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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Galgani, Luisa; Tzempelikou, Eleni; Kalantzi, Ioanna; Tsiola, Anastasia; +8 Authors

    Microplastics are substrates for microbial activity and can influence biomass production. This has potentially important implications at the sea-surface microlayer, the marine boundary layer that controls gas exchange with the atmosphere and where biologically produced organic compounds can accumulate. In the present study, we used large scale mesocosms (filled with 3 m3 of seawater) to simulate future ocean scenarios. We explored microbial organic matter dynamics in the sea-surface microlayer in the presence and absence of microplastic contamination of the underlying water. Our study shows that microplastics increased both biomass production and enrichment of particulate carbohydrates and proteins in the sea-surface microlayer. Importantly, this resulted in a 3% reduction in the concentration of dissolved CO2 in the underlying water. This reduction suggests direct and indirect impacts of microplastic pollution on the marine uptake of CO2, by modifying the biogenic composition of the sea’s boundary layer with the atmosphere.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.5...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
    Other ORP type . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
      Other ORP type . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; +5 Authors

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.

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  • Authors: Corgnati; L.;

    The applications are designed for High Frequency Radar (HFR) data management according to the European HFR node processing workflow, thus generating aggregated radial and total velocity files in netCDF format according to the European standard data and metadata model for near real time HFR current data. These applications implement the periodic temporal aggregation of the datasets and the related CDI metadata to be distributed via SeaDataCloud. These applications are designed for the centralized run at the EU HFR Node.

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    CNR ExploRA
    Other ORP type . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Clyne, Margot; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Mills, Michael J.; Khodri, Myriam; +19 Authors

    As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP), several climate modeling centers performed a coordinated pre-study experiment with interactive stratospheric aerosol models simulating the volcanic aerosol cloud from an eruption resembling the 1815 Mt. Tambora eruption (VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble). The pre-study provided the ancillary ability to assess intermodel diversity in the radiative forcing for a large stratospheric-injecting equatorial eruption when the volcanic aerosol cloud is simulated interactively. An initial analysis of the VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble showed large disparities between models in the stratospheric global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study, we now show that stratospheric global mean AOD differences among the participating models are primarily due to differences in aerosol size, which we track here by effective radius. We identify specific physical and chemical processes that are missing in some models and/or parameterized differently between models, which are together causing the differences in effective radius. In particular, our analysis indicates that interactively tracking hydroxyl radical (OH) chemistry following a large volcanic injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important factor in allowing for the timescale for sulfate formation to be properly simulated. In addition, depending on the timescale of sulfate formation, there can be a large difference in effective radius and subsequently AOD that results from whether the SO2 is injected in a single model grid cell near the location of the volcanic eruption, or whether it is injected as a longitudinally averaged band around the Earth.

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    Authors: giovanni ardito;
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  • Authors: Verbrugge Nathalie; Etienne Hélène; Boone Christine; Mader Julien; +7 Authors

    This Product User Manual describes the INSITU_GLO_UV_NRT_OBSERVATIONS_013_048 product distributed by the Copernicus Marine Service In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (CMEMS INS-TAC): how it is built, what is the content, what data services are available to access them, and how to use the files. This product concerns four real-time datasets dedicated to near-surface currents measurements coming from two platform categories (Lagrangian surface drifters and High Frequency radars): drifter: near-surface zonal and meridional raw velocities measured by drifting buoys, wind & wind stress components, quality flags and metadada. These surface observations are part of the DBCP's Global Drifter Program (see Table 1) drifter_filt: near-surface zonal and meridional velocities and 3-day filtered (with a Lanczos filter) velocities measured by drifting buoys. All the platforms are gathered together and concatenated in concatenated daily files. radar_total: near-surface zonal and meridional raw velocities measured by High Frequency radars (HFR), standard deviation of near-surface zonal and meridional raw velocities, Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP), quality flags and metadata. These surface observations are part of the European HF radar Network (see Mader et al, 2017 and Corgnati et al., 2018) radar_radial: near-surface zonal and meridional components of raw radial velocities measured by HFRs, magnitude and direction of near-surface zonal and meridional components of raw radial velocities (measured in the radial directions covered by each of the HFR stations), standard deviation of near-surface zonal and meridional components of raw radial velocities, quality flags and metadata. These surface observations are part of the European HF radar Network (see Mader et al, 2017 and Corgnati et al., 2018) Argo: ocean currents derived from the original trajectory data from Argo GDAC (Global Data Assembly Center). Deep current is calculated from floats drift at parking depth, surface current is calculated from float surface drift. The INS-TAC aims at providing a research and operational framework to develop and deliver in situ observations and derived products based on such observations, to address progressively global (GLO) but also regional needs either for monitoring, modelling or downstream service development.

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  • Authors: Penna, Pierluigi; Belardinelli, Andrea; Croci, Camilla Sofia; Domenichetti, Filippo; +1 Authors

    From 2003 to 2013, the Ancona section of CNR-IRBIM (formerly part of CNR-Institute of Marine Science) runned the "Fishery Observing System" (FOS) program aimed at using Italian fishing vessels as Vessels Of Opportunity (VOOs) for the collection of scientifically useful datasets (Falco et al. 2007). Some commercial fishing vessels, targetting small pelagic species in the northern and central Adriatic Sea, were equipped with an integrated system for the collection of information on catches, position of the fishing operation, depth and water temperature during the haul, producing a great amount of data that demonstrated to be helpful both for oceanographic and fishery biology purposes (Carpi et al. 2015; Aydo?du et a. 2016; Sparnocchia et al. 2016; Lucchetti et al. 2018). In 2012, thanks to the participation to some national and international projects (e.g. SSD-Pesca, EU-FP7 JERICO etc.), CNR started the development of a new modular "Fishery & Oceanography Observing System" (FOOS; Patti et al. 2013). New sensors for oceanographic and meteorological data allow nowadays the FOOS to collect more parameters, with higher accuracy and to send them directly to a data center in near real time (Martinelli et al. 2016; Sparnocchia et al. 2017). Furthermore, the FOOS is a multifunction system able to collect various kind of data from the fishing operations and also to send back to the fishermen useful information (e.g. weather and sea forecasts, etc.) through an electronic logbook with an ad hoc software embedded. The new FOOS installed on various kind of fishing vessels targetting different resources, allowed a spatial extension of the monitored areas in the Mediterranean Sea (Patti et al. 2013). CNR-IRBIM implemented the "AdriFOOS" observational system, by installing the FOOS on some commercial fishing boats operating in the Adriatic Sea. Since then the datacenter based in Ancona receives daily data sets of environmental parameters collected along the water column and close to the sea bottom (eg. temperature, salinity, etc.), together with GPS haul tracks, catch amounts per haul, target species sizes and weather information. Some temperature and salinity measurements acquired by the FOOS in the Adriatic Sea from January 2014 to March 2015 were published within the JERICO project and some oxygen and fluorescence profiles obtained in 2017 within the NEXOS project. The dataset here presented contains 14803 depth/temperature profiles collected by 10 vessels of the AdriFOOS fleet in the period 2012-2020. All the profiles were subjected to quality control.Data are flagged according the L20 (SEADATANET MEASURAND QUALIFIER FLAGS).

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  • Authors: Carval Thierry; Chalkiopoulos Antonis; Perivoliotis Leonidas; De Alfonso Alonso-Muñoyerro Marta; +9 Authors

    This document specifies the NetCDF file format of Copernicus Marine in situ used to distribute ocean in situ data and metadata. It documents the standards used herein; this includes naming conventions as well as metadata content. It was initiated in March 2019, based on OceanSITES and Argo user's manuals.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Vallelonga, Paul; Edwards, Ross; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; +5 Authors

    Although it has been demonstrated that the speed and magnitude of the recent Arctic sea ice decline is unprecedented for the past 1450 years, few records are available to provide a paleoclimate context for Arctic sea ice extent. Bromine enrichment in ice cores has been suggested to indicate the extent of newly formed sea ice areas. Despite the similarities among sea ice indicators and ice core bromine enrichment records, uncertainties still exist regarding the quantitative linkages between bromine reactive chemistry and the first-year sea ice surfaces. Here we present a 120 000-year record of bromine enrichment from the RECAP (REnland ice CAP) ice core, coastal east Greenland, and interpret it as a record of first-year sea ice. We compare it to existing sea ice records from marine cores and tentatively reconstruct past sea ice conditions in the North Atlantic as far north as the Fram Strait (50–85∘ N). Our interpretation implies that during the last deglaciation, the transition from multi-year to first-year sea ice started at ∼17.5 ka, synchronously with sea ice reductions observed in the eastern Nordic Seas and with the increase in North Atlantic ocean temperature. First-year sea ice reached its maximum at 12.4–11.8 ka during the Younger Dryas, after which open-water conditions started to dominate, consistent with sea ice records from the eastern Nordic Seas and the North Icelandic shelf. Our results show that over the last 120 000 years, multi-year sea ice extent was greatest during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and possibly during MIS 4, with more extended first-year sea ice during MIS 3 and MIS 5. Sea ice extent during the Holocene (MIS 1) has been less than at any time in the last 120 000 years.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Calmer, Radiance; Roberts, Gregory C.; Sanchez, Kevin J.; Sciare, Jean; +4 Authors

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 BACCHUS (impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) project, an intensive field campaign was performed in Cyprus (March 2015). Remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS), ground-based instruments, and remote-sensing observations were operating in parallel to provide an integrated characterization of aerosol–cloud interactions. Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) were equipped with a five-hole probe, pyranometers, pressure, temperature and humidity sensors, and measured vertical wind at cloud base and cloud optical properties of a stratocumulus layer. Ground-based measurements of dry aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei spectra, and RPA observations of updraft and meteorological state parameters are used here to initialize an aerosol–cloud parcel model (ACPM) and compare the in situ observations of cloud optical properties measured by the RPA to those simulated in the ACPM. Two different cases are studied with the ACPM, including an adiabatic case and an entrainment case, in which the in-cloud temperature profile from RPA is taken into account. Adiabatic ACPM simulation yields cloud droplet number concentrations at cloud base (approximately 400 cm−3) that are similar to those derived from a Hoppel minimum analysis. Cloud optical properties have been inferred using the transmitted fraction of shortwave radiation profile measured by downwelling and upwelling pyranometers mounted on a RPA, and the observed transmitted fraction of solar radiation is then compared to simulations from the ACPM. ACPM simulations and RPA observations shows better agreement when associated with entrainment compared to that of an adiabatic case. The mean difference between observed and adiabatic profiles of transmitted fraction of solar radiation is 0.12, while this difference is only 0.03 between observed and entrainment profiles. A sensitivity calculation is then conducted to quantify the relative impacts of 2-fold changes in aerosol concentration, and updraft to highlight the importance of accounting for the impact of entrainment in deriving cloud optical properties, as well as the ability of RPAs to leverage ground-based observations for studying aerosol–cloud interactions.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Other ORP type . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Galgani, Luisa; Tzempelikou, Eleni; Kalantzi, Ioanna; Tsiola, Anastasia; +8 Authors

    Microplastics are substrates for microbial activity and can influence biomass production. This has potentially important implications at the sea-surface microlayer, the marine boundary layer that controls gas exchange with the atmosphere and where biologically produced organic compounds can accumulate. In the present study, we used large scale mesocosms (filled with 3 m3 of seawater) to simulate future ocean scenarios. We explored microbial organic matter dynamics in the sea-surface microlayer in the presence and absence of microplastic contamination of the underlying water. Our study shows that microplastics increased both biomass production and enrichment of particulate carbohydrates and proteins in the sea-surface microlayer. Importantly, this resulted in a 3% reduction in the concentration of dissolved CO2 in the underlying water. This reduction suggests direct and indirect impacts of microplastic pollution on the marine uptake of CO2, by modifying the biogenic composition of the sea’s boundary layer with the atmosphere.

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    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
    Other ORP type . 2022
    License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
      Other ORP type . 2022
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; +5 Authors

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.

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  • Authors: Corgnati; L.;

    The applications are designed for High Frequency Radar (HFR) data management according to the European HFR node processing workflow, thus generating aggregated radial and total velocity files in netCDF format according to the European standard data and metadata model for near real time HFR current data. These applications implement the periodic temporal aggregation of the datasets and the related CDI metadata to be distributed via SeaDataCloud. These applications are designed for the centralized run at the EU HFR Node.

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    Other ORP type . 2021
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    Authors: Clyne, Margot; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Mills, Michael J.; Khodri, Myriam; +19 Authors

    As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP), several climate modeling centers performed a coordinated pre-study experiment with interactive stratospheric aerosol models simulating the volcanic aerosol cloud from an eruption resembling the 1815 Mt. Tambora eruption (VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble). The pre-study provided the ancillary ability to assess intermodel diversity in the radiative forcing for a large stratospheric-injecting equatorial eruption when the volcanic aerosol cloud is simulated interactively. An initial analysis of the VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble showed large disparities between models in the stratospheric global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study, we now show that stratospheric global mean AOD differences among the participating models are primarily due to differences in aerosol size, which we track here by effective radius. We identify specific physical and chemical processes that are missing in some models and/or parameterized differently between models, which are together causing the differences in effective radius. In particular, our analysis indicates that interactively tracking hydroxyl radical (OH) chemistry following a large volcanic injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important factor in allowing for the timescale for sulfate formation to be properly simulated. In addition, depending on the timescale of sulfate formation, there can be a large difference in effective radius and subsequently AOD that results from whether the SO2 is injected in a single model grid cell near the location of the volcanic eruption, or whether it is injected as a longitudinally averaged band around the Earth.

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    Authors: giovanni ardito;
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  • Authors: Verbrugge Nathalie; Etienne Hélène; Boone Christine; Mader Julien; +7 Authors

    This Product User Manual describes the INSITU_GLO_UV_NRT_OBSERVATIONS_013_048 product distributed by the Copernicus Marine Service In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (CMEMS INS-TAC): how it is built, what is the content, what data services are available to access them, and how to use the files. This product concerns four real-time datasets dedicated to near-surface currents measurements coming from two platform categories (Lagrangian surface drifters and High Frequency radars): drifter: near-surface zonal and meridional raw velocities measured by drifting buoys, wind & wind stress components, quality flags and metadada. These surface observations are part of the DBCP's Global Drifter Program (see Table 1) drifter_filt: near-surface zonal and meridional velocities and 3-day filtered (with a Lanczos filter) velocities measured by drifting buoys. All the platforms are gathered together and concatenated in concatenated daily files. radar_total: near-surface zonal and meridional raw velocities measured by High Frequency radars (HFR), standard deviation of near-surface zonal and meridional raw velocities, Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP), quality flags and metadata. These surface observations are part of the European HF radar Network (see Mader et al, 2017 and Corgnati et al., 2018) radar_radial: near-surface zonal and meridional components of raw radial velocities measured by HFRs, magnitude and direction of near-surface zonal and meridional components of raw radial velocities (measured in the radial directions covered by each of the HFR stations), standard deviation of near-surface zonal and meridional components of raw radial velocities, quality flags and metadata. These surface observations are part of the European HF radar Network (see Mader et al, 2017 and Corgnati et al., 2018) Argo: ocean currents derived from the original trajectory data from Argo GDAC (Global Data Assembly Center). Deep current is calculated from floats drift at parking depth, surface current is calculated from float surface drift. The INS-TAC aims at providing a research and operational framework to develop and deliver in situ observations and derived products based on such observations, to address progressively global (GLO) but also regional needs either for monitoring, modelling or downstream service development.

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  • Authors: Penna, Pierluigi; Belardinelli, Andrea; Croci, Camilla Sofia; Domenichetti, Filippo; +1 Authors

    From 2003 to 2013, the Ancona section of CNR-IRBIM (formerly part of CNR-Institute of Marine Science) runned the "Fishery Observing System" (FOS) program aimed at using Italian fishing vessels as Vessels Of Opportunity (VOOs) for the collection of scientifically useful datasets (Falco et al. 2007). Some commercial fishing vessels, targetting small pelagic species in the northern and central Adriatic Sea, were equipped with an integrated system for the collection of information on catches, position of the fishing operation, depth and water temperature during the haul, producing a great amount of data that demonstrated to be helpful both for oceanographic and fishery biology purposes (Carpi et al. 2015; Aydo?du et a. 2016; Sparnocchia et al. 2016; Lucchetti et al. 2018). In 2012, thanks to the participation to some national and international projects (e.g. SSD-Pesca, EU-FP7 JERICO etc.), CNR started the development of a new modular "Fishery & Oceanography Observing System" (FOOS; Patti et al. 2013). New sensors for oceanographic and meteorological data allow nowadays the FOOS to collect more parameters, with higher accuracy and to send them directly to a data center in near real time (Martinelli et al. 2016; Sparnocchia et al. 2017). Furthermore, the FOOS is a multifunction system able to collect various kind of data from the fishing operations and also to send back to the fishermen useful information (e.g. weather and sea forecasts, etc.) through an electronic logbook with an ad hoc software embedded. The new FOOS installed on various kind of fishing vessels targetting different resources, allowed a spatial extension of the monitored areas in the Mediterranean Sea (Patti et al. 2013). CNR-IRBIM implemented the "AdriFOOS" observational system, by installing the FOOS on some commercial fishing boats operating in the Adriatic Sea. Since then the datacenter based in Ancona receives daily data sets of environmental parameters collected along the water column and close to the sea bottom (eg. temperature, salinity, etc.), together with GPS haul tracks, catch amounts per haul, target species sizes and weather information. Some temperature and salinity measurements acquired by the FOOS in the Adriatic Sea from January 2014 to March 2015 were published within the JERICO project and some oxygen and fluorescence profiles obtained in 2017 within the NEXOS project. The dataset here presented contains 14803 depth/temperature profiles collected by 10 vessels of the AdriFOOS fleet in the period 2012-2020. All the profiles were subjected to quality control.Data are flagged according the L20 (SEADATANET MEASURAND QUALIFIER FLAGS).

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  • Authors: Carval Thierry; Chalkiopoulos Antonis; Perivoliotis Leonidas; De Alfonso Alonso-Muñoyerro Marta; +9 Authors

    This document specifies the NetCDF file format of Copernicus Marine in situ used to distribute ocean in situ data and metadata. It documents the standards used herein; this includes naming conventions as well as metadata content. It was initiated in March 2019, based on OceanSITES and Argo user's manuals.

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    Authors: Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Vallelonga, Paul; Edwards, Ross; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; +5 Authors

    Although it has been demonstrated that the speed and magnitude of the recent Arctic sea ice decline is unprecedented for the past 1450 years, few records are available to provide a paleoclimate context for Arctic sea ice extent. Bromine enrichment in ice cores has been suggested to indicate the extent of newly formed sea ice areas. Despite the similarities among sea ice indicators and ice core bromine enrichment records, uncertainties still exist regarding the quantitative linkages between bromine reactive chemistry and the first-year sea ice surfaces. Here we present a 120 000-year record of bromine enrichment from the RECAP (REnland ice CAP) ice core, coastal east Greenland, and interpret it as a record of first-year sea ice. We compare it to existing sea ice records from marine cores and tentatively reconstruct past sea ice conditions in the North Atlantic as far north as the Fram Strait (50–85∘ N). Our interpretation implies that during the last deglaciation, the transition from multi-year to first-year sea ice started at ∼17.5 ka, synchronously with sea ice reductions observed in the eastern Nordic Seas and with the increase in North Atlantic ocean temperature. First-year sea ice reached its maximum at 12.4–11.8 ka during the Younger Dryas, after which open-water conditions started to dominate, consistent with sea ice records from the eastern Nordic Seas and the North Icelandic shelf. Our results show that over the last 120 000 years, multi-year sea ice extent was greatest during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and possibly during MIS 4, with more extended first-year sea ice during MIS 3 and MIS 5. Sea ice extent during the Holocene (MIS 1) has been less than at any time in the last 120 000 years.

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    Copernicus Publications
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    Authors: Calmer, Radiance; Roberts, Gregory C.; Sanchez, Kevin J.; Sciare, Jean; +4 Authors

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 BACCHUS (impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) project, an intensive field campaign was performed in Cyprus (March 2015). Remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS), ground-based instruments, and remote-sensing observations were operating in parallel to provide an integrated characterization of aerosol–cloud interactions. Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) were equipped with a five-hole probe, pyranometers, pressure, temperature and humidity sensors, and measured vertical wind at cloud base and cloud optical properties of a stratocumulus layer. Ground-based measurements of dry aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei spectra, and RPA observations of updraft and meteorological state parameters are used here to initialize an aerosol–cloud parcel model (ACPM) and compare the in situ observations of cloud optical properties measured by the RPA to those simulated in the ACPM. Two different cases are studied with the ACPM, including an adiabatic case and an entrainment case, in which the in-cloud temperature profile from RPA is taken into account. Adiabatic ACPM simulation yields cloud droplet number concentrations at cloud base (approximately 400 cm−3) that are similar to those derived from a Hoppel minimum analysis. Cloud optical properties have been inferred using the transmitted fraction of shortwave radiation profile measured by downwelling and upwelling pyranometers mounted on a RPA, and the observed transmitted fraction of solar radiation is then compared to simulations from the ACPM. ACPM simulations and RPA observations shows better agreement when associated with entrainment compared to that of an adiabatic case. The mean difference between observed and adiabatic profiles of transmitted fraction of solar radiation is 0.12, while this difference is only 0.03 between observed and entrainment profiles. A sensitivity calculation is then conducted to quantify the relative impacts of 2-fold changes in aerosol concentration, and updraft to highlight the importance of accounting for the impact of entrainment in deriving cloud optical properties, as well as the ability of RPAs to leverage ground-based observations for studying aerosol–cloud interactions.

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