Ehlert von Ahn, Cátia Milene; Böttcher, Michael Ernst; Dellwig, Olaf; Schmiedinger, Iris; Scholten, Jan Christoph;
Ehlert von Ahn, Cátia Milene; Böttcher, Michael Ernst; Dellwig, Olaf; Schmiedinger, Iris; Scholten, Jan Christoph;
Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Project: EC | SGDBALTIC (293499)
Short sediment cores were taken at six stations in Wismar Bay, southern Baltic Sea (Germany) in May 2019 using a Rumohr-Lot device. Our aim in this study was to investigate the role of diagenetic element fluxes and different fresh water sources, including submarine groundwater discharge, on the water column in the bay. Porewaters were extracted from the sediment cores by applying the rhizon technique at a resolution between 2 and 5 cm. The porewaters were analyzed for major and trace metals and selected nutrients using a ICP-OES (iCAP, 7400, Duo Thermo Fischer Scientific), total sulphide by a Specord 40 spectrophotometer (Analytik Jena), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and δ13CDIC using an isotope gas mass spectrometre (MAT 253) coupled to a Gasbench II, and δ18OH2O, and δ2HH2O using a CRDS system (laser cavity-ring-down-spectroscopy, Picarro L2140- I). Sediment cores were further sliced at 2 to 4 cm resolution and each freeze-dried solid subsample was analyzed for contents of total carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur using an Elemental Analyzer (Euro Vector EuroEA 3, 052), inorganic carbon using an Elemental Analyzer multi EA (Analytik Jena), total mercury by a DMA-80 analyzer, and HCl-extractable Pb, Mn and Fe using an ICP-OES (iCAP, 7400, Duo Thermo Fischer Scientific).
For years, the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), together with the international MOSAiC partners, had been planning and developing the scientiﬁc, logistical and ﬁnancial concept for the implementation of the MOSAiC expedition. The planning and organization of this endeavor was an enormous e˙ort, involving more than 80 institutions from 20 countries. The number of groups and individuals that signiﬁcantly contributed to the success of the drift observatory goes far beyond the scope of usual polar expeditions.
Lakes in permafrost regions are dynamic landscape components and play an important role for climate change feedbacks. Lake processes such as mineralization and flocculation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), one of the main carbon fractions in lakes, contribute to the greenhouse effect and are part of the global carbon cycle. These processes are in the focus of climate research, but studies so far are limited to specific study regions. In our synthesis, we analyzed 2167 water samples from 1833 lakes across the Arctic in permafrost regions of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Siberia to provide first pan-Arctic insights for linkages between DOC concentrations and the environment. Using published data and unpublished datasets from the author team, we report regional DOC differences linked to latitude, permafrost zones, ecoregions, geology, near-surface soil organic carbon contents, and ground ice classification of each lake region. The lake DOC concentrations in our dataset range from 0 to 1130 mg L−1 (10.8 mg L−1 median DOC concentration). Regarding the permafrost regions of our synthesis, we found median lake DOC concentrations of 12.4 mg L−1 (Siberia), 12.3 mg L−1 (Alaska), 10.3 mg L−1 (Greenland), and 4.5 mg L−1 (Canada). Our synthesis shows a significant relationship between lake DOC concentration and lake ecoregion. We found higher lake DOC concentrations at boreal permafrost sites compared to tundra sites. We found significantly higher DOC concentrations in lakes in regions with ice-rich syngenetic permafrost deposits (yedoma) compared to non-yedoma lakes and a weak but significant relationship between soil organic carbon content and lake DOC concentration as well as between ground ice content and lake DOC. Our pan-Arctic dataset shows that the DOC concentration of a lake depends on its environmental properties, especially on permafrost extent and ecoregion, as well as vegetation, which is the most important driver of lake DOC in this study. This new dataset will be fundamental to quantify a pan-Arctic lake DOC pool for estimations of the impact of lake DOC on the global carbon cycle and climate change.
Other research product . Collection . Other ORP type . 2021
In July 2017, we collected apparent resistivity data (ohm-m) in a sub-aquatic permafrost environment on the southern coastline of the Bykovsky Peninsula in northeast Siberia. The project goal was to determine the depth to the top of frozen sediment for multiple submerged landscapes. The submerged landscapes included ice-rich Yedoma permafrost, permafrost that had undergone prior thermokarst (Alases), and a former lagoon (i.e. offshore at the lagoon's coastline positions in earlier years). The data was collected with an IRIS Syscal Pro Deep Marine resistivity system that was equipped with a GPS and an echo-sounder to record water depths. The geoelectric cable had an electrode separation of 10 m and the electrodes were arranged in a reciprocal Wenner Schlumberger array. The offset between the first electrode and the boat was approximately 10 m.
Lakes in permafrost regions are dynamic landscape components and play an important role for climate change feedbacks. Lake processes such as mineralization and flocculation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), one of the main carbon fractions in lakes, contribute to the greenhouse effect and are part of the global carbon cycle. These processes are in focus of climate research but studies so far are limited to specific study regions. In our synthesis, we analysed 2,167 water samples from 1,833 lakes across the Arctic in permafrost regions of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Siberia to provide first pan-Arctic insights for linkages between DOC concentrations and the environment. Using published data and unpublished datasets from the author team we report regional DOC differences linked to latitude, permafrost zones, ecoregions, geology, near-surface soil organic carbon contents, and ground ice classification of each lake region. The lake DOC concentrations in our dataset range from 0 mg L−1 to 1,130 mg L−1 (10.8 mg L−1 median DOC concentration). Regarding the permafrost regions of our synthesis, we found median lake DOC concentrations of 12.4 mg L−1 (Siberia), 12.3 mg L−1 (Alaska), 10.3 mg L−1 (Greenland), and 4.5 mg L−1 (Canada). Our synthesis shows a significant relationship of lake DOC concentration and ecoregion of the lake. We found higher lake DOC concentrations in boreal permafrost sites compared to tundra sites. About 22 % of the lakes in our extensive dataset are located in regions with ice-rich syngenetic permafrost deposits (yedoma). Yedoma contains large amounts of easily erodible organic carbon and we found significantly higher DOC concentrations in yedoma lakes compared to non-yedoma lakes. Compared to previous studies we found a weak significant relationship of soil organic carbon content and lake DOC concentration as well as between ground-ice content and lake DOC. Our pan-Arctic dataset shows that the DOC concentration of a lake strongly depends on its environmental properties, especially on permafrost extent and ecoregion, as well as vegetation, which is the most important driver of lake DOC in this study. This new dataset will be fundamental to quantify a pan-Arctic lake DOC pool for estimations of the impact of lake DOC on the global carbon cycle and climate change.
Permafrost ground is one of the largest repositories of terrestrial organic carbon and might become or already is a carbon source in response to ongoing global warming. With this study of syngenetically frozen, ice-rich and organic carbon (OC)-bearing Yedoma and associated alas deposits in central Yakutia (Republic of Sakha), we aimed to assess the local sediment deposition regime and its impact on permafrost carbon storage. For this purpose, we investigated the Yukechi alas area (61.76495∘ N, 130.46664∘ E), which is a thermokarst landscape degrading into Yedoma in central Yakutia. We retrieved two sediment cores (Yedoma upland, 22.35 m deep, and alas basin, 19.80 m deep) in 2015 and analyzed the biogeochemistry, sedimentology, radiocarbon dates and stable isotope geochemistry. The laboratory analyses of both cores revealed very low total OC (TOC) contents (<0.1 wt %) for a 12 m section in each core, whereas the remaining sections ranged from 0.1 wt % to 2.4 wt % TOC. The core sections holding very little to no detectable OC consisted of coarser sandy material were estimated to be between 39 000 and 18 000 BP (years before present) in age. For this period, we assume the deposition of organic-poor material. Pore water stable isotope data from the Yedoma core indicated a continuously frozen state except for the surface sample, thereby ruling out Holocene reworking. In consequence, we see evidence that no strong organic matter (OM) decomposition took place in the sediments of the Yedoma core until today. The alas core from an adjacent thermokarst basin was strongly disturbed by lake development and permafrost thaw. Similar to the Yedoma core, some sections of the alas core were also OC poor (<0.1 wt %) in 17 out of 28 samples. The Yedoma deposition was likely influenced by fluvial regimes in nearby streams and the Lena River shifting with climate. With its coarse sediments with low OC content (OC mean of 5.27 kg m−3), the Yedoma deposits in the Yukechi area differ from other Yedoma sites in North Yakutia that were generally characterized by silty sediments with higher OC contents (OC mean of 19 kg m−3 for the non-ice wedge sediment). Therefore, we conclude that sedimentary composition and deposition regimes of Yedoma may differ considerably within the Yedoma domain. The resulting heterogeneity should be taken into account for future upscaling approaches on the Yedoma carbon stock. The alas core, strongly affected by extensive thawing processes during the Holocene, indicates a possible future pathway of ground subsidence and further OC decomposition for thawing central Yakutian Yedoma deposits.
Industrial-scale mining of deep-sea polymetallic nodules will remove nodules in large areas of the sea floor. The regrowth of the nodules by metal precipitation is estimated to take millions of years. Thus, for future mining impact studies, it is crucial to understand the role of nodules in shaping microbial diversity and function in deep-sea environments. Here we investigated microbial-community composition based on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments and nodules of the Peru Basin (4130–4198 m water depth). The nodule field of the Peru Basin showed a typical deep-sea microbiome, with dominance of the classes Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Acidimicrobiia. Nodules and sediments host distinct bacterial and archaeal communities, with nodules showing lower diversity and a higher proportion of sequences related to potential metal-cycling Bacteria (i.e. Magnetospiraceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae), bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers (i.e. AqS1, unclassified Nitrosomonadaceae, Nitrosopumilus, Nitrospina, Nitrospira), and bacterial sequences found in the oceanic crust, nodules, hydrothermal deposits, and sessile fauna. Sediment and nodule communities overall shared a low proportion of operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 21 % for Bacteria and 19 % for Archaea). Our results show that nodules represent a specific ecological niche (i.e. hard substrate, high metal concentrations, and sessile fauna), with a potentially relevant role in organic-carbon degradation. Differences in nodule community composition (e.g. Mn-cycling bacteria, nitrifiers) between the Clarion–Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) and the Peru Basin suggest that changes in environmental setting (e.g. sedimentation rates) also play a significant role in structuring the nodule microbiome.
We present the first high-resolution measurements of pollutant trace gases in the Asian summer monsoon upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UTLS) from the Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) during the StratoClim (Stratospheric and upper tropospheric processes for better climate predictions) campaign based in Kathmandu, Nepal, 2017. Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), acetylene (C2H2), and formic acid (HCOOH) show strong local enhancements up to altitudes of 16 km. More than 500 pptv of PAN, more than 200 pptv of C2H2, and more than 200 pptv of HCOOH are observed. Air masses with increased volume mixing ratios of PAN and C2H2 at altitudes up to 18 km, reaching to the lowermost stratosphere, were present at these altitudes for more than 10 d, as indicated by trajectory analysis. A local minimum of HCOOH is correlated with a previously reported maximum of ammonia (NH3), which suggests different washout efficiencies of these species in the same air masses. A backward trajectory analysis based on the models Alfred Wegener InsTitute LAgrangian Chemistry/Transport System (ATLAS) and TRACZILLA, using advanced techniques for detection of convective events, and starting at geolocations of GLORIA measurements with enhanced pollution trace gas concentrations, has been performed. The analysis shows that convective events along trajectories leading to GLORIA measurements with enhanced pollutants are located close to regions where satellite measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) indicate enhanced tropospheric columns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the days prior to the observation. A comparison to the global atmospheric models Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) has been performed. It is shown that these models are able to reproduce large-scale structures of the pollution trace gas distributions for one part of the flight, while the other part of the flight reveals large discrepancies between models and measurement. These discrepancies possibly result from convective events that are not resolved or parameterized in the models, uncertainties in the emissions of source gases, and uncertainties in the rate constants of chemical reactions.
Antarctic geothermal heat flow (GHF) affects the ice sheet temperature, determining how it slides and internally deforms, as well as the rheological behaviour of the lithosphere. However, GHF remains poorly constrained, with few borehole-derived estimates, and there are large discrepancies in currently available glaciological and geophysical estimates. This SCAR White Paper details current methods, discusses their challenges and limitations, and recommends key future directions in GHF research. We highlight the timely need for a more multidisciplinary and internationally-coordinated approach to tackle this complex problem.
Hopwood, Mark J.; Sanchez, Nicolas; Polyviou, Despo; Leiknes, Øystein; Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto; Achterberg, Eric P.; Ardelan, Murat V.; Aristegui, Javier; Bach, Lennart; Besiktepe, Sengul; +6 more
Hopwood, Mark J.; Sanchez, Nicolas; Polyviou, Despo; Leiknes, Øystein; Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto; Achterberg, Eric P.; Ardelan, Murat V.; Aristegui, Javier; Bach, Lennart; Besiktepe, Sengul; Heriot, Yohann; Kalantzi, Ioanna; Terbıyık Kurt, Tuba; Santi, Ioulia; Tsagaraki, Tatiana M.; Turner, David;
Project: EC | OCEAN-CERTAIN (603773)
The extracellular concentration of H2O2 in surface aquatic environments is controlled by a balance between photochemical production and the microbial synthesis of catalase and peroxidase enzymes to remove H2O2 from solution. In any kind of incubation experiment, the formation rates and equilibrium concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) such as H2O2 may be sensitive to both the experiment design, particularly to the regulation of incident light, and the abundance of different microbial groups, as both cellular H2O2 production and catalase–peroxidase enzyme production rates differ between species. Whilst there are extensive measurements of photochemical H2O2 formation rates and the distribution of H2O2 in the marine environment, it is poorly constrained how different microbial groups affect extracellular H2O2 concentrations, how comparable extracellular H2O2 concentrations within large-scale incubation experiments are to those observed in the surface-mixed layer, and to what extent a mismatch with environmentally relevant concentrations of ROS in incubations could influence biological processes differently to what would be observed in nature. Here we show that both experiment design and bacterial abundance consistently exert control on extracellular H2O2 concentrations across a range of incubation experiments in diverse marine environments. During four large-scale (>1000 L) mesocosm experiments (in Gran Canaria, the Mediterranean, Patagonia and Svalbard) most experimental factors appeared to exert only minor, or no, direct effect on H2O2 concentrations. For example, in three of four experiments where pH was manipulated to 0.4–0.5 below ambient pH, no significant change was evident in extracellular H2O2 concentrations relative to controls. An influence was sometimes inferred from zooplankton density, but not consistently between different incubation experiments, and no change in H2O2 was evident in controlled experiments using different densities of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus grazing on the diatom Skeletonema costatum (<1 % change in [H2O2] comparing copepod densities from 1 to 10 L−1). Instead, the changes in H2O2 concentration contrasting high- and low-zooplankton incubations appeared to arise from the resulting changes in bacterial activity. The correlation between bacterial abundance and extracellular H2O2 was stronger in some incubations than others (R2 range 0.09 to 0.55), yet high bacterial densities were consistently associated with low H2O2. Nonetheless, the main control on H2O2 concentrations during incubation experiments relative to those in ambient, unenclosed waters was the regulation of incident light. In an open (lidless) mesocosm experiment in Gran Canaria, H2O2 was persistently elevated (2–6-fold) above ambient concentrations; whereas using closed high-density polyethylene mesocosms in Crete, Svalbard and Patagonia H2O2 within incubations was always reduced (median 10 %–90 %) relative to ambient waters.