxides can be removed, large M. oculata and L. pertusa skeletons provide archives for studies of intermediate water masses with an up to annual time resolution and spanning over many decades.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ratmaya, Widya; Soudant, Dominique; Salmon-Monviola, Jordy; Plus, Martin; Cochennec-Laureau, Nathalie; Goubert, Evelyne; Andrieux-Loyer, Francoise; Barille, Laurent; Souchu, Philippe;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The evolution of eutrophication parameters (i.e., nutrients and phytoplankton biomass) during recent decades was examined in coastal waters of the Vilaine Bay (VB, France) in relation to changes in the Loire and Vilaine rivers. Dynamic linear models were used to study long-term trends and seasonality of dissolved inorganic nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl a) in rivers and coastal waters. For the period 1997–2013, the reduction in dissolved riverine inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations led to the decrease in their Chl a levels. However, while dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased only slightly in the Vilaine, they increased in the Loire, specifically in summer. Simultaneously, phytoplankton in the VB underwent profound changes with increase in biomass and change in the timing of the annual peak from spring to summer. The increase in phytoplankton biomass in the VB, manifested particularly by increased summer diatom abundances, was due to enhanced summer DIN loads from the Loire, sustained by internal regeneration of DIP and dissolved silicate (DSi) from sediments. The long-term trajectories of this case study evidence that significant reduction of P inputs without simultaneous N abatement was not yet sufficient to control eutrophication all along the Loire–Vilaine–VB continuum. Upstream rivers reveal indices of recoveries following the significant diminution of P, while eutrophication continues to increase downstream, especially when N is the limiting factor. More N input reduction, paying particular attention to diffuse N sources, is required to control eutrophication in receiving VB coastal waters. Internal benthic DIP and DSi recycling appears to have contributed to the worsening of summer VB water quality, augmenting the effects of anthropogenic DIN inputs. For this coastal ecosystem, nutrient management strategies should consider the role played by internal nutrient loads to tackle eutrophication processes.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Preprint . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    M.-H. Radenac; J. Jouanno; C. C. Tchamabi; M. Awo; M. Awo; M. Awo; B. Bourlès; S. Arnault; O. Aumont;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | TRIATLAS (817578)

    Abstract. Ocean color observations show semiannual variations in chlorophyll in the Atlantic cold tongue with a main bloom in boreal summer and a secondary bloom in December. In this study, ocean color and in situ measurements and a coupled physical–biogeochemical model are used to investigate the processes that drive this variability. Results show that the main phytoplankton bloom in July–August is driven by a strong vertical supply of nitrate in May–July, and the secondary bloom in December is driven by a shorter and moderate supply in November. The upper ocean nitrate balance is analyzed and shows that vertical advection controls the nitrate input in the equatorial euphotic layer and that vertical diffusion and meridional advection are key in extending and shaping the bloom off Equator. Below the mixed layer, observations and modeling show that the Equatorial Undercurrent brings low-nitrate water (relative to off-equatorial surrounding waters) but still rich enough to enhance the cold tongue productivity. Our results also give insights into the influence of intraseasonal processes in these exchanges. The submonthly meridional advection significantly contributes to the nitrate decrease below the mixed layer.