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  • Authors: Ricour, Florian; Guidi, Lionel; Gehlen, Marion; DeVries, Timothy; +1 Authors
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  • Authors: Vogt, Meike; Benedetti, Fabio; Sarmento, Hugo; Huber, Paula; +23 Authors
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    Authors: Pagano, Pasquale; Pittonet, Sara; Drago, Federico; Giuffrida, Maria;

    There are several research infrastructures or other data services running in Europe that cover a multitude of marine-related sciences, providing specific datasets coming from observations collected with different methods. These infrastructures constitute a diverse world, each looking at a piece of the big picture, sometimes hindering collaboration and data sharing. Blue-Cloud aims to overcome fragmentation and build a bridge between thematic science clusters - such as marine, climate, food and agriculture sciences - and EOSC, creating a data federation and providing a common access to a so-called thematic EOSC for marine data. By connecting leading marine data management infrastructures with horizontal e-infrastructures, the project aims to maximise the exploitation of data resources available from different sources. The Blue-Cloud framework consists of two major technical components: (1) a Blue-Cloud Data Discovery and Access service, already presented in a previous EOSC in practice story, to serve federated discovery and access to blue data infrastructures, and (2) a Blue-Cloud Virtual Research Environment (VRE) to provide computing platforms and analytical services facilitating the collaboration between researchers, which is detailed hereafter. The Blue-Cloud VRE is powered by the D4Science Infrastructure. [M. Assante et al. (2019) Enacting open science by D4Science. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 101: 555-563 10.1016/j.future.2019.05.063 ] The full list of EOSC in practice stories is available here

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  • Authors: Roberty, Stéphane; Vega de Luna, Felix; Pierangelini, Mattia; Bomhals, Julie; +3 Authors

    Acclimation of corals to light is known to rely on multiple strategies working at different timescales. Among them, photosynthetic alternative electron flows (AEFs) could act as photoprotective mechanisms under fluctuating light intensities. In this work, we first compared the use of AEFs in shallow and mesophotic colonies of the coral Stylophora pistillata by carrying out joint measurements of oxygen exchange and photosystems quantum yields. We observed similar capacities to re-route photosynthetically derived electrons toward oxygen (Mehler reaction) and to perform cyclic electron flow around photosystem I under high light intensity in both colony types. But in contrast to mesophotic colonies that hosted Cladocopium, the photosynthetic apparatus of Symbiodinium microadriaticum hosted by their shallow counterparts was notably able to drive a higher number of electrons, displayed a higher thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy. Then, a short-term light stress was applied to evaluate the plasticity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Both shallow and mesophotic colonies showed fast acclimation to the low light regime. In contrast, under the high light regime, mesophotic colonies showed a limited capacity to dissipate light energy and were strongly photoinhibited, though their PSI activity was partly preserved and likely involved cyclic electron flow. This study shows how important the photosynthetic alternative electron flows are in acclimation processes to light and how the plasticity of the photosynthetic processes in Symbiodiniaceae may shape the vertical distribution of the coral holobionts.

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    Authors: Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Matabos, Marjolaine; Gautier, Laurent;

    Momarsat 2022 cruise report: summary of dives and operations, and position of moorings and observation infrastructures and sampling locations

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  • Authors: Das, Krishna; Sköld, Hélène; Lorenz, Anna; Parmentier, Eric;

    Marine mammals include toothed and baleen whales, as well as seals, sea lions, sea cows, sea otters and polar bears. They are adapted to an aquatic life in oceanic, coastal and riverine habitats. They range in size from sea otters to blue whales. The extreme diversity of marine mammals is related to their adaptations to different habitats and their use of different feeding strategies. The different kinds of marine mammals are not closely related but evolved from different terrestrial ancestors. Because they have been exposed to similar environmental constraints in their aquatic way of life, many evolutionary convergences can be found in different lineages. They have torpedo-shaped bodies, thick fur or fat layers to preserve heat, as well as impressive diving abilities. Here, we discuss these adaptations in their physiology and anatomy. Through hands-on exercises, students can test how their own muscle strength and heartbeat are affected by cold water.

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  • Authors: Reckendorf, Anja; Siebert, Ursula; Parmentier, Eric; Das, Krishna;

    Man-made persistent pollutants (such as PCBs, pesticides and trace metals) reach aquatic organisms through the food chains. Pollutants are ingested and assimilated by smaller organisms, and their concentration in tissues increases from prey to predators. Being at the top of the food chains, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest environmental contaminant levels of all wildlife. They are good sentinel species for monitoring long-term environmental pollution. Exposure to contaminants may have large consequences, both on an individual and a population level. The prevalence and severity of diseases of aquatic wildlife has recently increased in many species. Scientists use new methods to understand how pollutants affect the immune system of marine mammals. Learning about contaminants may also contribute to our understanding of outbreaks of infectious diseases in marine mammals.

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    Authors: Stefanidis Fotios; Stefanou Evangelos; Boulougouris Evangelos; Karagiannidis Lazaros; +4 Authors

    Despite the current high level of safety and the efforts to make passenger ships resilient to most fire and flooding scenarios, there are still gaps and challenges in the marine emergency response and ship evacuation processes. Those challenges arise from the fact that both processes are complex, multi-variable problems that rely on parameters involving not only people and technology but also procedural and managerial issues. SafePASS Project, funded under EU’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, is set to radically redefine the evacuation processes by introducing new equipment, expanding the capabilities of legacy systems on-board, proposing new Life-Saving Appliances and ship layouts, and challenging the current international regulations, hence reducing the uncertainty, and increasing the efficiency in all the stages of ship evacuation and abandonment process.

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    Authors: Waelbroeck, Claire; Tjiputra, Jerry; Guo, Chuncheng; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; +9 Authors

    We combine consistently dated benthic carbon isotopic records distributed over the entire Atlantic Ocean with numerical simulations performed by a glacial configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model with active ocean biogeochemistry, in order to interpret the observed Cibicides δ13C changes at the stadial-interstadial transition corresponding to the end of Heinrich Stadial 4 (HS4) in terms of ocean circulation and remineralization changes. We show that the marked increase in Cibicides δ13C observed at the end of HS4 between ~2000 and 4200 m in the Atlantic can be explained by changes in nutrient concentrations as simulated by the model in response to the halting of freshwater input in the high latitude glacial North Atlantic. Our model results show that this Cibicides δ13C signal is associated with changes in the ratio of southern-sourced (SSW) versus northern-sourced (NSW) water masses at the core sites, whereby SSW is replaced by NSW as a consequence of the resumption of deep water formation in the northern North Atlantic and Nordic Seas after the freshwater input is halted. Our results further suggest that the contribution of ocean circulation changes to this signal increases from ~40 % at 2000 m to ~80 % at 4000 m. Below ~4200 m, the model shows little ocean circulation change but an increase in remineralization across the transition marking the end of HS4. The simulated lower remineralization during stadials than interstadials is particularly pronounced in deep subantarctic sites, in agreement with the decrease in the export production of carbon to the deep Southern Ocean during stadials found in previous studies.

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    Authors: Galgani, Luisa; Tzempelikou, Eleni; Kalantzi, Ioanna; Tsiola, Anastasia; +8 Authors

    Microplastics are substrates for microbial activity and can influence biomass production. This has potentially important implications at the sea-surface microlayer, the marine boundary layer that controls gas exchange with the atmosphere and where biologically produced organic compounds can accumulate. In the present study, we used large scale mesocosms (filled with 3 m3 of seawater) to simulate future ocean scenarios. We explored microbial organic matter dynamics in the sea-surface microlayer in the presence and absence of microplastic contamination of the underlying water. Our study shows that microplastics increased both biomass production and enrichment of particulate carbohydrates and proteins in the sea-surface microlayer. Importantly, this resulted in a 3% reduction in the concentration of dissolved CO2 in the underlying water. This reduction suggests direct and indirect impacts of microplastic pollution on the marine uptake of CO2, by modifying the biogenic composition of the sea’s boundary layer with the atmosphere.

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  • Authors: Ricour, Florian; Guidi, Lionel; Gehlen, Marion; DeVries, Timothy; +1 Authors
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  • Authors: Vogt, Meike; Benedetti, Fabio; Sarmento, Hugo; Huber, Paula; +23 Authors
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    Authors: Pagano, Pasquale; Pittonet, Sara; Drago, Federico; Giuffrida, Maria;

    There are several research infrastructures or other data services running in Europe that cover a multitude of marine-related sciences, providing specific datasets coming from observations collected with different methods. These infrastructures constitute a diverse world, each looking at a piece of the big picture, sometimes hindering collaboration and data sharing. Blue-Cloud aims to overcome fragmentation and build a bridge between thematic science clusters - such as marine, climate, food and agriculture sciences - and EOSC, creating a data federation and providing a common access to a so-called thematic EOSC for marine data. By connecting leading marine data management infrastructures with horizontal e-infrastructures, the project aims to maximise the exploitation of data resources available from different sources. The Blue-Cloud framework consists of two major technical components: (1) a Blue-Cloud Data Discovery and Access service, already presented in a previous EOSC in practice story, to serve federated discovery and access to blue data infrastructures, and (2) a Blue-Cloud Virtual Research Environment (VRE) to provide computing platforms and analytical services facilitating the collaboration between researchers, which is detailed hereafter. The Blue-Cloud VRE is powered by the D4Science Infrastructure. [M. Assante et al. (2019) Enacting open science by D4Science. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 101: 555-563 10.1016/j.future.2019.05.063 ] The full list of EOSC in practice stories is available here

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  • Authors: Roberty, Stéphane; Vega de Luna, Felix; Pierangelini, Mattia; Bomhals, Julie; +3 Authors

    Acclimation of corals to light is known to rely on multiple strategies working at different timescales. Among them, photosynthetic alternative electron flows (AEFs) could act as photoprotective mechanisms under fluctuating light intensities. In this work, we first compared the use of AEFs in shallow and mesophotic colonies of the coral Stylophora pistillata by carrying out joint measurements of oxygen exchange and photosystems quantum yields. We observed similar capacities to re-route photosynthetically derived electrons toward oxygen (Mehler reaction) and to perform cyclic electron flow around photosystem I under high light intensity in both colony types. But in contrast to mesophotic colonies that hosted Cladocopium, the photosynthetic apparatus of Symbiodinium microadriaticum hosted by their shallow counterparts was notably able to drive a higher number of electrons, displayed a higher thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy. Then, a short-term light stress was applied to evaluate the plasticity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Both shallow and mesophotic colonies showed fast acclimation to the low light regime. In contrast, under the high light regime, mesophotic colonies showed a limited capacity to dissipate light energy and were strongly photoinhibited, though their PSI activity was partly preserved and likely involved cyclic electron flow. This study shows how important the photosynthetic alternative electron flows are in acclimation processes to light and how the plasticity of the photosynthetic processes in Symbiodiniaceae may shape the vertical distribution of the coral holobionts.

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    Authors: Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Matabos, Marjolaine; Gautier, Laurent;

    Momarsat 2022 cruise report: summary of dives and operations, and position of moorings and observation infrastructures and sampling locations

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  • Authors: Das, Krishna; Sköld, Hélène; Lorenz, Anna; Parmentier, Eric;

    Marine mammals include toothed and baleen whales, as well as seals, sea lions, sea cows, sea otters and polar bears. They are adapted to an aquatic life in oceanic, coastal and riverine habitats. They range in size from sea otters to blue whales. The extreme diversity of marine mammals is related to their adaptations to different habitats and their use of different feeding strategies. The different kinds of marine mammals are not closely related but evolved from different terrestrial ancestors. Because they have been exposed to similar environmental constraints in their aquatic way of life, many evolutionary convergences can be found in different lineages. They have torpedo-shaped bodies, thick fur or fat layers to preserve heat, as well as impressive diving abilities. Here, we discuss these adaptations in their physiology and anatomy. Through hands-on exercises, students can test how their own muscle strength and heartbeat are affected by cold water.

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  • Authors: Reckendorf, Anja; Siebert, Ursula; Parmentier, Eric; Das, Krishna;

    Man-made persistent pollutants (such as PCBs, pesticides and trace metals) reach aquatic organisms through the food chains. Pollutants are ingested and assimilated by smaller organisms, and their concentration in tissues increases from prey to predators. Being at the top of the food chains, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest environmental contaminant levels of all wildlife. They are good sentinel species for monitoring long-term environmental pollution. Exposure to contaminants may have large consequences, both on an individual and a population level. The prevalence and severity of diseases of aquatic wildlife has recently increased in many species. Scientists use new methods to understand how pollutants affect the immune system of marine mammals. Learning about contaminants may also contribute to our understanding of outbreaks of infectious diseases in marine mammals.

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