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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guillerm, Emmanuel; Gardien, Véronique; Waldmann, Nicolas D; Brall, Niels S; +5 Authors

    The rain regime in the Eastern Mediterranean is primarily controlled by Mediterranean winter cyclonic systems. The lake level of the Dead Sea responds sensitively to hydrological changes, and can be used to track the evolution of the Mediterranean hydroclimate during the late Quaternary. However, lake level reconstructions beyond 70 ka are limited by a lack of paleoshorelines and dating methodologies. Here, we reconstruct the Dead Sea lake level back to 237 ka using measurements of brine density from halite fluid inclusions of the deep ICDP core 5017-1-A. We combine our mass balance-based reconstruction with an age reevaluation of published sequence stratigraphy-based lake levels, by tying their chronology to the ICDP core. The lake levels obtained with the two different methods compare very well, within better than 10 m. Combined with a compilation of published paleoshorelines for the last 70 ka, our reconstruction covers three glacial-interglacial cycles.

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    Authors: Thomas, Carrie L; Jansen, Boris; Czerwiński, Sambor; Gałka, Mariusz; +4 Authors

    The late Holocene development of a raised ombrotrophic peat bog in the Thuringian Forest in Central Germany was investigated using pollen, plant macrofossils, lipid biomarker, elemental, and radiocarbon analyses. In October 2019, a 3.4 m core was recovered from the Beerberg peatland located in the Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve. Radiocarbon dating and a resulting age-depth model indicated that the age of the peatland is ca. 2600 yr BP. The purpose of the study was twofold: establishing a paleovegetation record with a reliable chronology for the Thuringian Forest and comparing the results of the pollen and plant macrofossil analyses to that of the lipid biomarker analysis to determine what additional insight the biomarkers could provide. Along with the counting of pollen and plant macrofossils, the carbon and nitrogen concentrations and their stable isotope values were measured from the bulk samples via elemental analyzer, and the absolute concentrations of n-alkanes, n-alkanols, and n-fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography flame ionization detection. The radiocarbon dates were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Modern plant samples were also collected from the peatland during sampling, separated into leaf, stem, and root tissue as much as was possible, and the absolute concentrations of the n-alkanes, n-alkanols, and n-fatty acids were measured for each plant part.

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    Authors: Bergner, Nora; Heutte, Benjamin; Angot, Hélène; Dada, Lubna; +5 Authors

    This dataset contains CCN concentrations at five supersaturation levels, averaged to 1 min time resolution, measured during the year-long Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition from October 2019 to September 2020. The measurements were performed in the Swiss container on the D-deck of Research Vessel Polarstern, using the model CCN-100 from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT, Boulder, USA). Detailed description of the measurement principle can be found in e.g. Roberts & Nenes (2005). The instrument was located behind an automated valve, which switched hourly between a total and an interstitial air inlet, with upper cutoff sizes of 40 and 1 µm respectively (Heutte et al., Submitted; Beck et al., 2022; Dada et al., 2022). The measurements were performed in 1-h cycles, with a 0.5 L/min sample flow and a 2 L/min make up flow, where the supersaturations 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 % were measured. The supersaturation of 0.15 % is measured for 20 min, as it takes longer to equilibrate, and the remaining supersaturations were measured for 10 min each. The instrument was calibrated in July 2019 before the campaign, and in March and April 2020 during the campaign. Based on the inter-variability of the calculated supersaturation levels during these calibrations, we can expect values ranging from 0.15-0.20, 0.20-0.25, 0.29-0.33, 0.43-0.5, 0.78-1.0 % for the nominal supersaturations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 %, respectively. The counting error for the CCNC is associated with the error in the optical counting of particles and is about 10 %. Data were removed during the cooling cycle (i.e., the time when the measurement cycle starts again and the temperature is cooled to set the lowest supersaturation), which corresponds roughly to the first 10 min of each hour (so 50 % of the 0.15 % supersaturation period). Additionally, the first minute of the transition between supersaturations was removed before averaging the data to 1 min time resolution. During some time periods, a difference pattern of mean and standard deviation of the measurements between even and odd hours was observed, most probably caused by a persistent pressure drop in the inlet lines, resulting in a proportional reduction of the concentration measurements. For correction, the 1-h arithmetic mean of interstitial inlet measurements and the mean of the two adjacent hours of total inlet measurements were subtracted, and the resulting difference was added as a constant to the data points of the interstitial inlet measurements. The dataset contains a pollution mask for local pollution (predominantly exhaust from the Research Vessel Polarstern) with 0 indicating clean, and 1 indicating polluted periods (Beck et al., 2022; Beck et al., 2022).

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    Authors: Beck, Ivo; Moallemi, Alireza; Rolo, Margarida; Quéléver, Lauriane; +3 Authors

    These datasets contain the total particle number concentrations and normalized size distributions (dN/dlogDp) of excited, fluorescent, and hyper-fluorescent particles of sizes 0.5 to 20 μm (optical diameter). The normalized size distribution datasets are split into 20 size bins: 0.5 - 0.6 μm, 0.6 - 0.72 μm, 0.72 - 0.87 μm, 0.87 - 1.05 μm, 1.05 - 1.26 μm, 1.26 - 1.51 μm, 1.51 - 1.82 μm, 1.82 - 2.19 μm, 2.19 - 2.63 μm, 2.63 - 3.16 μm, 3.16 - 3.8 μm, 3.8 - 4.57 μm, 4.57 - 5.5 μm, 5.5 - 6.61 μm, 6.61 - 7.95 μm, 7.95 - 9.56 μm, 9.56 - 11.50 μm, 11.5 - 13.83 μm, 13.83- 16.63 μm and 16.63 - 20 μm. The data were measured by a WIBS-NEO (Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor, model New Electronics option) by droplet measurement techniques ltd. The data were processed using the IGOR WIBS toolkit V1.36 (DMT) and python version 3.9.7. These datasets have been averaged to 1 hour time resolution. The datasets were cleaned from local pollution sources by applying a pollution flag developed by Beck et al. (2022a,b), which is based on the rate of change in particle number concentration with 1 min time resolution. Data points with more than 10 polluted minutes within an hour were removed from the WIBS datasets. Time periods with zero filter measurements and time periods with unstable flow that affected number concentrations have been removed from the dataset. The WIBS measures the size, asymmetry and fluorescence of particles with an optical diameter of 0.5 – 20 µm. Detected particles are excited by two UV flashlamps at wavelengths of 280 and 370 nm and their emitted fluorescence is measured by two photomultipliers with bandwidths of 310 - 400 nm, and 420 - 650 nm. The WIBS counts excited particles at a maximum frequency of 125 Hz, which corresponds to a maximum concentration of 2.5*104 particles/L with a sample flow of 0.3 L/min. Excited particles were classified as fluorescent if their fluorescent intensity exceeded the background intensity by three standard deviations (3σ) and as hyper-fluorescent if the fluorescent intensity exceeded the background intensity by 9σ. Excited particles with a lower fluorescent intensity were considered to be non-fluorescent. The background fluorescence was determined by measuring the fluorescent signal in the measurement chamber in absence of particles. Background measurements were performed every 26 h. The combination of two excitation wavelengths and two detector wavebands allows the classification of fluorescent particles into seven types: A, B, C, AB, AC, BC, and ABC (Perring et al. (2015); Savage et al. (2017)). For further information about the instrumental setup, refer to Heutte et al. (Submitted).

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    Authors: Twomey, Alice J; Remmerswaal, Amelia; Lovelock, Catherine E;

    Mangrove ecosystems across the globe face degradation due to severe climatic events, resulting in the formation of standing dead stems known as 'ghost forests'. This research project aimed to characterise the environmental parameters within mangrove ghost forests but also to ascertain their potential to support seagrass survival. Data was collected in three habitats (mangrove ghost forests, live mangroves and seagrass) at each of six study sites within Moreton Bay (Quandamooka), Queensland. Field data collection encompassed variables including air temperature, sea temperature, sediment grain composition, canopy coverage, turbidity, fetch length, and wave height (from north, north-east, and south-east directions). Additionally, within the ghost forests and live mangrove plots, data were gathered regarding stem density, diameter at breast height, the presence of seagrass wrack, presence of seagrass, the extent of seagrass coverage, and the specific species of seagrass. For the seagrass transects, data were gathered on seagrass presence, coverage, and species composition. The data collection process entailed three replicate plots within both the ghost forests and live mangrove forests, along with three replicate transects measuring 50 meters each within the seagrass meadows. This dataset shows that seagrass has colonised mangrove ghost forests and may be used to better characterise conditions within ghost forests. Data may be of interest to researchers in marine science, wetland ecology or restoration.

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    Authors: Wolff, Eric William; Mulvaney, Robert; Grieman, Mackenzie M; Hoffmann, Helene; +1 Authors

    We present an age model for the 651 m deep Skytrain Ice Rise ice core (79°44.5'S, 78°32.7'W). The top 2000 years have previously been dated using age markers interpolated through annual layer counting. Below this, we align the Skytrain core to the AICC2012 age model using tie points in the ice and air phase, and apply the Paleochrono program to obtain the best fit to the tie points and glaciological constraints. In the gas phase, ties are made using methane and, in critical sections, δ18Oair; in the ice phase ties are through 10Be across the Laschamps Event, and through ice chemistry related to long-range dust transport and deposition. This strategy provides a good outcome to about 108 ka (~605 m). Beyond that there are signs of flow disturbance, with a section of ice probably repeated. Nonetheless values of CH4 and δ18Oair confirm that part of the last interglacial (LIG), from about 117-126 ka (617-628 m), is present and in chronological order. Below this there are clear signs of stratigraphic disturbance, with rapid oscillation of values in both the ice and gas phase at the base of the LIG section. Based on methane values, the warmest part of the LIG and the coldest part of the penultimate glacial are missing from our record. Ice below 631 m appears to be of age >150 ka.

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    Authors: Brugnara, Yuri; Horn, Michael; Salvador, Isabella;

    We provide two instrumental records of air pressure and temperature for the Alpine cities of Rovereto and Bolzano/Bozen, covering the periods 1800-1839 and 1842-1873, respectively. They were measured by local physics teachers and digitized at the University of Bern from a handwritten weather diary and a local newspaper. In addition to the raw (sub-daily) data, we provide daily and monthly means together with a quantitative estimation of their uncertainty. The data were converted to modern units, quality controlled, and homogenized.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Pesjak, Lea; McMinn, Andrew; Chase, Zanna; Bostock, Helen C;

    This dataset contains relative abundance (%) of diatom species, and includes the Eucampia antarctica terminal/intercalary valve ratio (Eucampia index), biogenic silica and Si/Al values from core TAN1302-44, which was collected from the WEGA channel on the continental slope, offshore Adélie Land, East Antarctica. Diatoms were analysed at 10 cm, resolution within interval 350-5 cm-depth, while biogenic silica was analysed every 20 cm, and Si/Al (X-ray Flourescence scanning, XRF) comprises a 3-point average, from every 0.2 cm, of entire core. The data also includes four radiocarbon dates, calculated from 0 cm, 25 cm, 35 cm and 45 cm- depths; Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index based on all species identified, and principal component analysis based on species identified at >1.8% relative abundance (in at least two samples). The main purpose of this dataset compilation was to understand the distribution of species, and species assemblages. The interpretation of the data sets suggests changes in Antarctic sea ice and ocean circulation occured near the ice sheet, over the last glacial cycle. These changes are especially evident in the last glacial, and during the last deglacial (warming).

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    Authors: Arosio, Tito; Ziehmer, Malin; Nicolussi, Kurt; Schluechter, Christian; +4 Authors

    Stable isotope ratios from tree rings are important proxies of past climate variations. We have access to a calendar-dated wood material from wood collected at glacier forefields and peat bog sites located in the Alps. They are of two species, larch (Larix decidua) and cembran pine (Pinus cembra). All the wood samples were collected at high altitudes in the Swiss and Tyrol Alps, they cover the whole Holocene period and belong to the Eastern Alpine Conifer Chronology Dataset (Nicolussi et al., 2009; doi:10.1177/0959683609336565). We analysed the δ13C, δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios of alpha cellulose obtained from blocks of 5 annual rings from 203 trees. Cellulose was extracted following the modified Jayme-Wise method (Boettger et al., 2007; doi:10.1021/ac0700023). The isotopes values were determined using conventional Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Isoprime 100) coupled to a pyrolysis unit (HEKAtech GmbH, Germany), which is similar to the previously used TC/EA (for technical details see (Leuenberger 2007). This approach was extended to measurements of non-exchangeable hydrogen of alpha-cellulose using the on-line equilibration method (Filot et al., 2006 (doi:10.1002/rcm.2743); Loader et al., 2015(doi:10.1021/ac502557x)). The results are reported in per mil (‰) relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) for carbon and to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) for hydrogen and oxygen (Coplen 1994; doi:10.1351/pac199466020273). For all the δ13C values after 1000 CE we applied the factor described in Leuenberger (2007; doi:10.1016/S1936-7961(07)01014-7) to correct for the δ13C depletion of CO2 caused by the Industrial Revolution from about 1850 onwards (Leuenberger, 2007).

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    Authors: Yu, Jimin; Oppo, Delia W; Jin, Zhangdong; Lacerra, Matthew; +7 Authors

    This data set contains the age model and air-sea CO2 exchange tracer ([CO32-]as) of deep water core NEAP 4K and Intermediate water core GGC90. Seawater [CO32-]as is calculated following the approach in Yu et al. (2019). The Seawater [CO32-]as reconstructions at GGC90 are obtained based on [CO32-] and [PO43-] from Lacerra et al. (2019) and Umling et al. (2019), but these data have not yet been used to infer air-sea CO2 exchange histories. Importantly, building upon previous work (Lund et al., 2015), 23 new radiocarbon dates substantially improve the GGC90 age model. We present new deep-water [CO32-] and [PO43-] reconstructions at NEAP 4K using benthic foraminiferal B/Ca and Cd/Ca, respectively. The age model for NEAP 4K is based on 4 new and 13 published radiocarbon dates (Hall et al., 2004) and new Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) coiling ratios. Based on the novel approach to reconstruct upper Atlantic air-sea CO2 exchange signatures, we provide evidence for a net release of CO2 via the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, which contributes to the millennial atmospheric CO2 rise during Heinrich Stadial 1.

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    Authors: Guillerm, Emmanuel; Gardien, Véronique; Waldmann, Nicolas D; Brall, Niels S; +5 Authors

    The rain regime in the Eastern Mediterranean is primarily controlled by Mediterranean winter cyclonic systems. The lake level of the Dead Sea responds sensitively to hydrological changes, and can be used to track the evolution of the Mediterranean hydroclimate during the late Quaternary. However, lake level reconstructions beyond 70 ka are limited by a lack of paleoshorelines and dating methodologies. Here, we reconstruct the Dead Sea lake level back to 237 ka using measurements of brine density from halite fluid inclusions of the deep ICDP core 5017-1-A. We combine our mass balance-based reconstruction with an age reevaluation of published sequence stratigraphy-based lake levels, by tying their chronology to the ICDP core. The lake levels obtained with the two different methods compare very well, within better than 10 m. Combined with a compilation of published paleoshorelines for the last 70 ka, our reconstruction covers three glacial-interglacial cycles.

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    Authors: Thomas, Carrie L; Jansen, Boris; Czerwiński, Sambor; Gałka, Mariusz; +4 Authors

    The late Holocene development of a raised ombrotrophic peat bog in the Thuringian Forest in Central Germany was investigated using pollen, plant macrofossils, lipid biomarker, elemental, and radiocarbon analyses. In October 2019, a 3.4 m core was recovered from the Beerberg peatland located in the Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve. Radiocarbon dating and a resulting age-depth model indicated that the age of the peatland is ca. 2600 yr BP. The purpose of the study was twofold: establishing a paleovegetation record with a reliable chronology for the Thuringian Forest and comparing the results of the pollen and plant macrofossil analyses to that of the lipid biomarker analysis to determine what additional insight the biomarkers could provide. Along with the counting of pollen and plant macrofossils, the carbon and nitrogen concentrations and their stable isotope values were measured from the bulk samples via elemental analyzer, and the absolute concentrations of n-alkanes, n-alkanols, and n-fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography flame ionization detection. The radiocarbon dates were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Modern plant samples were also collected from the peatland during sampling, separated into leaf, stem, and root tissue as much as was possible, and the absolute concentrations of the n-alkanes, n-alkanols, and n-fatty acids were measured for each plant part.

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    Authors: Bergner, Nora; Heutte, Benjamin; Angot, Hélène; Dada, Lubna; +5 Authors

    This dataset contains CCN concentrations at five supersaturation levels, averaged to 1 min time resolution, measured during the year-long Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition from October 2019 to September 2020. The measurements were performed in the Swiss container on the D-deck of Research Vessel Polarstern, using the model CCN-100 from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT, Boulder, USA). Detailed description of the measurement principle can be found in e.g. Roberts & Nenes (2005). The instrument was located behind an automated valve, which switched hourly between a total and an interstitial air inlet, with upper cutoff sizes of 40 and 1 µm respectively (Heutte et al., Submitted; Beck et al., 2022; Dada et al., 2022). The measurements were performed in 1-h cycles, with a 0.5 L/min sample flow and a 2 L/min make up flow, where the supersaturations 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 % were measured. The supersaturation of 0.15 % is measured for 20 min, as it takes longer to equilibrate, and the remaining supersaturations were measured for 10 min each. The instrument was calibrated in July 2019 before the campaign, and in March and April 2020 during the campaign. Based on the inter-variability of the calculated supersaturation levels during these calibrations, we can expect values ranging from 0.15-0.20, 0.20-0.25, 0.29-0.33, 0.43-0.5, 0.78-1.0 % for the nominal supersaturations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 %, respectively. The counting error for the CCNC is associated with the error in the optical counting of particles and is about 10 %. Data were removed during the cooling cycle (i.e., the time when the measurement cycle starts again and the temperature is cooled to set the lowest supersaturation), which corresponds roughly to the first 10 min of each hour (so 50 % of the 0.15 % supersaturation period). Additionally, the first minute of the transition between supersaturations was removed before averaging the data to 1 min time resolution. During some time periods, a difference pattern of mean and standard deviation of the measurements between even and odd hours was observed, most probably caused by a persistent pressure drop in the inlet lines, resulting in a proportional reduction of the concentration measurements. For correction, the 1-h arithmetic mean of interstitial inlet measurements and the mean of the two adjacent hours of total inlet measurements were subtracted, and the resulting difference was added as a constant to the data points of the interstitial inlet measurements. The dataset contains a pollution mask for local pollution (predominantly exhaust from the Research Vessel Polarstern) with 0 indicating clean, and 1 indicating polluted periods (Beck et al., 2022; Beck et al., 2022).

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    Authors: Beck, Ivo; Moallemi, Alireza; Rolo, Margarida; Quéléver, Lauriane; +3 Authors

    These datasets contain the total particle number concentrations and normalized size distributions (dN/dlogDp) of excited, fluorescent, and hyper-fluorescent particles of sizes 0.5 to 20 μm (optical diameter). The normalized size distribution datasets are split into 20 size bins: 0.5 - 0.6 μm, 0.6 - 0.72 μm, 0.72 - 0.87 μm, 0.87 - 1.05 μm, 1.05 - 1.26 μm, 1.26 - 1.51 μm, 1.51 - 1.82 μm, 1.82 - 2.19 μm, 2.19 - 2.63 μm, 2.63 - 3.16 μm, 3.16 - 3.8 μm, 3.8 - 4.57 μm, 4.57 - 5.5 μm, 5.5 - 6.61 μm, 6.61 - 7.95 μm, 7.95 - 9.56 μm, 9.56 - 11.50 μm, 11.5 - 13.83 μm, 13.83- 16.63 μm and 16.63 - 20 μm. The data were measured by a WIBS-NEO (Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor, model New Electronics option) by droplet measurement techniques ltd. The data were processed using the IGOR WIBS toolkit V1.36 (DMT) and python version 3.9.7. These datasets have been averaged to 1 hour time resolution. The datasets were cleaned from local pollution sources by applying a pollution flag developed by Beck et al. (2022a,b), which is based on the rate of change in particle number concentration with 1 min time resolution. Data points with more than 10 polluted minutes within an hour were removed from the WIBS datasets. Time periods with zero filter measurements and time periods with unstable flow that affected number concentrations have been removed from the dataset. The WIBS measures the size, asymmetry and fluorescence of particles with an optical diameter of 0.5 – 20 µm. Detected particles are excited by two UV flashlamps at wavelengths of 280 and 370 nm and their emitted fluorescence is measured by two photomultipliers with bandwidths of 310 - 400 nm, and 420 - 650 nm. The WIBS counts excited particles at a maximum frequency of 125 Hz, which corresponds to a maximum concentration of 2.5*104 particles/L with a sample flow of 0.3 L/min. Excited particles were classified as fluorescent if their fluorescent intensity exceeded the background intensity by three standard deviations (3σ) and as hyper-fluorescent if the fluorescent intensity exceeded the background intensity by 9σ. Excited particles with a lower fluorescent intensity were considered to be non-fluorescent. The background fluorescence was determined by measuring the fluorescent signal in the measurement chamber in absence of particles. Background measurements were performed every 26 h. The combination of two excitation wavelengths and two detector wavebands allows the classification of fluorescent particles into seven types: A, B, C, AB, AC, BC, and ABC (Perring et al. (2015); Savage et al. (2017)). For further information about the instrumental setup, refer to Heutte et al. (Submitted).

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    Authors: Twomey, Alice J; Remmerswaal, Amelia; Lovelock, Catherine E;

    Mangrove ecosystems across the globe face degradation due to severe climatic events, resulting in the formation of standing dead stems known as 'ghost forests'. This research project aimed to characterise the environmental parameters within mangrove ghost forests but also to ascertain their potential to support seagrass survival. Data was collected in three habitats (mangrove ghost forests, live mangroves and seagrass) at each of six study sites within Moreton Bay (Quandamooka), Queensland. Field data collection encompassed variables including air temperature, sea temperature, sediment grain composition, canopy coverage, turbidity, fetch length, and wave height (from north, north-east, and south-east directions). Additionally, within the ghost forests and live mangrove plots, data were gathered regarding stem density, diameter at breast height, the presence of seagrass wrack, presence of seagrass, the extent of seagrass coverage, and the specific species of seagrass. For the seagrass transects, data were gathered on seagrass presence, coverage, and species composition. The data collection process entailed three replicate plots within both the ghost forests and live mangrove forests, along with three replicate transects measuring 50 meters each within the seagrass meadows. This dataset shows that seagrass has colonised mangrove ghost forests and may be used to better characterise conditions within ghost forests. Data may be of interest to researchers in marine science, wetland ecology or restoration.

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    Authors: Wolff, Eric William; Mulvaney, Robert; Grieman, Mackenzie M; Hoffmann, Helene; +1 Authors

    We present an age model for the 651 m deep Skytrain Ice Rise ice core (79°44.5'S, 78°32.7'W). The top 2000 years have previously been dated using age markers interpolated through annual layer counting. Below this, we align the Skytrain core to the AICC2012 age model using tie points in the ice and air phase, and apply the Paleochrono program to obtain the best fit to the tie points and glaciological constraints. In the gas phase, ties are made using methane and, in critical sections, δ18Oair; in the ice phase ties are through 10Be across the Laschamps Event, and through ice chemistry related to long-range dust transport and deposition. This strategy provides a good outcome to about 108 ka (~605 m). Beyond that there are signs of flow disturbance, with a section of ice probably repeated. Nonetheless values of CH4 and δ18Oair confirm that part of the last interglacial (LIG), from about 117-126 ka (617-628 m), is present and in chronological order. Below this there are clear signs of stratigraphic disturbance, with rapid oscillation of values in both the ice and gas phase at the base of the LIG section. Based on methane values, the warmest part of the LIG and the coldest part of the penultimate glacial are missing from our record. Ice below 631 m appears to be of age >150 ka.

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    Authors: Brugnara, Yuri; Horn, Michael; Salvador, Isabella;

    We provide two instrumental records of air pressure and temperature for the Alpine cities of Rovereto and Bolzano/Bozen, covering the periods 1800-1839 and 1842-1873, respectively. They were measured by local physics teachers and digitized at the University of Bern from a handwritten weather diary and a local newspaper. In addition to the raw (sub-daily) data, we provide daily and monthly means together with a quantitative estimation of their uncertainty. The data were converted to modern units, quality controlled, and homogenized.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
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    Authors: Pesjak, Lea; McMinn, Andrew; Chase, Zanna; Bostock, Helen C;

    This dataset contains relative abundance (%) of diatom species, and includes the Eucampia antarctica terminal/intercalary valve ratio (Eucampia index), biogenic silica and Si/Al values from core TAN1302-44, which was collected from the WEGA channel on the continental slope, offshore Adélie Land, East Antarctica. Diatoms were analysed at 10 cm, resolution within interval 350-5 cm-depth, while biogenic silica was analysed every 20 cm, and Si/Al (X-ray Flourescence scanning, XRF) comprises a 3-point average, from every 0.2 cm, of entire core. The data also includes four radiocarbon dates, calculated from 0 cm, 25 cm, 35 cm and 45 cm- depths; Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index based on all species identified, and principal component analysis based on species identified at >1.8% relative abundance (in at least two samples). The main purpose of this dataset compilation was to understand the distribution of species, and species assemblages. The interpretation of the data sets suggests changes in Antarctic sea ice and ocean circulation occured near the ice sheet, over the last glacial cycle. These changes are especially evident in the last glacial, and during the last deglacial (warming).

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    Authors: Arosio, Tito; Ziehmer, Malin; Nicolussi, Kurt; Schluechter, Christian; +4 Authors

    Stable isotope ratios from tree rings are important proxies of past climate variations. We have access to a calendar-dated wood material from wood collected at glacier forefields and peat bog sites located in the Alps. They are of two species, larch (Larix decidua) and cembran pine (Pinus cembra). All the wood samples were collected at high altitudes in the Swiss and Tyrol Alps, they cover the whole Holocene period and belong to the Eastern Alpine Conifer Chronology Dataset (Nicolussi et al., 2009; doi:10.1177/0959683609336565). We analysed the δ13C, δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios of alpha cellulose obtained from blocks of 5 annual rings from 203 trees. Cellulose was extracted following the modified Jayme-Wise method (Boettger et al., 2007; doi:10.1021/ac0700023). The isotopes values were determined using conventional Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Isoprime 100) coupled to a pyrolysis unit (HEKAtech GmbH, Germany), which is similar to the previously used TC/EA (for technical details see (Leuenberger 2007). This approach was extended to measurements of non-exchangeable hydrogen of alpha-cellulose using the on-line equilibration method (Filot et al., 2006 (doi:10.1002/rcm.2743); Loader et al., 2015(doi:10.1021/ac502557x)). The results are reported in per mil (‰) relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) for carbon and to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) for hydrogen and oxygen (Coplen 1994; doi:10.1351/pac199466020273). For all the δ13C values after 1000 CE we applied the factor described in Leuenberger (2007; doi:10.1016/S1936-7961(07)01014-7) to correct for the δ13C depletion of CO2 caused by the Industrial Revolution from about 1850 onwards (Leuenberger, 2007).

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    Authors: Yu, Jimin; Oppo, Delia W; Jin, Zhangdong; Lacerra, Matthew; +7 Authors

    This data set contains the age model and air-sea CO2 exchange tracer ([CO32-]as) of deep water core NEAP 4K and Intermediate water core GGC90. Seawater [CO32-]as is calculated following the approach in Yu et al. (2019). The Seawater [CO32-]as reconstructions at GGC90 are obtained based on [CO32-] and [PO43-] from Lacerra et al. (2019) and Umling et al. (2019), but these data have not yet been used to infer air-sea CO2 exchange histories. Importantly, building upon previous work (Lund et al., 2015), 23 new radiocarbon dates substantially improve the GGC90 age model. We present new deep-water [CO32-] and [PO43-] reconstructions at NEAP 4K using benthic foraminiferal B/Ca and Cd/Ca, respectively. The age model for NEAP 4K is based on 4 new and 13 published radiocarbon dates (Hall et al., 2004) and new Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) coiling ratios. Based on the novel approach to reconstruct upper Atlantic air-sea CO2 exchange signatures, we provide evidence for a net release of CO2 via the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, which contributes to the millennial atmospheric CO2 rise during Heinrich Stadial 1.

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