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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.; Frölicher, T. L.; Bopp, L.; +8 Authors

    Changes in marine net primary productivity (PP) and export of particulate organic carbon (EP) are projected over the 21st century with four global coupled carbon cycle-climate models. These include representations of marine ecosystems and the carbon cycle of different structure and complexity. All four models show a decrease in global mean PP and EP between 2 and 20% by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions, for the SRES A2 emission scenario. Two different regimes for productivity changes are consistently identified in all models. The first chain of mechanisms is dominant in the low- and mid-latitude ocean and in the North Atlantic: reduced input of macro-nutrients into the euphotic zone related to enhanced stratification, reduced mixed layer depth, and slowed circulation causes a decrease in macro-nutrient concentrations and in PP and EP. The second regime is projected for parts of the Southern Ocean: an alleviation of light and/or temperature limitation leads to an increase in PP and EP as productivity is fueled by a sustained nutrient input. A region of disagreement among the models is the Arctic, where three models project an increase in PP while one model projects a decrease. Projected changes in seasonal and interannual variability are modest in most regions. Regional model skill metrics are proposed to generate multi-model mean fields that show an improved skill in representing observation-based estimates compared to a simple multi-model average. Model results are compared to recent productivity projections with three different algorithms, usually applied to infer net primary production from satellite observations.

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    Authors: Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Jaccard, Samuel L; Waelbroeck, Claire;

    Past millennial-scale changes in atmospheric CO2 (CO2,atm) levels have often been attributed to variations in the overturning timescale of the ocean that result in changes in the marine carbon inventory. There remains a paucity of proxy evidence that documents changes in marine carbon storage globally, and that links them to distinct abrupt climate variability in the northern hemi-sphere that involve perturbations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The last two glacial periods were suggested to differ in the extent and sensitivity of the AMOC to changes, and therefore provide an opportunity to study their role in marine carbon cycling. Here, we reconstruct variations in respired carbon storage (via oxygenation) and the AMOC 'geometry' (via carbonate ion saturation) in the deep South Atlantic during the past two glacial periods. We infer decreases in deep South Atlantic respired carbon levels at times of weakened AMOC and rising CO2,atm concentrations during both glacial periods. These findings suggest a consistent pat-tern of increased Southern Ocean convection and/or air-sea CO2 fluxes during northern-hemisphere stadials accompanying AMOC perturbations and promoting a rise in CO2,atm levels, despite potential differences in the magnitude of the forcing, the climate (and hence, AMOC) background conditions and the rate of ocean-atmospheric CO2 fluxes. We find that net ocean car-bon loss, and hence the magnitude of CO2,atm rise, during a glacial is largely determined by the stadial duration. North Atlantic climate anomalies may therefore significantly affect Southern Ocean carbon cycling through oceanic (e.g., 'ventilation' seesaw) and/or atmospheric processes (e.g., Ekman pumping).

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    Authors: Keller, Isabel Salome; Salzburger, Walter; Roth, Olivia;

    Background: Parental care, while increasing parental fitness through offspring survival also bears cost to the care-giving parent. Consequentially, trade offs between parental care and other vitally important traits, such as the immune system seem evident. In co-occurring phases of parental care and immunological challenges negative consequences through a resource allocation trade off on both the parental and the offspring conditions can be predicted. While the immune system is reflecting parental stress conditions, parental immunological investments also boost offspring survival via the transfer of immunological substances (trans-generational immune priming). We investigated this relationship adult and juvenile mouth brooding East African cichlid Astotatilapia burtoni. Prior to mating, females were exposed to an immunological activation, while others remained immunologically naive. Correspondingly, immunological status of females was either examined directly after reproduction or after mouth brooding had ceased. Offspring from both groups were exposed to immunological challenges to assess the extent of trans-generational immune priming. As proxy for immune status, cellular immunological activity and gene expression were determined. Results: Both reproducing and mouthbrooding females allocate their resources towards reproduction. While upon reproduction the innate immune system was impeded, mouthbrooding females showed an attenuation of inflammatory components and an elevated stress levels. Juveniles from immune challenged mouthbrooding females showed downregulation of immune and life history candidate genes, implying a limitation of trans-generational plasticity when parents experience stress during the costly reproductive phase. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that parental investment via mouthbrooding is beneficial for the offspring. However, both parental investment and the rise of the immunological activity upon an immune challenge are costly traits. If applied simultaneously, not only mothers seem to be impacted in their performance, but also offspring are impeded in their ability to react upon a potentially virulent pathogen exposure.

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    Authors: De Vleeschouwer, David; Auer, Gerald; Smith, Rebecca; Bogus, Kara A; +10 Authors

    An unusually short glaciation interrupted the warm Pliocene around 3.3 Ma (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2). Different hypotheses exist to explain why this glaciation event was so pronounced, and why the global climate system returned to warm Pliocene conditions relatively quickly afterwards. One of these proposed mechanisms is a reduced equator-to-pole heat transfer, in response to a tectonically reduced Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). The ITF is a critical part of the global thermohaline ocean circulation, transporting heat from the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool to the Indian Ocean. When ITF connectivity is reduced, the water and heat supply for the Leeuwin Current, flowing poleward along Australia's west coast, is also diminished. To assess the possible relationship between mid-Pliocene glaciations and latitudinal heat transport through the Indonesian Throughflow, we constructed a multi-proxy orbital-scale record for the 3.7–2.8 Ma interval from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1463, off northwest Australia. The comparison of the Site U1463 record with paleoclimate records from nearby Site 763 and West Pacific Warm Pool Site 806 allows for a detailed regional reconstruction of Pliocene paleoceanography and thus for testing the proposed hypothesis. An astronomically-paced decrease in potassium content characterizes the late Pliocene interval of U1463. This record documents the increasing aridity of northwest Australia, periodically alleviated by reinforced summer monsoon precipitation under summer insolation maxima. The d18O record of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides sacculifer correlates exceptionally well with the sea surface temperature (SST) record from Site 806 in the West Pacific Warm Pool, even during MIS M2. Hence, Site U1463 preserves an uninterrupted ITF signal even during Pliocene glaciations. However, the U1463 d18O G.sacculifer record exhibits a 0.5‰ offset with the nearby Site 763A record around MIS M2. This implies that Site 763A, about 500 km west of U1463, more closely tracks Indian Ocean SST records across MIS M2. The U1463 data reveal that heat-transport through the Indonesian Throughflow did not shut down completely during MIS M2, but rather its intensity decreased prior to and during MIS M2, causing Site 763A to temporarily reflect an Indian Ocean, rather than an ITF signal. We conclude that ITF variability significantly influenced latitudinal heat transport by means of the Leeuwin Current and hence contributed to the relative intensity of MIS M2. We propose the ITF valve between the Pacific and Indian Ocean as a positive feedback mechanism, in which an initial sea level lowering reduces ITF heat transport, in turn amplifying global cooling by advancing the thermal isolation of Antarctica.

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    Authors: Plach, Andreas; Vinther, Bo M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; +1 Authors

    This study presents simulations of Greenland surface melt for the Eemian interglacial period (∼130 000 to 115 000 years ago) derived from regional climate simulations with a coupled surface energy balance model. Surface melt is of high relevance due to its potential effect on ice core observations, e.g., lowering the preserved total air content (TAC) used to infer past surface elevation. An investigation of surface melt is particularly interesting for warm periods with high surface melt, such as the Eemian interglacial period. Furthermore, Eemian ice is the deepest and most compressed ice preserved on Greenland, resulting in our inability to identify melt layers visually. Therefore, simulating Eemian melt rates and associated melt layers is beneficial to improve the reconstruction of past surface elevation. Estimated TAC, based on simulated melt during the Eemian, could explain the lower TAC observations. The simulations show Eemian surface melt at all deep Greenland ice core locations and an average of up to ∼30 melt days per year at Dye-3, corresponding to more than 600 mm water equivalent (w.e.) of annual melt. For higher ice sheet locations, between 60 and 150 mmw.e.yr-1 on average are simulated. At the summit of Greenland, this yields a refreezing ratio of more than 25 % of the annual accumulation. As a consequence, high melt rates during warm periods should be considered when interpreting Greenland TAC fluctuations as surface elevation changes. In addition to estimating the influence of melt on past TAC in ice cores, the simulated surface melt could potentially be used to identify coring locations where Greenland ice is best preserved.

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    Authors: Turi, G.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.;

    We quantify the CO2 source/sink nature of the California Current System (CalCS) and determine the drivers and processes behind the mean and spatiotemporal variability of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the surface ocean. To this end, we analyze eddy-resolving, climatological simulations of a coupled physical–biogeochemical oceanic model on the basis of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). In the annual mean, the entire CalCS within 800 km of the coast and from ∼33° N to 46° N is essentially neutral with regard to atmospheric CO2: the model simulates an integrated uptake flux of −0.9 ± 3.6 Tg C yr−1, corresponding to an average flux density of −0.05 ± 0.20 mol C m−2 yr−1. This near zero flux is a consequence of an almost complete regional compensation between (i) strong outgassing in the nearshore region (first 100 km) that brings waters with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to the surface and (ii) and a weaker, but more widespread uptake flux in the offshore region due to an intense biological reduction of this DIC, driven by the nutrients that are upwelled together with the DIC. The air–sea CO2 fluxes vary substantially in time, both on seasonal and sub-seasonal timescales, largely driven by variations in surface ocean pCO2. Most of the variability in pCO2 is associated with the seasonal cycle, with the exception of the nearshore region, where sub-seasonal variations driven by mesoscale processes dominate. In the regions offshore of 100 km, changes in surface temperature are the main driver, while in the nearshore region, changes in surface temperature, as well as anomalies in DIC and alkalinity (Alk) owing to changes in circulation, biological productivity and air–sea CO2 fluxes dominate. The prevalence of eddy-driven variability in the nearshore 100 km leads to a complex spatiotemporal mosaic of surface ocean pCO2 and air–sea CO2 fluxes that require a substantial observational effort to determine the source/sink nature of this region reliably.

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    Authors: Nisumaa, A.-M.; Pesant, S.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Delille, Bruno; +6 Authors

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms and communities but few have provided details concerning full carbonate chemistry and complementary observations. Additionally, carbonate system variables are often reported in different units, calculated using different sets of dissociation constants and on different pH scales. Hence the direct comparison of experimental results has been problematic and often misleading. The need was identified to (1) gather data on carbonate chemistry, biological and biogeochemical properties, and other ancillary data from published experimental data, (2) transform the information into common framework, and (3) make data freely available. The present paper is the outcome of an effort to integrate ocean carbonate chemistry data from the literature which has been supported by the European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis (EUR-OCEANS) and the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). A total of 185 papers were identified, 100 contained enough information to readily compute carbonate chemistry variables, and 81 data sets were archived at PANGAEA – The Publishing Network for Geoscientific & Environmental Data. This data compilation is regularly updated as an ongoing mission of EPOCA. Data access: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.735138

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    Authors: Schmitt, Jochen; Schneider, Robert; Elsig, Joachim; Leuenberger, Daiana; +7 Authors

    The stable carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 (d13Catm) is a key parameter in deciphering past carbon cycle changes. Here we present d13Catm data for the past 24,000 years derived from three independent records from two Antarctic ice cores. We conclude that a pronounced 0.3 per mil decrease in d13Catm during the early deglaciation can be best explained by upwelling of old, carbon-enriched waters in the Southern Ocean. Later in the deglaciation, regrowth of the terrestrial biosphere, changes in sea surface temperature, and ocean circulation governed the d13Catm evolution. During the Last Glacial Maximum, d13Catm and atmospheric CO2 concentration were essentially constant, which suggests that the carbon cycle was in dynamic equilibrium and that the net transfer of carbon to the deep ocean had occurred before then.

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    Authors: Parrenin, Frédéric; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Köhler, Peter; Raynaud, Dominique; +6 Authors

    Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate changes requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to temperature. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic temperature at four times when their trends change abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic temperature did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies.

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    Authors: Burckel, Pierre; Waelbroeck, Claire; Luo, Yiming; Roche, Didier M; +6 Authors

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during Heinrich Stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20-50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa/230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa/230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present day North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin, and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich Stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow southward flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

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    Authors: Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.; Frölicher, T. L.; Bopp, L.; +8 Authors

    Changes in marine net primary productivity (PP) and export of particulate organic carbon (EP) are projected over the 21st century with four global coupled carbon cycle-climate models. These include representations of marine ecosystems and the carbon cycle of different structure and complexity. All four models show a decrease in global mean PP and EP between 2 and 20% by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions, for the SRES A2 emission scenario. Two different regimes for productivity changes are consistently identified in all models. The first chain of mechanisms is dominant in the low- and mid-latitude ocean and in the North Atlantic: reduced input of macro-nutrients into the euphotic zone related to enhanced stratification, reduced mixed layer depth, and slowed circulation causes a decrease in macro-nutrient concentrations and in PP and EP. The second regime is projected for parts of the Southern Ocean: an alleviation of light and/or temperature limitation leads to an increase in PP and EP as productivity is fueled by a sustained nutrient input. A region of disagreement among the models is the Arctic, where three models project an increase in PP while one model projects a decrease. Projected changes in seasonal and interannual variability are modest in most regions. Regional model skill metrics are proposed to generate multi-model mean fields that show an improved skill in representing observation-based estimates compared to a simple multi-model average. Model results are compared to recent productivity projections with three different algorithms, usually applied to infer net primary production from satellite observations.

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    Authors: Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Jaccard, Samuel L; Waelbroeck, Claire;

    Past millennial-scale changes in atmospheric CO2 (CO2,atm) levels have often been attributed to variations in the overturning timescale of the ocean that result in changes in the marine carbon inventory. There remains a paucity of proxy evidence that documents changes in marine carbon storage globally, and that links them to distinct abrupt climate variability in the northern hemi-sphere that involve perturbations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The last two glacial periods were suggested to differ in the extent and sensitivity of the AMOC to changes, and therefore provide an opportunity to study their role in marine carbon cycling. Here, we reconstruct variations in respired carbon storage (via oxygenation) and the AMOC 'geometry' (via carbonate ion saturation) in the deep South Atlantic during the past two glacial periods. We infer decreases in deep South Atlantic respired carbon levels at times of weakened AMOC and rising CO2,atm concentrations during both glacial periods. These findings suggest a consistent pat-tern of increased Southern Ocean convection and/or air-sea CO2 fluxes during northern-hemisphere stadials accompanying AMOC perturbations and promoting a rise in CO2,atm levels, despite potential differences in the magnitude of the forcing, the climate (and hence, AMOC) background conditions and the rate of ocean-atmospheric CO2 fluxes. We find that net ocean car-bon loss, and hence the magnitude of CO2,atm rise, during a glacial is largely determined by the stadial duration. North Atlantic climate anomalies may therefore significantly affect Southern Ocean carbon cycling through oceanic (e.g., 'ventilation' seesaw) and/or atmospheric processes (e.g., Ekman pumping).

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    Authors: Keller, Isabel Salome; Salzburger, Walter; Roth, Olivia;

    Background: Parental care, while increasing parental fitness through offspring survival also bears cost to the care-giving parent. Consequentially, trade offs between parental care and other vitally important traits, such as the immune system seem evident. In co-occurring phases of parental care and immunological challenges negative consequences through a resource allocation trade off on both the parental and the offspring conditions can be predicted. While the immune system is reflecting parental stress conditions, parental immunological investments also boost offspring survival via the transfer of immunological substances (trans-generational immune priming). We investigated this relationship adult and juvenile mouth brooding East African cichlid Astotatilapia burtoni. Prior to mating, females were exposed to an immunological activation, while others remained immunologically naive. Correspondingly, immunological status of females was either examined directly after reproduction or after mouth brooding had ceased. Offspring from both groups were exposed to immunological challenges to assess the extent of trans-generational immune priming. As proxy for immune status, cellular immunological activity and gene expression were determined. Results: Both reproducing and mouthbrooding females allocate their resources towards reproduction. While upon reproduction the innate immune system was impeded, mouthbrooding females showed an attenuation of inflammatory components and an elevated stress levels. Juveniles from immune challenged mouthbrooding females showed downregulation of immune and life history candidate genes, implying a limitation of trans-generational plasticity when parents experience stress during the costly reproductive phase. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that parental investment via mouthbrooding is beneficial for the offspring. However, both parental investment and the rise of the immunological activity upon an immune challenge are costly traits. If applied simultaneously, not only mothers seem to be impacted in their performance, but also offspring are impeded in their ability to react upon a potentially virulent pathogen exposure.

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    Authors: De Vleeschouwer, David; Auer, Gerald; Smith, Rebecca; Bogus, Kara A; +10 Authors

    An unusually short glaciation interrupted the warm Pliocene around 3.3 Ma (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2). Different hypotheses exist to explain why this glaciation event was so pronounced, and why the global climate system returned to warm Pliocene conditions relatively quickly afterwards. One of these proposed mechanisms is a reduced equator-to-pole heat transfer, in response to a tectonically reduced Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). The ITF is a critical part of the global thermohaline ocean circulation, transporting heat from the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool to the Indian Ocean. When ITF connectivity is reduced, the water and heat supply for the Leeuwin Current, flowing poleward along Australia's west coast, is also diminished. To assess the possible relationship between mid-Pliocene glaciations and latitudinal heat transport through the Indonesian Throughflow, we constructed a multi-proxy orbital-scale record for the 3.7–2.8 Ma interval from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1463, off northwest Australia. The comparison of the Site U1463 record with paleoclimate records from nearby Site 763 and West Pacific Warm Pool Site 806 allows for a detailed regional reconstruction of Pliocene paleoceanography and thus for testing the proposed hypothesis. An astronomically-paced decrease in potassium content characterizes the late Pliocene interval of U1463. This record documents the increasing aridity of northwest Australia, periodically alleviated by reinforced summer monsoon precipitation under summer insolation maxima. The d18O record of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides sacculifer correlates exceptionally well with the sea surface temperature (SST) record from Site 806 in the West Pacific Warm Pool, even during MIS M2. Hence, Site U1463 preserves an uninterrupted ITF signal even during Pliocene glaciations. However, the U1463 d18O G.sacculifer record exhibits a 0.5‰ offset with the nearby Site 763A record around MIS M2. This implies that Site 763A, about 500 km west of U1463, more closely tracks Indian Ocean SST records across MIS M2. The U1463 data reveal that heat-transport through the Indonesian Throughflow did not shut down completely during MIS M2, but rather its intensity decreased prior to and during MIS M2, causing Site 763A to temporarily reflect an Indian Ocean, rather than an ITF signal. We conclude that ITF variability significantly influenced latitudinal heat transport by means of the Leeuwin Current and hence contributed to the relative intensity of MIS M2. We propose the ITF valve between the Pacific and Indian Ocean as a positive feedback mechanism, in which an initial sea level lowering reduces ITF heat transport, in turn amplifying global cooling by advancing the thermal isolation of Antarctica.

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    Authors: Plach, Andreas; Vinther, Bo M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; +1 Authors

    This study presents simulations of Greenland surface melt for the Eemian interglacial period (∼130 000 to 115 000 years ago) derived from regional climate simulations with a coupled surface energy balance model. Surface melt is of high relevance due to its potential effect on ice core observations, e.g., lowering the preserved total air content (TAC) used to infer past surface elevation. An investigation of surface melt is particularly interesting for warm periods with high surface melt, such as the Eemian interglacial period. Furthermore, Eemian ice is the deepest and most compressed ice preserved on Greenland, resulting in our inability to identify melt layers visually. Therefore, simulating Eemian melt rates and associated melt layers is beneficial to improve the reconstruction of past surface elevation. Estimated TAC, based on simulated melt during the Eemian, could explain the lower TAC observations. The simulations show Eemian surface melt at all deep Greenland ice core locations and an average of up to ∼30 melt days per year at Dye-3, corresponding to more than 600 mm water equivalent (w.e.) of annual melt. For higher ice sheet locations, between 60 and 150 mmw.e.yr-1 on average are simulated. At the summit of Greenland, this yields a refreezing ratio of more than 25 % of the annual accumulation. As a consequence, high melt rates during warm periods should be considered when interpreting Greenland TAC fluctuations as surface elevation changes. In addition to estimating the influence of melt on past TAC in ice cores, the simulated surface melt could potentially be used to identify coring locations where Greenland ice is best preserved.

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    Authors: Turi, G.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.;

    We quantify the CO2 source/sink nature of the California Current System (CalCS) and determine the drivers and processes behind the mean and spatiotemporal variability of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the surface ocean. To this end, we analyze eddy-resolving, climatological simulations of a coupled physical–biogeochemical oceanic model on the basis of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). In the annual mean, the entire CalCS within 800 km of the coast and from ∼33° N to 46° N is essentially neutral with regard to atmospheric CO2: the model simulates an integrated uptake flux of −0.9 ± 3.6 Tg C yr−1, corresponding to an average flux density of −0.05 ± 0.20 mol C m−2 yr−1. This near zero flux is a consequence of an almost complete regional compensation between (i) strong outgassing in the nearshore region (first 100 km) that brings waters with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to the surface and (ii) and a weaker, but more widespread uptake flux in the offshore region due to an intense biological reduction of this DIC, driven by the nutrients that are upwelled together with the DIC. The air–sea CO2 fluxes vary substantially in time, both on seasonal and sub-seasonal timescales, largely driven by variations in surface ocean pCO2. Most of the variability in pCO2 is associated with the seasonal cycle, with the exception of the nearshore region, where sub-seasonal variations driven by mesoscale processes dominate. In the regions offshore of 100 km, changes in surface temperature are the main driver, while in the nearshore region, changes in surface temperature, as well as anomalies in DIC and alkalinity (Alk) owing to changes in circulation, biological productivity and air–sea CO2 fluxes dominate. The prevalence of eddy-driven variability in the nearshore 100 km leads to a complex spatiotemporal mosaic of surface ocean pCO2 and air–sea CO2 fluxes that require a substantial observational effort to determine the source/sink nature of this region reliably.

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    Authors: Nisumaa, A.-M.; Pesant, S.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Delille, Bruno; +6 Authors

    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms and communities but few have provided details concerning full carbonate chemistry and complementary observations. Additionally, carbonate system variables are often reported in different units, calculated using different sets of dissociation constants and on different pH scales. Hence the direct comparison of experimental results has been problematic and often misleading. The need was identified to (1) gather data on carbonate chemistry, biological and biogeochemical properties, and other ancillary data from published experimental data, (2) transform the information into common framework, and (3) make data freely available. The present paper is the outcome of an effort to integrate ocean carbonate chemistry data from the literature which has been supported by the European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis (EUR-OCEANS) and the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). A total of 185 papers were identified, 100 contained enough information to readily compute carbonate chemistry variables, and 81 data sets were archived at PANGAEA – The Publishing Network for Geoscientific & Environmental Data. This data compilation is regularly updated as an ongoing mission of EPOCA. Data access: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.735138

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    Authors: Schmitt, Jochen; Schneider, Robert; Elsig, Joachim; Leuenberger, Daiana; +7 Authors

    The stable carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 (d13Catm) is a key parameter in deciphering past carbon cycle changes. Here we present d13Catm data for the past 24,000 years derived from three independent records from two Antarctic ice cores. We conclude that a pronounced 0.3 per mil decrease in d13Catm during the early deglaciation can be best explained by upwelling of old, carbon-enriched waters in the Southern Ocean. Later in the deglaciation, regrowth of the terrestrial biosphere, changes in sea surface temperature, and ocean circulation governed the d13Catm evolution. During the Last Glacial Maximum, d13Catm and atmospheric CO2 concentration were essentially constant, which suggests that the carbon cycle was in dynamic equilibrium and that the net transfer of carbon to the deep ocean had occurred before then.

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    Authors: Parrenin, Frédéric; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Köhler, Peter; Raynaud, Dominique; +6 Authors

    Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate changes requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to temperature. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic temperature at four times when their trends change abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic temperature did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies.

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