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7 Research products, page 1 of 1

  • European Marine Science
  • Other research products
  • 2013-2022
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  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andres, Robert J.; Boden, Tom A.; Conway, Thomas; Houghton, Richard A.; House, Jo I.; Marland, Gregg; Peters, Glen Philip; van der Werf, Guido R.; Ahlström, Anders; +24 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | COMBINE (226520), EC | GEOCARBON (283080)

    Accurate assessments of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC), including deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. Finally, the global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms. For the last decade available (2002–2011), EFF was 8.3 ± 0.4 PgC yr−1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 PgC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND 2.6 ± 0.8 PgC yr−1. For year 2011 alone, EFF was 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, 3.0 percent above 2010, reflecting a continued trend in these emissions; ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, approximately constant throughout the decade; GATM was 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.7 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1. GATM was low in 2011 compared to the 2002–2011 average because of a high uptake by the land probably in response to natural climate variability associated to La Niña conditions in the Pacific Ocean. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 391.31 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011. We estimate that EFF will have increased by 2.6% (1.9–3.5%) in 2012 based on projections of gross world product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. All uncertainties are reported as ±1 sigma (68% confidence assuming Gaussian error distributions that the real value lies within the given interval), reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. This paper is intended to provide a baseline to keep track of annual carbon budgets in the future. All data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_V2013). Global carbon budget 2013

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schuster, U.; McKinley, G. A.; Bates, N.; Chevallier, F.; Doney, S. C.; Fay, A. R.; González-Dávila, M.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S.; Krijnen, J.; +12 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | COCOS (212196), EC | GEOCARBON (283080), EC | GREENCYCLESII (238366)

    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is −0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1, and by the Arctic it is −0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of −0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Ortega, P.; Swingedouw, D.; Popp, T.; Vinther, B. M.; Oerter, H.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E.; Gudlaugsdottir, H.; Box, J. E.; +13 more
    Project: EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908)

    Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling), covering the period from 1724 to 2007. They are used to investigate recent climate variability and characterise the isotope–temperature relationship. We find that NEEM records are only weakly affected by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Decadal δ18O and accumulation variability is related to North Atlantic sea surface temperature and is enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. No long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast, NEEM δ18O shows multidecadal increasing trends in the late 19th century and since the 1980s. The strongest annual positive δ18O values are recorded at NEEM in 1928 and 2010, while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The last decade is the most enriched in δ18O (warmest), while the 11-year periods with the strongest depletion (coldest) are depicted at NEEM in 1815–1825 and 1836–1846, which are also the driest 11-year periods. The NEEM accumulation and δ18O records are strongly correlated with outputs from atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses. Best performance is observed for ERA reanalyses. Gridded temperature reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to estimate the multidecadal accumulation–temperature and δ18O–temperature relationships for the strong warming period in 1979–2007. The accumulation sensitivity to temperature is estimated at 11 ± 2 % °C−1 and the δ18O–temperature slope at 1.1 ± 0.2 ‰ °C−1, about twice as large as previously used to estimate last interglacial temperature change from the bottom part of the NEEM deep ice core.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sabine, C. L.; Hankin, S.; Koyuk, H.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Pfeil, B.; Olsen, A.; Metzl, N.; Kozyr, A.; Fassbender, A.; Manke, A.; +66 more
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Project: NSF | Support for International... (0938349), EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), NSF | Support for the Intergove... (1068958)

    As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007). The SOCAT gridded data presented here is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust, regularly spaced CO2 fugacity (fCO2) product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation, which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet (e.g., regional differences in the seasonal cycles), but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address (e.g., local influences on values in some coastal regions).

  • English
    Authors: 
    Crozier, Walter; Whelan, Ken; Buoro, Mathieu; Chaput, Gérald; Daniels, Jason; Grant, Sue; Hyatt, Kim; Irvine, James; Ó'maoiléidigh, Niall; Prévost, Etienne; +4 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Based on a workshop organised by the Atlantic Salmon Trust, held in Edinburgh Tuesday, 6th November – Thursday, 8th November 2017.; International audience

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Burckel, Pierre; Waelbroeck, Claire; Luo, Yiming; Roche, Didier M; Pichat, Sylvain; Jaccard, Samuel L; Gherardi, Jeanne-Marie; Govin, Aline; Lippold, Jörg; Thil, François;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ACCLIMATE (339108), SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (144811), ANR | RETRO (ANR-09-BLAN-0347), SNSF | Quantifying changes in th... (111588)

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during Heinrich Stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20-50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa/230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa/230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present day North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin, and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich Stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow southward flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Parrenin, Frédéric; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Köhler, Peter; Raynaud, Dominique; Paillard, Didier; Schwander, Jakob; Barbante, Carlo; Landais, Amaelle; Wegner, Anna; Jouzel, Jean;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | AMON-RA (214814), ANR | DOME A (ANR-07-BLAN-0125), SNSF | Klima- und Umweltphysik (135152), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (147174)

    Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate changes requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to temperature. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic temperature at four times when their trends change abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic temperature did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
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arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
7 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andres, Robert J.; Boden, Tom A.; Conway, Thomas; Houghton, Richard A.; House, Jo I.; Marland, Gregg; Peters, Glen Philip; van der Werf, Guido R.; Ahlström, Anders; +24 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | COMBINE (226520), EC | GEOCARBON (283080)

    Accurate assessments of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from Land-Use Change (ELUC), including deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. Finally, the global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms. For the last decade available (2002–2011), EFF was 8.3 ± 0.4 PgC yr−1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 PgC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND 2.6 ± 0.8 PgC yr−1. For year 2011 alone, EFF was 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, 3.0 percent above 2010, reflecting a continued trend in these emissions; ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, approximately constant throughout the decade; GATM was 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.7 ± 0.5 PgC yr−1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1. GATM was low in 2011 compared to the 2002–2011 average because of a high uptake by the land probably in response to natural climate variability associated to La Niña conditions in the Pacific Ocean. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 391.31 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011. We estimate that EFF will have increased by 2.6% (1.9–3.5%) in 2012 based on projections of gross world product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. All uncertainties are reported as ±1 sigma (68% confidence assuming Gaussian error distributions that the real value lies within the given interval), reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. This paper is intended to provide a baseline to keep track of annual carbon budgets in the future. All data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_V2013). Global carbon budget 2013

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schuster, U.; McKinley, G. A.; Bates, N.; Chevallier, F.; Doney, S. C.; Fay, A. R.; González-Dávila, M.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S.; Krijnen, J.; +12 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | COCOS (212196), EC | GEOCARBON (283080), EC | GREENCYCLESII (238366)

    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is −0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1, and by the Arctic it is −0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of −0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Ortega, P.; Swingedouw, D.; Popp, T.; Vinther, B. M.; Oerter, H.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E.; Gudlaugsdottir, H.; Box, J. E.; +13 more
    Project: EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908)

    Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling), covering the period from 1724 to 2007. They are used to investigate recent climate variability and characterise the isotope–temperature relationship. We find that NEEM records are only weakly affected by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Decadal δ18O and accumulation variability is related to North Atlantic sea surface temperature and is enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. No long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast, NEEM δ18O shows multidecadal increasing trends in the late 19th century and since the 1980s. The strongest annual positive δ18O values are recorded at NEEM in 1928 and 2010, while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The last decade is the most enriched in δ18O (warmest), while the 11-year periods with the strongest depletion (coldest) are depicted at NEEM in 1815–1825 and 1836–1846, which are also the driest 11-year periods. The NEEM accumulation and δ18O records are strongly correlated with outputs from atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses. Best performance is observed for ERA reanalyses. Gridded temperature reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to estimate the multidecadal accumulation–temperature and δ18O–temperature relationships for the strong warming period in 1979–2007. The accumulation sensitivity to temperature is estimated at 11 ± 2 % °C−1 and the δ18O–temperature slope at 1.1 ± 0.2 ‰ °C−1, about twice as large as previously used to estimate last interglacial temperature change from the bottom part of the NEEM deep ice core.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sabine, C. L.; Hankin, S.; Koyuk, H.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Pfeil, B.; Olsen, A.; Metzl, N.; Kozyr, A.; Fassbender, A.; Manke, A.; +66 more
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Project: NSF | Support for International... (0938349), EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), NSF | Support for the Intergove... (1068958)

    As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007). The SOCAT gridded data presented here is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust, regularly spaced CO2 fugacity (fCO2) product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation, which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet (e.g., regional differences in the seasonal cycles), but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address (e.g., local influences on values in some coastal regions).

  • English
    Authors: 
    Crozier, Walter; Whelan, Ken; Buoro, Mathieu; Chaput, Gérald; Daniels, Jason; Grant, Sue; Hyatt, Kim; Irvine, James; Ó'maoiléidigh, Niall; Prévost, Etienne; +4 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Based on a workshop organised by the Atlantic Salmon Trust, held in Edinburgh Tuesday, 6th November – Thursday, 8th November 2017.; International audience

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Burckel, Pierre; Waelbroeck, Claire; Luo, Yiming; Roche, Didier M; Pichat, Sylvain; Jaccard, Samuel L; Gherardi, Jeanne-Marie; Govin, Aline; Lippold, Jörg; Thil, François;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ACCLIMATE (339108), SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (144811), ANR | RETRO (ANR-09-BLAN-0347), SNSF | Quantifying changes in th... (111588)

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during Heinrich Stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20-50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa/230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa/230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present day North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin, and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich Stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow southward flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Parrenin, Frédéric; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Köhler, Peter; Raynaud, Dominique; Paillard, Didier; Schwander, Jakob; Barbante, Carlo; Landais, Amaelle; Wegner, Anna; Jouzel, Jean;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | AMON-RA (214814), ANR | DOME A (ANR-07-BLAN-0125), SNSF | Klima- und Umweltphysik (135152), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (147174)

    Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate changes requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to temperature. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic temperature at four times when their trends change abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic temperature did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies.