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194 Research products, page 1 of 20

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romero-Alvarez, Johana; Lupaşcu, Aurelia; Lowe, Douglas; Badia, Alba; Acher-Nicholls, Scott; Dorling, Steve R.; Reeves, Claire E.; Butler, Tim;
    Project: EC | ASIBIA (616938)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations depend on a combination of hemispheric, regional, and local-scale processes. Estimates of how much O3 is produced locally vs. transported from further afield are essential in air quality management and regulatory policies. Here, a tagged-ozone mechanism within the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the contributions to surface O3 in the UK from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from inside and outside the UK during May–August 2015. The contribution of the different source regions to three regulatory O3 metrics is also examined. It is shown that model simulations predict the concentration and spatial distribution of surface O3 with a domain-wide mean bias of −3.7 ppbv. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from the UK and Europe account for 13 % and 16 %, respectively, of the monthly mean surface O3 in the UK, as the majority (71 %) of O3 originates from the hemispheric background. Hemispheric O3 contributes the most to concentrations in the north and the west of the UK with peaks in May, whereas European and UK contributions are most significant in the east, south-east, and London, i.e. the UK's most populated areas, intensifying towards June and July. Moreover, O3 from European sources is generally transported to the UK rather than produced in situ. It is demonstrated that more stringent emission controls over continental Europe, particularly in western Europe, would be necessary to improve the health-related metric MDA8 O3 above 50 and 60 ppbv. Emission controls over larger areas, such as the Northern Hemisphere, are instead required to lessen the impacts on ecosystems as quantified by the AOT40 metric.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McLean, Dianne L.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Miller, Karen J.; Schlappy, Marie-Lise; Ajemian, Matthew J.; Berry, Oliver; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Bond, Todd; Boschetti, Fabio; +36 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    This research was supported by the National Decommissioning Research Initiative (NDRI Australia). We acknowledge the time contribution of all co-authors and additionally via research undertaken through the UKRI INSITE Programme including projects ANChor, CHASANS (NE/T010886/1), EcoConnect, EcoSTAR (NE/T010614/1), FuECoMMS (NE/T010800/1), MAPS, NSERC. DMP was supported through The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland (MASTS) funded by the Scottish Funding Council and contributing institutions. SNRB and KH (Cefas) were funded by Cefas and the UK INSITE North Sea programme. Offshore platforms, subsea pipelines, wells and related fixed structures supporting the oil and gas (O&G) industry are prevalent in oceans across the globe, with many approaching the end of their operational life and requiring decommissioning. Although structures can possess high ecological diversity and productivity, information on how they interact with broader ecological processes remains unclear. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the role of O&G infrastructure in maintaining, altering or enhancing ecological connectivity with natural marine habitats. There is a paucity of studies on the subject with only 33 papers specifically targeting connectivity and O&G structures, although other studies provide important related information. Evidence for O&G structures facilitating vertical and horizontal seascape connectivity exists for larvae and mobile adult invertebrates, fish and megafauna; including threatened and commercially important species. The degree to which these structures represent a beneficial or detrimental net impact remains unclear, is complex and ultimately needs more research to determine the extent to which natural connectivity networks are conserved, enhanced or disrupted. We discuss the potential impacts of different decommissioning approaches on seascape connectivity and identify, through expert elicitation, critical knowledge gaps that, if addressed, may further inform decision making for the life cycle of O&G infrastructure, with relevance for other industries (e.g. renewables). The most highly ranked critical knowledge gap was a need to understand how O&G structures modify and influence the movement patterns of mobile species and dispersal stages of sessile marine species. Understanding how different decommissioning options affect species survival and movement was also highly ranked, as was understanding the extent to which O&G structures contribute to extending species distributions by providing rest stops, foraging habitat, and stepping stones. These questions could be addressed with further dedicated studies of animal movement in relation to structures using telemetry, molecular techniques and movement models. Our review and these priority questions provide a roadmap for advancing research needed to support evidence-based decision making for decommissioning O&G infrastructure. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Healy, Susan D.; Patton, B. Wren;
    Country: United Kingdom

    But fish cognitive ecology did not begin in rivers and streams. Rather, one of the starting points for work on fish cognitive ecology was work done on the use of visual cues by homing pigeons. Prior to working with fish, Victoria Braithwaite helped to establish that homing pigeons rely not just on magnetic and olfactory cues but also on visual cues for successful return to their home loft. Simple, elegant experiments on homing established Victoria's ability to develop experimental manipulations to examine the role of visual cues in navigation by fish in familiar areas. This work formed the basis of a rich seam of work whereby a fish's ecology was used to propose hypotheses and predictions as to preferred cue use, and then cognitive abilities in a variety of fish species, from model systems (Atlantic salmon and sticklebacks) to the Panamanian Brachyraphis episcopi. Cognitive ecology in fish led to substantial work on fish pain and welfare, but was never left behind, with some of Victoria's last work addressed to determining the neural instantiation of cognitive variation. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Carreiro-Silva, Marina; Martins, Ines; Raimundo, Joana; Caetano, Miguel; Bettencourt, Raul; Cerqueira, Teresa; Colaço, Ana;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | MIDAS (603418), EC | ATLAS (678760), FCT | Mining2/0005/2017 (Mining2/0005/2017)

    We report the results of an aquaria-based experiment testing the effects of suspended particles generated during potential mining activities, on a common habitat-building coral species in the Azores, Dentomuricea aff. meteor. Corals were collected from the summit of Condor Seamount (Azores, NE Atlantic) at depths between 185-210 m in August 2014. Coral fragments were maintained in 10-L aquaria and exposed to three experimental treatments for a period of four weeks at the DeepSeaLab aquaria facilities (Okeanos-University of the Azores): (1) control conditions (no added sediments); (2) suspended polymetallic sulphide (PMS) particles; (3) suspended quartz particles. PMS particles were obtained by grinding PMS inactive chimney rocks collected at the hydrothermal vent field Lucky Strike. Both particle types were delivered at a concentration of 25 mg L-1. The putative effects of PMS particles were evaluated through measurements of the coral physiological responses at the levels of the organism (oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion), tissue (bioaccumulation of metals) and cell (enzyme activity and gene expression).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Takeshita, Ryan; Bursian, Steven J; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Collier, Tracy K; Deak, Kristina; Dean, Karen M; De Guise, Sylvain; DiPinto, Lisa M; Elferink, Cornelis J; Esbaugh, Andrew J; +17 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    This research was made possible by a grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. This publication is UMCES contribution No. 6045 and Ref. No. [UMCES] CBL 2022-008. This is National Marine Mammal Foundation Contribution #314 to peer-reviewed scientific literature. In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, a number of government agencies, academic institutions, consultants, and nonprofit organizations conducted lab- and field-based research to understand the toxic effects of the oil. Lab testing was performed with a variety of fish, birds, turtles, and vertebrate cell lines (as well as invertebrates); field biologists conducted observations on fish, birds, turtles, and marine mammals; and epidemiologists carried out observational studies in humans. Eight years after the spill, scientists and resource managers held a workshop to summarize the similarities and differences in the effects of DWH oil on vertebrate taxa and to identify remaining gaps in our understanding of oil toxicity in wildlife and humans, building upon the cross-taxonomic synthesis initiated during the Natural Resource Damage Assessment. Across the studies, consistency was found in the types of toxic response observed in the different organisms. Impairment of stress responses and adrenal gland function, cardiotoxicity, immune system dysfunction, disruption of blood cells and their function, effects on locomotion, and oxidative damage were observed across taxa. This consistency suggests conservation in the mechanisms of action and disease pathogenesis. From a toxicological perspective, a logical progression of impacts was noted: from molecular and cellular effects that manifest as organ dysfunction, to systemic effects that compromise fitness, growth, reproductive potential, and survival. From a clinical perspective, adverse health effects from DWH oil spill exposure formed a suite of signs/symptomatic responses that at the highest doses/concentrations resulted in multi-organ system failure. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Embargo English
    Authors: 
    Fonseca, Sara Gomes;
    Country: Portugal

    Ingredientes naturais têm sido usados tradicionalmente por milénios e a sua aplicação em cremes tópicos, loções e preparações dentro da medicina tradicional e tradições de cura em muitas culturas têm sido observadas. Nos últimos 20 anos, estudos laboratoriais e clínicos têm identificado os benefícios de uma variedade de ingredientes naturais para cuidados de pele. Consequentemente, alguns destes ingredientes e compostos estão a ser desenvolvidos, usados ou considerados não só para efeitos anti idade, mas também para distúrbios dermatológicos. Certos ingredientes como lama marinha e quitosano, têm sido identificados como benéficos no tratamento de psoríase e dermatite atópica, devido às suas propriedades anti-inflamatórias. Para combater acne, sargafurano e diterpenóides cembrene são considerados eficazes. Já para a hiperpigmentação e capacidades antioxidantes, florotaninos e fucoidano estão entre os compostos que se consideram mais benéficos. Pesquisa adicional é necessária para determinar, confirmar e elucidar os benefícios destes ingredientes na prevenção e controlo dos distúrbios de pele. Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of marine natural ingredients for cosmetic. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as sea mud and chitosan, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne, sargafuran and cembrene diterpenoids are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, phlorotannins and fucoidan are among those compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine, confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease. Trabalho Final de Mestrado Integrado, Ciências Farmacêuticas, 2021, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; Godrijan, Jelena; Cerino, Federica; Malinverno, Elisa; Langer, Gerald; Brownlee, Colin;
    Project: UKRI | GW4+ - a consortium of ex... (NE/L002434/1), UKRI | NSFGEO-NERC An unexpected... (NE/N011708/1), MZOS | Mechanism of long-term ch... (098-0982705-2731), EC | MEDSEA (265103), EC | SEACELLS (670390)

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Berthinussen, Anna; Smith, Rebecca; Sutherland, William;
    Publisher: University of Cambridge
    Country: United Kingdom
  • Open Access Portuguese
    Authors: 
    Silva, Helder Luís Moreira da;
    Country: Portugal

    This essay sought to understand how the sea can be an adverse space for the photographer in the context of fishing and to understand how the photographer overcomes these difficulties, inherent to the environment, when inhabiting that space with his camera and experiencing the sea not just as a space outside him, but as a huge interior space that is part of himself. It reflects on the almost umbilical connection that we have with the sea, contextualizing it in terms of symbology and with regard to the undeniable presence in cultural and artistic terms in a transversal way, from rock art to contemporary art, which embraced the sea as a symbol and manifestation of the state in which our civilization finds itself. This reflection opens the way for the discussion about its presence in documentary photography, more specifically in the work of three photographers that helps to understand the role and the experience of the photographer in this environment so adverse to photography. Each of their work was approached differently. An interview was conducted with Pepe Brix, a documented biography was made with Jean Gaumy and finally an image was analyzed with Corey Arnold. The realization of this essay led to the development of a practical work of photography with considerable depth, which lasted for several months and which consisted of monitoring the activity of a particular fishing boat and is the result of an even more comprehensive personal work dedicated to the sea and fishing in Portugal that has been in development for several years and that has closely followed dozens of fishing boats from the north of Portugal. In this work, the history of the trawler “Rumo à Pesca” is investigated and the work and lives of it’s workers is documented throughout two trips and meetings in various ports along the coast. This work was materialized in a photography book entitled " Rumo à Pesca " that represents the practical experience and the contact with the reality of fishing and the sea. Procurou-se com este ensaio entender de que modo o mar pode ser um espaço adverso ao fotógrafo no contexto da pesca e entender como este ultrapassa essas dificuldades, inerentes ao meio, ao habitar esse espaço com a sua máquina fotográfica e experienciar o mar não apenas como um espaço exterior a si, mas como um imenso espaço interior que faz parte de si. Reflete-se sobre a ligação quase umbilical que temos com o mar contextualizando-o em termos de simbologia e no que diz respeito à inegável presença em termos culturais e artísticos de forma transversal, desde à arte rupestre até à arte contemporânea, que abraçou o mar como símbolo e manifestação do estado em que a nossa civilização se encontra. Essa reflexão abre o caminho para a discussão sobre a sua presença na fotografia documental, mais especificamente no trabalho de três fotógrafos que ajuda a entender o papel e a experiência do fotógrafo neste meio tão adverso à fotografia. O trabalho de cada um deles foi abordado de forma diferente. Com Pepe Brix foi realizada uma entrevista, com Jean Gaumy foi feita uma biografia documentada e por fim com Corey Arnold analisou-se uma imagem. A realização deste ensaio levou ao desenvolvimento de um trabalho prático de fotografia com bastante profundidade e que se estendeu por vários meses e que consistiu no acompanhamento da atividade de uma embarcação em particular e é o resultado de um trabalho pessoal ainda mais abrangente dedicado ao mar e à pesca em Portugal que vem a ser desenvolvido há vários anos e que tem acompanhado de perto dezenas de embarcações do norte de Portugal. Neste trabalho investiga-se a história da traineira “Rumo à Pesca” e documenta-se, através de duas viagens e encontros em vários portos ao longo da costa, o trabalho e a vida destas pessoas. Este trabalho foi materializado num livro de fotografia intitulado “Rumo à Pesca” que representa a experiência prática e o contacto com a realidade da pesca e do mar. Dissertação de mestrado

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barros, Eduarda Daniela Silva;
    Country: Portugal

    Os antidepressivos estão entre os fármacos mais identificados em sistemas aquosos e, como poluentes orgânicos emergentes, podem exercer efeitos negativos em organismos aquáticos não alvo. Em consequência do aumento continuado das concentrações no meio ambiente, os impactos biológicos destes compostos nos peixes têm sido discutidos. a exposição aos produtos farmacêuticos tem originado alterações no comportamento, reprodução e desenvolvimento. Além disso, estudos demonstraram que a exposição aos antidepressivos resulta num aumento substancial na mortalidade, atrasos no desenvolvimento, anomalia morfológicas e alterações patológicas no cérebro, coração e rim cranial e caudal. O desenvolvimento do cérebro e do sistema visual é particularmente suscetível aos efeitos da exposição pré-natal a substâncias neuroativas. A avaliação da resposta motora visual no peixe-zebra demonstrou que os antidepressivos modificam o perfil da locomoção espontânea com maior regularidade, apresentando variação significativa nos efeitos comportamentais. Em peixes, a análise de expressão génica global pode revelar efeitos de tóxicos em vias bioquímicas inesperadas, elucidar mecanismos de toxicidade e ser utilizada para avaliação de perfis de expressão génica para definir diferenças/semelhanças nas respostas de organismos aos tóxicos. O objetivo deste estudo é resumir o conhecimento atual sobre os impactos dos compostos neuroativos em animais não visados que vivem em águas superficiais, especialmente ao nível do cérebro e do sistema visual. Antidepressants are among the most identified pharmaceuticals in aqueous system, and, as emerging organic pollutants, can exert negative effects of non-target aquatic organisms. As the concentrations in the environment are incessantly increasing the biological impacts of theses compounds in fish have beeun under discussion. The exposure to these pharmaceuticals porducts has been prodicung alterations in behaviour, reproduction, and development. Also, studies demonstrate that exposure to antidepressants result in a substantial rise in mortality, development retardation, morphological anomalies, and pathological changes in brain, heart, and ranial and caudal kidney. The development of the brain and visual system is particularly susceptible to the effects of prenatal exposure to neuroactive drugs. Assessing the visual motor responce in zebrafish, demonstrated that antidepressants most regularly modify the profile os spontaneous locomotion having significant variation in behavioral effects. In fish, global gene expression analysis can reveal effects of toxicants on unexpected biochemical pathways, elucidate mechanisms of toxicity and be utilized for assessment of gene expression profiles to define differences/similarities in responses of organisms to toxicants. The aim of this syudy is to summarize current knowledge about the impacts of neuroactive compounds on non-target animals living in surface waters, especially at the level of the brain and visual system.

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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
194 Research products, page 1 of 20
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romero-Alvarez, Johana; Lupaşcu, Aurelia; Lowe, Douglas; Badia, Alba; Acher-Nicholls, Scott; Dorling, Steve R.; Reeves, Claire E.; Butler, Tim;
    Project: EC | ASIBIA (616938)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations depend on a combination of hemispheric, regional, and local-scale processes. Estimates of how much O3 is produced locally vs. transported from further afield are essential in air quality management and regulatory policies. Here, a tagged-ozone mechanism within the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the contributions to surface O3 in the UK from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from inside and outside the UK during May–August 2015. The contribution of the different source regions to three regulatory O3 metrics is also examined. It is shown that model simulations predict the concentration and spatial distribution of surface O3 with a domain-wide mean bias of −3.7 ppbv. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from the UK and Europe account for 13 % and 16 %, respectively, of the monthly mean surface O3 in the UK, as the majority (71 %) of O3 originates from the hemispheric background. Hemispheric O3 contributes the most to concentrations in the north and the west of the UK with peaks in May, whereas European and UK contributions are most significant in the east, south-east, and London, i.e. the UK's most populated areas, intensifying towards June and July. Moreover, O3 from European sources is generally transported to the UK rather than produced in situ. It is demonstrated that more stringent emission controls over continental Europe, particularly in western Europe, would be necessary to improve the health-related metric MDA8 O3 above 50 and 60 ppbv. Emission controls over larger areas, such as the Northern Hemisphere, are instead required to lessen the impacts on ecosystems as quantified by the AOT40 metric.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McLean, Dianne L.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Miller, Karen J.; Schlappy, Marie-Lise; Ajemian, Matthew J.; Berry, Oliver; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Bond, Todd; Boschetti, Fabio; +36 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    This research was supported by the National Decommissioning Research Initiative (NDRI Australia). We acknowledge the time contribution of all co-authors and additionally via research undertaken through the UKRI INSITE Programme including projects ANChor, CHASANS (NE/T010886/1), EcoConnect, EcoSTAR (NE/T010614/1), FuECoMMS (NE/T010800/1), MAPS, NSERC. DMP was supported through The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland (MASTS) funded by the Scottish Funding Council and contributing institutions. SNRB and KH (Cefas) were funded by Cefas and the UK INSITE North Sea programme. Offshore platforms, subsea pipelines, wells and related fixed structures supporting the oil and gas (O&G) industry are prevalent in oceans across the globe, with many approaching the end of their operational life and requiring decommissioning. Although structures can possess high ecological diversity and productivity, information on how they interact with broader ecological processes remains unclear. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the role of O&G infrastructure in maintaining, altering or enhancing ecological connectivity with natural marine habitats. There is a paucity of studies on the subject with only 33 papers specifically targeting connectivity and O&G structures, although other studies provide important related information. Evidence for O&G structures facilitating vertical and horizontal seascape connectivity exists for larvae and mobile adult invertebrates, fish and megafauna; including threatened and commercially important species. The degree to which these structures represent a beneficial or detrimental net impact remains unclear, is complex and ultimately needs more research to determine the extent to which natural connectivity networks are conserved, enhanced or disrupted. We discuss the potential impacts of different decommissioning approaches on seascape connectivity and identify, through expert elicitation, critical knowledge gaps that, if addressed, may further inform decision making for the life cycle of O&G infrastructure, with relevance for other industries (e.g. renewables). The most highly ranked critical knowledge gap was a need to understand how O&G structures modify and influence the movement patterns of mobile species and dispersal stages of sessile marine species. Understanding how different decommissioning options affect species survival and movement was also highly ranked, as was understanding the extent to which O&G structures contribute to extending species distributions by providing rest stops, foraging habitat, and stepping stones. These questions could be addressed with further dedicated studies of animal movement in relation to structures using telemetry, molecular techniques and movement models. Our review and these priority questions provide a roadmap for advancing research needed to support evidence-based decision making for decommissioning O&G infrastructure. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Healy, Susan D.; Patton, B. Wren;
    Country: United Kingdom

    But fish cognitive ecology did not begin in rivers and streams. Rather, one of the starting points for work on fish cognitive ecology was work done on the use of visual cues by homing pigeons. Prior to working with fish, Victoria Braithwaite helped to establish that homing pigeons rely not just on magnetic and olfactory cues but also on visual cues for successful return to their home loft. Simple, elegant experiments on homing established Victoria's ability to develop experimental manipulations to examine the role of visual cues in navigation by fish in familiar areas. This work formed the basis of a rich seam of work whereby a fish's ecology was used to propose hypotheses and predictions as to preferred cue use, and then cognitive abilities in a variety of fish species, from model systems (Atlantic salmon and sticklebacks) to the Panamanian Brachyraphis episcopi. Cognitive ecology in fish led to substantial work on fish pain and welfare, but was never left behind, with some of Victoria's last work addressed to determining the neural instantiation of cognitive variation. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Carreiro-Silva, Marina; Martins, Ines; Raimundo, Joana; Caetano, Miguel; Bettencourt, Raul; Cerqueira, Teresa; Colaço, Ana;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | MIDAS (603418), EC | ATLAS (678760), FCT | Mining2/0005/2017 (Mining2/0005/2017)

    We report the results of an aquaria-based experiment testing the effects of suspended particles generated during potential mining activities, on a common habitat-building coral species in the Azores, Dentomuricea aff. meteor. Corals were collected from the summit of Condor Seamount (Azores, NE Atlantic) at depths between 185-210 m in August 2014. Coral fragments were maintained in 10-L aquaria and exposed to three experimental treatments for a period of four weeks at the DeepSeaLab aquaria facilities (Okeanos-University of the Azores): (1) control conditions (no added sediments); (2) suspended polymetallic sulphide (PMS) particles; (3) suspended quartz particles. PMS particles were obtained by grinding PMS inactive chimney rocks collected at the hydrothermal vent field Lucky Strike. Both particle types were delivered at a concentration of 25 mg L-1. The putative effects of PMS particles were evaluated through measurements of the coral physiological responses at the levels of the organism (oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion), tissue (bioaccumulation of metals) and cell (enzyme activity and gene expression).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Takeshita, Ryan; Bursian, Steven J; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Collier, Tracy K; Deak, Kristina; Dean, Karen M; De Guise, Sylvain; DiPinto, Lisa M; Elferink, Cornelis J; Esbaugh, Andrew J; +17 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    This research was made possible by a grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. This publication is UMCES contribution No. 6045 and Ref. No. [UMCES] CBL 2022-008. This is National Marine Mammal Foundation Contribution #314 to peer-reviewed scientific literature. In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, a number of government agencies, academic institutions, consultants, and nonprofit organizations conducted lab- and field-based research to understand the toxic effects of the oil. Lab testing was performed with a variety of fish, birds, turtles, and vertebrate cell lines (as well as invertebrates); field biologists conducted observations on fish, birds, turtles, and marine mammals; and epidemiologists carried out observational studies in humans. Eight years after the spill, scientists and resource managers held a workshop to summarize the similarities and differences in the effects of DWH oil on vertebrate taxa and to identify remaining gaps in our understanding of oil toxicity in wildlife and humans, building upon the cross-taxonomic synthesis initiated during the Natural Resource Damage Assessment. Across the studies, consistency was found in the types of toxic response observed in the different organisms. Impairment of stress responses and adrenal gland function, cardiotoxicity, immune system dysfunction, disruption of blood cells and their function, effects on locomotion, and oxidative damage were observed across taxa. This consistency suggests conservation in the mechanisms of action and disease pathogenesis. From a toxicological perspective, a logical progression of impacts was noted: from molecular and cellular effects that manifest as organ dysfunction, to systemic effects that compromise fitness, growth, reproductive potential, and survival. From a clinical perspective, adverse health effects from DWH oil spill exposure formed a suite of signs/symptomatic responses that at the highest doses/concentrations resulted in multi-organ system failure. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Embargo English
    Authors: 
    Fonseca, Sara Gomes;
    Country: Portugal

    Ingredientes naturais têm sido usados tradicionalmente por milénios e a sua aplicação em cremes tópicos, loções e preparações dentro da medicina tradicional e tradições de cura em muitas culturas têm sido observadas. Nos últimos 20 anos, estudos laboratoriais e clínicos têm identificado os benefícios de uma variedade de ingredientes naturais para cuidados de pele. Consequentemente, alguns destes ingredientes e compostos estão a ser desenvolvidos, usados ou considerados não só para efeitos anti idade, mas também para distúrbios dermatológicos. Certos ingredientes como lama marinha e quitosano, têm sido identificados como benéficos no tratamento de psoríase e dermatite atópica, devido às suas propriedades anti-inflamatórias. Para combater acne, sargafurano e diterpenóides cembrene são considerados eficazes. Já para a hiperpigmentação e capacidades antioxidantes, florotaninos e fucoidano estão entre os compostos que se consideram mais benéficos. Pesquisa adicional é necessária para determinar, confirmar e elucidar os benefícios destes ingredientes na prevenção e controlo dos distúrbios de pele. Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of marine natural ingredients for cosmetic. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as sea mud and chitosan, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne, sargafuran and cembrene diterpenoids are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, phlorotannins and fucoidan are among those compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine, confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease. Trabalho Final de Mestrado Integrado, Ciências Farmacêuticas, 2021, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Farmácia.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; Godrijan, Jelena; Cerino, Federica; Malinverno, Elisa; Langer, Gerald; Brownlee, Colin;
    Project: UKRI | GW4+ - a consortium of ex... (NE/L002434/1), UKRI | NSFGEO-NERC An unexpected... (NE/N011708/1), MZOS | Mechanism of long-term ch... (098-0982705-2731), EC | MEDSEA (265103), EC | SEACELLS (670390)

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Berthinussen, Anna; Smith, Rebecca; Sutherland, William;
    Publisher: University of Cambridge
    Country: United Kingdom
  • Open Access Portuguese
    Authors: 
    Silva, Helder Luís Moreira da;
    Country: Portugal

    This essay sought to understand how the sea can be an adverse space for the photographer in the context of fishing and to understand how the photographer overcomes these difficulties, inherent to the environment, when inhabiting that space with his camera and experiencing the sea not just as a space outside him, but as a huge interior space that is part of himself. It reflects on the almost umbilical connection that we have with the sea, contextualizing it in terms of symbology and with regard to the undeniable presence in cultural and artistic terms in a transversal way, from rock art to contemporary art, which embraced the sea as a symbol and manifestation of the state in which our civilization finds itself. This reflection opens the way for the discussion about its presence in documentary photography, more specifically in the work of three photographers that helps to understand the role and the experience of the photographer in this environment so adverse to photography. Each of their work was approached differently. An interview was conducted with Pepe Brix, a documented biography was made with Jean Gaumy and finally an image was analyzed with Corey Arnold. The realization of this essay led to the development of a practical work of photography with considerable depth, which lasted for several months and which consisted of monitoring the activity of a particular fishing boat and is the result of an even more comprehensive personal work dedicated to the sea and fishing in Portugal that has been in development for several years and that has closely followed dozens of fishing boats from the north of Portugal. In this work, the history of the trawler “Rumo à Pesca” is investigated and the work and lives of it’s workers is documented throughout two trips and meetings in various ports along the coast. This work was materialized in a photography book entitled " Rumo à Pesca " that represents the practical experience and the contact with the reality of fishing and the sea. Procurou-se com este ensaio entender de que modo o mar pode ser um espaço adverso ao fotógrafo no contexto da pesca e entender como este ultrapassa essas dificuldades, inerentes ao meio, ao habitar esse espaço com a sua máquina fotográfica e experienciar o mar não apenas como um espaço exterior a si, mas como um imenso espaço interior que faz parte de si. Reflete-se sobre a ligação quase umbilical que temos com o mar contextualizando-o em termos de simbologia e no que diz respeito à inegável presença em termos culturais e artísticos de forma transversal, desde à arte rupestre até à arte contemporânea, que abraçou o mar como símbolo e manifestação do estado em que a nossa civilização se encontra. Essa reflexão abre o caminho para a discussão sobre a sua presença na fotografia documental, mais especificamente no trabalho de três fotógrafos que ajuda a entender o papel e a experiência do fotógrafo neste meio tão adverso à fotografia. O trabalho de cada um deles foi abordado de forma diferente. Com Pepe Brix foi realizada uma entrevista, com Jean Gaumy foi feita uma biografia documentada e por fim com Corey Arnold analisou-se uma imagem. A realização deste ensaio levou ao desenvolvimento de um trabalho prático de fotografia com bastante profundidade e que se estendeu por vários meses e que consistiu no acompanhamento da atividade de uma embarcação em particular e é o resultado de um trabalho pessoal ainda mais abrangente dedicado ao mar e à pesca em Portugal que vem a ser desenvolvido há vários anos e que tem acompanhado de perto dezenas de embarcações do norte de Portugal. Neste trabalho investiga-se a história da traineira “Rumo à Pesca” e documenta-se, através de duas viagens e encontros em vários portos ao longo da costa, o trabalho e a vida destas pessoas. Este trabalho foi materializado num livro de fotografia intitulado “Rumo à Pesca” que representa a experiência prática e o contacto com a realidade da pesca e do mar. Dissertação de mestrado

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barros, Eduarda Daniela Silva;
    Country: Portugal

    Os antidepressivos estão entre os fármacos mais identificados em sistemas aquosos e, como poluentes orgânicos emergentes, podem exercer efeitos negativos em organismos aquáticos não alvo. Em consequência do aumento continuado das concentrações no meio ambiente, os impactos biológicos destes compostos nos peixes têm sido discutidos. a exposição aos produtos farmacêuticos tem originado alterações no comportamento, reprodução e desenvolvimento. Além disso, estudos demonstraram que a exposição aos antidepressivos resulta num aumento substancial na mortalidade, atrasos no desenvolvimento, anomalia morfológicas e alterações patológicas no cérebro, coração e rim cranial e caudal. O desenvolvimento do cérebro e do sistema visual é particularmente suscetível aos efeitos da exposição pré-natal a substâncias neuroativas. A avaliação da resposta motora visual no peixe-zebra demonstrou que os antidepressivos modificam o perfil da locomoção espontânea com maior regularidade, apresentando variação significativa nos efeitos comportamentais. Em peixes, a análise de expressão génica global pode revelar efeitos de tóxicos em vias bioquímicas inesperadas, elucidar mecanismos de toxicidade e ser utilizada para avaliação de perfis de expressão génica para definir diferenças/semelhanças nas respostas de organismos aos tóxicos. O objetivo deste estudo é resumir o conhecimento atual sobre os impactos dos compostos neuroativos em animais não visados que vivem em águas superficiais, especialmente ao nível do cérebro e do sistema visual. Antidepressants are among the most identified pharmaceuticals in aqueous system, and, as emerging organic pollutants, can exert negative effects of non-target aquatic organisms. As the concentrations in the environment are incessantly increasing the biological impacts of theses compounds in fish have beeun under discussion. The exposure to these pharmaceuticals porducts has been prodicung alterations in behaviour, reproduction, and development. Also, studies demonstrate that exposure to antidepressants result in a substantial rise in mortality, development retardation, morphological anomalies, and pathological changes in brain, heart, and ranial and caudal kidney. The development of the brain and visual system is particularly susceptible to the effects of prenatal exposure to neuroactive drugs. Assessing the visual motor responce in zebrafish, demonstrated that antidepressants most regularly modify the profile os spontaneous locomotion having significant variation in behavioral effects. In fish, global gene expression analysis can reveal effects of toxicants on unexpected biochemical pathways, elucidate mechanisms of toxicity and be utilized for assessment of gene expression profiles to define differences/similarities in responses of organisms to toxicants. The aim of this syudy is to summarize current knowledge about the impacts of neuroactive compounds on non-target animals living in surface waters, especially at the level of the brain and visual system.