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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guerreiro, Catarina V; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; Valente, André; +4 Authors

    Data refer to export fluxes of carbonate produced by calcifying phytoplankton (coccolithophores), and coccolith-CaCO₃ percent contribution to total carbonate flux across the tropical North Atlantic, from upwelling affected NW Africa, via three ocean sites along 12°N to the Caribbean. Sampling was undertaken by means of a spatial array of four time-series sediment traps (i.e., CB at 21°N 20°W; M1U at 12°N 23°W; M2U at 14°N 37°W; M4U at 12°N 49°W; Guerreiro et al., 2021) collecting particle fluxes in two-week intervals, from October 2012 to February 2014, allowing to track temporal changes along the southern margin of the North Atlantic central gyre. Auxiliary PIC (Particulate Inorganic Carbon) data from NASA's Ocean Biology Processing Group (https://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov) are also provided for the sediment sampling period at all four trap sites. Particle flux data (mg/m²/d) of CaCO₃, organic matter, particulate organic carbon (POC), biogenic silica (bSiO₂) and unspecified residual fraction are provided for sediment trap site CB.

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    Authors: Korte, Laura F; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; van der Does, Michèlle; Guerreiro, Catarina V; +5 Authors

    To assess the impacts of Amazon River discharge, Saharan dust deposition, N2‐fixation and mixed‐layer deepening on the biological carbon pump, sediment traps were moored from October 2012 to November 2013 at two sites in the western tropical North Atlantic (49°W,12°N/57°W,12°N). Particle exports interpreted along with satellite‐ and Argo‐float data show peak fluxes in biogenic silica (31 mg m**−2 d**−1) and organic carbon (25 mg m**−2 d**−1) during the fall of 2013 that were ten to five times higher than any time earlier during the year. These high export fluxes occurred in tandem with high surface chlorophyll a concentrations associated with the dispersal of the Amazon River plume, following retroflection into the North‐Atlantic‐Counter‐Current. High fucoxanthin fluxes (> 80 μ g m**−2 d**−1) and low δ15N‐values (−0.6‰) suggest a large contribution by marine diatom‐diazotrophic‐associations, possibly enhanced by wet Saharan dust deposition. During summer, the Amazon River plume resulted in high mass fluxes at 57°W that were enriched in biogenic silica but weakly influenced by diazotrophic‐associations compared to the fall event at 49°W. High carbonate‐carbon fluxes (17 mg m**−2 d**−1) dominated a second single event at 49°W during spring that was likely triggered by mixed‐layer deepening. Rain‐ratios of BSi/Ccarb amounted to 1.7 when associated with high export fluxes linked to the Amazon River plume. Compared to an annual average of 0.3, this indicates a more efficient uptake of CO2 via the biological pump compared to when the plume was absent, hence supporting earlier observations that the Amazon River plume is important for ocean CO2 sequestration.

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    Authors: de Bar, Marijke W; Ullgren, Jenny; Thunell, Robert C; Wakeham, Stuart G; +4 Authors

    In this study we analyzed sediment trap time series from five tropical sites to assess seasonal variations in concentrations and fluxes of long-chain diols (LCDs) and associated proxies with emphasis on the long-chain diol index (LDI) temperature proxy. For the tropical Atlantic, we observe that generally less than 2 % of LCDs settling from the water column are preserved in the sediment. The Atlantic and Mozambique Channel traps reveal minimal seasonal variations in the LDI, similar to the two other lipid-based temperature proxies TEX86 and U37K′. In addition, annual mean LDI-derived temperatures are in good agreement with the annual mean satellite-derived sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In contrast, the LDI in the Cariaco Basin shows larger seasonal variation, as do the TEX86 and U37K′. Here, the LDI underestimates SST during the warmest months, which is possibly due to summer stratification and the habitat depth of the diol producers deepening to around 20–30 m. Surface sediment LDI temperatures in the Atlantic and Mozambique Channel compare well with the average LDI-derived temperatures from the overlying sediment traps, as well as with decadal annual mean SST. Lastly, we observed large seasonal variations in the diol index, as an indicator of upwelling conditions, at three sites: in the eastern Atlantic, potentially linked to Guinea Dome upwelling; in the Cariaco Basin, likely caused by seasonal upwelling; and in the Mozambique Channel, where diol index variations may be driven by upwelling from favorable winds and/or eddy migration.

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    Authors: Burckel Pierre; Waelbroeck Claire; Luo Yiming; Roche Didier M; +6 Authors

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Heinrich stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20–50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present-day North Atlantic deep water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic bottom water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow, southward-flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Climate of the Past ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Tesi, Tommaso; Geibel, Marc C.; Pearce, Christof; Panova, Elena; +8 Authors

    Recent Arctic studies suggest that sea ice decline and permafrost thawing will affect phytoplankton dynamics and stimulate heterotrophic communities. However, in what way the plankton composition will change as the warming proceeds remains elusive. Here we investigate the chemical signature of the plankton-dominated fraction of particulate organic matter (POM) collected along the Siberian Shelf. POM (> 10 µm) samples were analysed using molecular biomarkers (CuO oxidation and IP25) and dual-carbon isotopes (δ13C and Δ14C). In addition, surface water chemical properties were integrated with the POM (> 10 µm) dataset to understand the link between plankton composition and environmental conditions. δ13C and Δ14C exhibited a large variability in the POM (> 10 µm) distribution while the content of terrestrial biomarkers in the POM was negligible. In the Laptev Sea (LS), δ13C and Δ14C of POM (> 10 µm) suggested a heterotrophic environment in which dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the Lena River was the primary source of metabolisable carbon. Within the Lena plume, terrestrial DOC probably became part of the food web via bacteria uptake and subsequently transferred to relatively other heterotrophic communities (e.g. dinoflagellates). Moving eastwards toward the sea-ice-dominated East Siberian Sea (ESS), the system became progressively more autotrophic. Comparison between δ13C of POM (> 10 µm) samples and CO2aq concentrations revealed that the carbon isotope fractionation increased moving towards the easternmost and most productive stations. In a warming scenario characterised by enhanced terrestrial DOC release (thawing permafrost) and progressive sea ice decline, heterotrophic conditions might persist in the LS while the nutrient-rich Pacific inflow will likely stimulate greater primary productivity in the ESS. The contrasting trophic conditions will result in a sharp gradient in δ13C between the LS and ESS, similar to what is documented in our semi-synoptic study.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Guerreiro, Catarina V; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; Valente, André; +4 Authors

    Data refer to export fluxes of carbonate produced by calcifying phytoplankton (coccolithophores), and coccolith-CaCO₃ percent contribution to total carbonate flux across the tropical North Atlantic, from upwelling affected NW Africa, via three ocean sites along 12°N to the Caribbean. Sampling was undertaken by means of a spatial array of four time-series sediment traps (i.e., CB at 21°N 20°W; M1U at 12°N 23°W; M2U at 14°N 37°W; M4U at 12°N 49°W; Guerreiro et al., 2021) collecting particle fluxes in two-week intervals, from October 2012 to February 2014, allowing to track temporal changes along the southern margin of the North Atlantic central gyre. Auxiliary PIC (Particulate Inorganic Carbon) data from NASA's Ocean Biology Processing Group (https://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov) are also provided for the sediment sampling period at all four trap sites. Particle flux data (mg/m²/d) of CaCO₃, organic matter, particulate organic carbon (POC), biogenic silica (bSiO₂) and unspecified residual fraction are provided for sediment trap site CB.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Korte, Laura F; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; van der Does, Michèlle; Guerreiro, Catarina V; +5 Authors

    To assess the impacts of Amazon River discharge, Saharan dust deposition, N2‐fixation and mixed‐layer deepening on the biological carbon pump, sediment traps were moored from October 2012 to November 2013 at two sites in the western tropical North Atlantic (49°W,12°N/57°W,12°N). Particle exports interpreted along with satellite‐ and Argo‐float data show peak fluxes in biogenic silica (31 mg m**−2 d**−1) and organic carbon (25 mg m**−2 d**−1) during the fall of 2013 that were ten to five times higher than any time earlier during the year. These high export fluxes occurred in tandem with high surface chlorophyll a concentrations associated with the dispersal of the Amazon River plume, following retroflection into the North‐Atlantic‐Counter‐Current. High fucoxanthin fluxes (> 80 μ g m**−2 d**−1) and low δ15N‐values (−0.6‰) suggest a large contribution by marine diatom‐diazotrophic‐associations, possibly enhanced by wet Saharan dust deposition. During summer, the Amazon River plume resulted in high mass fluxes at 57°W that were enriched in biogenic silica but weakly influenced by diazotrophic‐associations compared to the fall event at 49°W. High carbonate‐carbon fluxes (17 mg m**−2 d**−1) dominated a second single event at 49°W during spring that was likely triggered by mixed‐layer deepening. Rain‐ratios of BSi/Ccarb amounted to 1.7 when associated with high export fluxes linked to the Amazon River plume. Compared to an annual average of 0.3, this indicates a more efficient uptake of CO2 via the biological pump compared to when the plume was absent, hence supporting earlier observations that the Amazon River plume is important for ocean CO2 sequestration.

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    Authors: de Bar, Marijke W; Ullgren, Jenny; Thunell, Robert C; Wakeham, Stuart G; +4 Authors

    In this study we analyzed sediment trap time series from five tropical sites to assess seasonal variations in concentrations and fluxes of long-chain diols (LCDs) and associated proxies with emphasis on the long-chain diol index (LDI) temperature proxy. For the tropical Atlantic, we observe that generally less than 2 % of LCDs settling from the water column are preserved in the sediment. The Atlantic and Mozambique Channel traps reveal minimal seasonal variations in the LDI, similar to the two other lipid-based temperature proxies TEX86 and U37K′. In addition, annual mean LDI-derived temperatures are in good agreement with the annual mean satellite-derived sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In contrast, the LDI in the Cariaco Basin shows larger seasonal variation, as do the TEX86 and U37K′. Here, the LDI underestimates SST during the warmest months, which is possibly due to summer stratification and the habitat depth of the diol producers deepening to around 20–30 m. Surface sediment LDI temperatures in the Atlantic and Mozambique Channel compare well with the average LDI-derived temperatures from the overlying sediment traps, as well as with decadal annual mean SST. Lastly, we observed large seasonal variations in the diol index, as an indicator of upwelling conditions, at three sites: in the eastern Atlantic, potentially linked to Guinea Dome upwelling; in the Cariaco Basin, likely caused by seasonal upwelling; and in the Mozambique Channel, where diol index variations may be driven by upwelling from favorable winds and/or eddy migration.

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    Authors: Burckel Pierre; Waelbroeck Claire; Luo Yiming; Roche Didier M; +6 Authors

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the Heinrich stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20–50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa / 230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present-day North Atlantic deep water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic bottom water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow, southward-flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

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    Authors: Tesi, Tommaso; Geibel, Marc C.; Pearce, Christof; Panova, Elena; +8 Authors

    Recent Arctic studies suggest that sea ice decline and permafrost thawing will affect phytoplankton dynamics and stimulate heterotrophic communities. However, in what way the plankton composition will change as the warming proceeds remains elusive. Here we investigate the chemical signature of the plankton-dominated fraction of particulate organic matter (POM) collected along the Siberian Shelf. POM (> 10 µm) samples were analysed using molecular biomarkers (CuO oxidation and IP25) and dual-carbon isotopes (δ13C and Δ14C). In addition, surface water chemical properties were integrated with the POM (> 10 µm) dataset to understand the link between plankton composition and environmental conditions. δ13C and Δ14C exhibited a large variability in the POM (> 10 µm) distribution while the content of terrestrial biomarkers in the POM was negligible. In the Laptev Sea (LS), δ13C and Δ14C of POM (> 10 µm) suggested a heterotrophic environment in which dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the Lena River was the primary source of metabolisable carbon. Within the Lena plume, terrestrial DOC probably became part of the food web via bacteria uptake and subsequently transferred to relatively other heterotrophic communities (e.g. dinoflagellates). Moving eastwards toward the sea-ice-dominated East Siberian Sea (ESS), the system became progressively more autotrophic. Comparison between δ13C of POM (> 10 µm) samples and CO2aq concentrations revealed that the carbon isotope fractionation increased moving towards the easternmost and most productive stations. In a warming scenario characterised by enhanced terrestrial DOC release (thawing permafrost) and progressive sea ice decline, heterotrophic conditions might persist in the LS while the nutrient-rich Pacific inflow will likely stimulate greater primary productivity in the ESS. The contrasting trophic conditions will result in a sharp gradient in δ13C between the LS and ESS, similar to what is documented in our semi-synoptic study.

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