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371 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2014-2023
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  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martínez Moreno, Josué;

    This dataset includes the NEMO 4.0.2 configuration used and analysed in the paper titled "Eddy-driven heterogeneity in sea ice during the ice-growth season". The output data is approximately 4TB for the 3 idealised configuration used in the manuscript, thus we opted to distribute the configuration. Note: The initial conditions for each simulation are compressed into the file `init_cond.zip` The configuration for one of the simulations is compressed in the file `config.zip` In order to reproduce all the runs, it's only required to change the initial conditions in the file namelist_cfg and namelist_ice_cfg. Further information and scripts to reproduce the result of the manuscript can be found at: https://github.com/josuemtzmo/Ice_formation

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ZENODO
    Model . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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    Authors: Paul Myers;

    Animation of the thickness of Pacific Water throughout the upper 150 m of Baffin Bay, in metres, based upon a passive tracer included with a 1/12 degree NEMO model simulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic (ANHA12-EXH006).

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    Authors: Love, Connor;

    The creation, movement, and consumption of distinct biomolecules by marine organisms has far reaching implications regarding ecosystem material and energy flow and how we manage the marine environment. Lipids are ubiquitous, energy rich biomolecules that are essential for all life and are used for cell membrane structure, energy storage and serve as useful indicators for ecosystem and food web dynamics. In this dissertation, the flow of specific lipid biomolecules through multiple marine environments is measured, explored, and clarified to better understand biogeochemical cycles, marine food webs and ecosystem connectivity. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I measure, quantify, and close the loop of the open ocean microbial hydrocarbon cycle, with implications for priming effects of the ocean microbiome to oil spills. It is estimated that seeps, spills, and other oil pollution introduce ~ 1.3 million tons (1.3 Tg) of hydrocarbons into the ocean each year. Additionally, it is known that globally abundant marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus which account for ~25% of ocean net primary production also produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids. But little is known about the size, turnover and fate of these cyanobacterial hydrocarbons and the implications for the ocean’s microbiome response to future oil spills. From a research expedition in the North Atlantic, I report that cyanobacteria in an oligotrophic gyre mainly produce n-pentadecane which correlates tightly with fluorescence and Prochlorococcus abundance in oligotrophic waters. Using chemical and isotopic tracing I find that pentadecane production and diel dynamics mainly occurs in the lower euphotic zone at the deep chlorophyll maximum. I estimate the global flux of cyanobacteria-produced pentadecane exceeds total oil input in the ocean by 100 to 500-fold, with cyanobacteria producing ~ 130-650 million tons of pentadecane per year. Analysis of sinking particles at the base of the euphotic zone show that nearly all pentadecane (< 0.001 % remaining) is consumed within the euphotic zone, suggesting near complete consumption of these hydrocarbons by hydrocarbon degrading microbes. These findings characterize a wide-spread microbial hydrocarbon cycle that selectively primes the ocean’s microbiome with long-chain alkanes. In the second chapter of my dissertation, I conduct a large-scale feeding experiment on a symbiotic reef-building coral (Stylophora pistillata) in the Red Sea to clarify fatty acid and isotopic biomarker patterns of coral heterotrophy for use in the field. Coral heterotrophy is an often-overlooked facet of coral nutrition that provides essential nutrients that help corals resist and recover from thermally induced bleaching that is degrading reef ecosystems around the world due to rising global ocean temperatures. Yet, methods for measuring coral mixotrophy, the balance between organic matter contributions to the coral host from autotrophic photo endosymbionts and heterotrophy on particles and plankton have typically been too coarse to elucidate source contributions. Through my experiment I show that fatty acids and isotopic biomarkers reliably separate experimental and reef nutritional source groups (heterotrophic or autotrophic). I show that heterotrophic fatty acid biomarkers are reliably recorded into coral host and symbiont tissues, with a divergent metabolic pattern of autotrophic biomarkers as feeding increases due to positive feedback of heterotrophy on the in hospite photo symbiont population. Additionally, I show that nitrogen and essential fatty acids are preferentially recorded into coral tissue while most heterotrophic carbon is respired or exuded as mucous; this shows that the use of bulk carbon isotopes as a feeding proxy for the last ~ 40 years is largely underestimating the contribution of heterotrophy to the trophic ecology of reef building corals. Overall, this finding underscores a connectivity between oceanic phyto- and zooplankton and reef-building coral. In the third chapter of my dissertation, I explore the mixotrophic differences of divergent bleaching responses of Acropora hyacinthus colonies on the forereef of Mo’orea during the 2019 mass bleaching event. During this bleaching event, all colonies of A. hyacinthus on the deep forereef (14 m) bleached and recovered, while colonies on the shallow forereef (5 m) near the reef crest resisted bleaching entirely, despite the same temperature stress. Using fatty acid and isotopic biomarkers I show through several lines of evidence that bleaching resistant colonies near the reef crest were likely consuming more particulate organic matter than deep forereef colonies. This conclusion is supported by isotopic feeding proxies, less isotopic niche overlap of the host and symbiont of resistant colonies, and larger proportions of putative POM fatty acid biomarkers in the host of resistant colonies relative to recovered colonies. This interpretation is in line with observations that benthic communities on the reef crest are a net sink of oceanic POM and that increased reliance on heterotrophy is associated with bleaching resistance. These data show the vital importance of reef environment, coral heterotrophy, and planktonic subsidies in structuring bleaching response of corals in a warming ocean and ultimately show that the reef crest may serve as a potent zone for reseeding coral populations after marine heat waves.

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  • Authors: Anhaus, Philipp; Schiller, Martin; Planat, Noémie; Katlein, Christian; +1 Authors

    The distance between a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and the sea-ice underside was measured by a single-beam upward-looking acoustic sonar altimeter (Tritech PA500) attached to the ROV during the ARTofMELT2023 expedition in May and June 2023. Sea-ice draft was derived by subtracting the distance to the sea-ice underside from the ROV depth, uncorrected for ROV attitude (pitch, roll). An offset between the depth reference (ROV bumper bars) and the altimeter of 0.105 m is accounted for in the presented data.

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    Authors: Luostarinen, Tiia; Weckström, Kaarina; Ehn, Jens K; Kamula, Michelle; +6 Authors

    Datasets collected during a field campaign in the Belcher Islands Archipelago, Hudson Bay, Canada, during spring and summer 2019 including sea ice, water column, sediment trap and surface sediment samples that were analysed for diatoms, dinoflagellate cysts, highly branched isoprenoid lipids, pigments and geochemistry. The sea ice samples were collected using a Kovacs Mark II core barrel with an internal diameter of 9 cm, and the bottom 5 cm of the sea-ice cores were used for analysis on each sampling day. The water sampling was conducted using a plankton net (Ø 18 cm, 10 µm, 30-m net haul; diatoms) and a 2,5 L Kemmerer water sampler (pooled sample from 2.5-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25- and 30-metre depths; highly branched isoprenoid lipids). For sediment trap samples, an automated Gurney Instruments Baker-style, cylindrical sediment trap (aperture 0.032 m2) was deployed at 40-m depth, 30-m above the seafloor and the rotation for the trap was set to 8-day intervals. The surface sediment sample was collected using a Kajak-Brinkhurst gravity corer. The under-ice salinities and temperatures were measured by using with RBR Concerto® and CastAway-CTD® sensors.

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  • Authors: Anhaus, Philipp; Schiller, Martin; Planat, Noémie; Katlein, Christian; +1 Authors

    Attention points as logged by the operators in the recording software Spot.On for remotely operated vehicle (ROV) surveys during the ARTofMELT2023 expedition in May and June 2023.

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    Authors: Tsai, Brandon Te-hao;

    Understanding what factors shape the magnitude of divergence under rapid evolution is critical. Phenotypic divergence, specifically, can be influenced by selective forces such as the environment (climate, geographic distance) as well as non-selective forces (genetic composition of the founding population). Threespine sticklebacks provide a unique opportunity to study the magnitude of divergence under rapid evolution. Marine sticklebacks independently colonized freshwater habitats at the end of the last ice age (~12,000 years ago) generating multiple replicate pairs that represent a natural experiment. However, studies rely on untested assumptions that marine sticklebacks are not phenotypically varied and are unchanged from their ancestors. Here, we test how differential environmental conditions impact the estimated magnitude of phenotypic divergence and parallelism of independent freshwater stickleback populations. We find that marine variation is comparable to freshwater variation. Importantly, the inferred magnitude of phenotypic divergence of each freshwater population is dependent on marine sampling location. The geographic distance and environmental similarity between the marine and freshwater pairs explain a significant degree of variance. When estimating the degree of parallelism among freshwater pairs, marine reference also affects the inferred magnitude. The observed pattern suggests the choice of reference population and its geographic distance are important aspects to consider when estimating freshwater divergence and parallelism. Results also implicate a signature of local adaptation and/or isolation by distance. We provide recommendations for choosing ecologically relevant marine references in future studies on this important evolutionary model system.

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    Authors: Bouchet, Marie; Landais, Amaëlle; Grisart, Antoine; Parrenin, Frédéric; +15 Authors

    We present the new reference chronology (AICC2023) providing an age vs depth relationship covering the last 800 kyr (thousands of years) for five ice cores (EDC, EDML, NGRIP, TALDICE and Vostok). To construct the new AICC2023 chronology, we used new highly resolved measurements for EDC ice core as well as novel absolute 81Kr ages, stratigraphic links between the five ice cores and accurate firn modeling estimates. The new chronological and glaciological information were combined in the Bayesian dating tool Paleochrono to obtain the AICC2023 timescale.

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    Authors: Eckland, Abigail; Overeem, Irina; Carlson, Brandee;

    The dataset compiles sediment, hydrologic, and temperature data collected from the Rio Grande Delta upstream of Elephant Butte Reservoir in New Mexico, USA. The data was collected during four field campaigns spanning between July 2021 and September 2022: (1) July 4-6, 2021, (2) March 20-22, 2022, (3) May 6-8, 2022, and (4) September 16-18, 2022. The temperature data, however, was measured continuously at 15-minute intervals between March 21 and September 17, 2022. Sediment analyses were conducted on four sample types: (1) suspended sediment collected from water in the Rio Grande channel at two-thirds of the total channel depth below the water surface, (2) bed material in the Rio Grande channel, (3) shallow stratigraphic column samples collected from 0 to 0.5 meters in depth in the Rio Grande Delta, and (4) Elephant Butte Reservoir water samples collected near the mouth of the Rio Grande at the top (0.5 m below the water surface) and bottom (0.5 m above the bed) of the water column. The sediment analyses include measuring Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) for sample types 1 and 4, Organic Matter Content (%) for all sample types (1-4), and Grain Size Distributions (GSD) for all sample types (1-4). SSC was determined by measuring the water volume of the sample, then freeze-drying and weighing the mass of sediment to obtain a concentration (kg/m^3). OM% was determined by performing Loss on Ignition (LOI) on all sample types (1-4), which removes organic material from the sample through exposure to high temperatures in a muffle furnace. GSD was determined for all sample types (1-4) with a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 laser diffraction grain size analysis system with a Hydro LV dispersion unit. Further, GSD for gravel residing at two point bars on the Rio Grande were determined via Wolman pebble counts in September 2022. The hydrologic data includes: (1) Rio Grande and Elephant Butte Reservoir water depth, collected with a Lowrance Hook Reveal X Series single beam sonar, and (2) Elephant Butte Reservoir water column stratification of conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) within and near the mouth of the Rio Grande channel, collected with a SonTek CastAway CTD. The temperature data includes: (1) continuous measurements of air temperature from a control location in the Rio Grande Delta, and (2) a combination of air and water temperature from the Rio Grande Delta, since it became inundated by river flooding and high reservoir levels during a portion of the study. The temperature data was collected with HOBO Tidbit v2 Temp Loggers, installed on wooden stakes two centimeters above the ground. Additional details on how the samples were collected, prepared, and processed are given in Eckland et al. (2023), and are provided within the README files. The purpose of this data collection effort was to evaluate sedimentation patterns and burial rates across the Rio Grande Delta.

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    Authors: Xue, Carolyn;

    Widespread overuse and large-scale production of antibiotics create antibiotic pollution, disrupting environmental microbiota and creating a public health risk. Highly urbanized coastal environments can be under high impact from antibiotic pollution from many trails of polluted effluents and runoff. The city of Long Beach is one such coastal area under high impact, since it is highly urban, industrialized, and experiences frequent sewage spills. We collected water samples from the LA River in a transect running southwest into the San Pedro Channel in order to investigate (1) how does strength of antibiotic resistance change as distance from shore increases, and (2) does antibiotic resistance correlate with composition of the bacterial community. There was no consistent relationship between strength of antibiotic resistance and distance from shore. Instead, we found that bacteria from the Pacific Ocean showed higher antibiotic resistance than bacteria from the LA River in five out of eleven antibiotic treatments. We also found that the alpha diversity of bacterial communities was lower in the LA River samples compared, and alpha diversity positively correlated with strength of antibiotic resistance in four antibiotic treatments. Our findings highlight how prevalence of antibiotic pollution does not always follow a distance dilution, as well as the need for understanding the strength behind antibiotic resistance in marine bacteria.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martínez Moreno, Josué;

    This dataset includes the NEMO 4.0.2 configuration used and analysed in the paper titled "Eddy-driven heterogeneity in sea ice during the ice-growth season". The output data is approximately 4TB for the 3 idealised configuration used in the manuscript, thus we opted to distribute the configuration. Note: The initial conditions for each simulation are compressed into the file `init_cond.zip` The configuration for one of the simulations is compressed in the file `config.zip` In order to reproduce all the runs, it's only required to change the initial conditions in the file namelist_cfg and namelist_ice_cfg. Further information and scripts to reproduce the result of the manuscript can be found at: https://github.com/josuemtzmo/Ice_formation

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    ZENODO
    Model . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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    Authors: Paul Myers;

    Animation of the thickness of Pacific Water throughout the upper 150 m of Baffin Bay, in metres, based upon a passive tracer included with a 1/12 degree NEMO model simulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic (ANHA12-EXH006).

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    Authors: Love, Connor;

    The creation, movement, and consumption of distinct biomolecules by marine organisms has far reaching implications regarding ecosystem material and energy flow and how we manage the marine environment. Lipids are ubiquitous, energy rich biomolecules that are essential for all life and are used for cell membrane structure, energy storage and serve as useful indicators for ecosystem and food web dynamics. In this dissertation, the flow of specific lipid biomolecules through multiple marine environments is measured, explored, and clarified to better understand biogeochemical cycles, marine food webs and ecosystem connectivity. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I measure, quantify, and close the loop of the open ocean microbial hydrocarbon cycle, with implications for priming effects of the ocean microbiome to oil spills. It is estimated that seeps, spills, and other oil pollution introduce ~ 1.3 million tons (1.3 Tg) of hydrocarbons into the ocean each year. Additionally, it is known that globally abundant marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus which account for ~25% of ocean net primary production also produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids. But little is known about the size, turnover and fate of these cyanobacterial hydrocarbons and the implications for the ocean’s microbiome response to future oil spills. From a research expedition in the North Atlantic, I report that cyanobacteria in an oligotrophic gyre mainly produce n-pentadecane which correlates tightly with fluorescence and Prochlorococcus abundance in oligotrophic waters. Using chemical and isotopic tracing I find that pentadecane production and diel dynamics mainly occurs in the lower euphotic zone at the deep chlorophyll maximum. I estimate the global flux of cyanobacteria-produced pentadecane exceeds total oil input in the ocean by 100 to 500-fold, with cyanobacteria producing ~ 130-650 million tons of pentadecane per year. Analysis of sinking particles at the base of the euphotic zone show that nearly all pentadecane (< 0.001 % remaining) is consumed within the euphotic zone, suggesting near complete consumption of these hydrocarbons by hydrocarbon degrading microbes. These findings characterize a wide-spread microbial hydrocarbon cycle that selectively primes the ocean’s microbiome with long-chain alkanes. In the second chapter of my dissertation, I conduct a large-scale feeding experiment on a symbiotic reef-building coral (Stylophora pistillata) in the Red Sea to clarify fatty acid and isotopic biomarker patterns of coral heterotrophy for use in the field. Coral heterotrophy is an often-overlooked facet of coral nutrition that provides essential nutrients that help corals resist and recover from thermally induced bleaching that is degrading reef ecosystems around the world due to rising global ocean temperatures. Yet, methods for measuring coral mixotrophy, the balance between organic matter contributions to the coral host from autotrophic photo endosymbionts and heterotrophy on particles and plankton have typically been too coarse to elucidate source contributions. Through my experiment I show that fatty acids and isotopic biomarkers reliably separate experimental and reef nutritional source groups (heterotrophic or autotrophic). I show that heterotrophic fatty acid biomarkers are reliably recorded into coral host and symbiont tissues, with a divergent metabolic pattern of autotrophic biomarkers as feeding increases due to positive feedback of heterotrophy on the in hospite photo symbiont population. Additionally, I show that nitrogen and essential fatty acids are preferentially recorded into coral tissue while most heterotrophic carbon is respired or exuded as mucous; this shows that the use of bulk carbon isotopes as a feeding proxy for the last ~ 40 years is largely underestimating the contribution of heterotrophy to the trophic ecology of reef building corals. Overall, this finding underscores a connectivity between oceanic phyto- and zooplankton and reef-building coral. In the third chapter of my dissertation, I explore the mixotrophic differences of divergent bleaching responses of Acropora hyacinthus colonies on the forereef of Mo’orea during the 2019 mass bleaching event. During this bleaching event, all colonies of A. hyacinthus on the deep forereef (14 m) bleached and recovered, while colonies on the shallow forereef (5 m) near the reef crest resisted bleaching entirely, despite the same temperature stress. Using fatty acid and isotopic biomarkers I show through several lines of evidence that bleaching resistant colonies near the reef crest were likely consuming more particulate organic matter than deep forereef colonies. This conclusion is supported by isotopic feeding proxies, less isotopic niche overlap of the host and symbiont of resistant colonies, and larger proportions of putative POM fatty acid biomarkers in the host of resistant colonies relative to recovered colonies. This interpretation is in line with observations that benthic communities on the reef crest are a net sink of oceanic POM and that increased reliance on heterotrophy is associated with bleaching resistance. These data show the vital importance of reef environment, coral heterotrophy, and planktonic subsidies in structuring bleaching response of corals in a warming ocean and ultimately show that the reef crest may serve as a potent zone for reseeding coral populations after marine heat waves.

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  • Authors: Anhaus, Philipp; Schiller, Martin; Planat, Noémie; Katlein, Christian; +1 Authors

    The distance between a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and the sea-ice underside was measured by a single-beam upward-looking acoustic sonar altimeter (Tritech PA500) attached to the ROV during the ARTofMELT2023 expedition in May and June 2023. Sea-ice draft was derived by subtracting the distance to the sea-ice underside from the ROV depth, uncorrected for ROV attitude (pitch, roll). An offset between the depth reference (ROV bumper bars) and the altimeter of 0.105 m is accounted for in the presented data.

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    Authors: Luostarinen, Tiia; Weckström, Kaarina; Ehn, Jens K; Kamula, Michelle; +6 Authors

    Datasets collected during a field campaign in the Belcher Islands Archipelago, Hudson Bay, Canada, during spring and summer 2019 including sea ice, water column, sediment trap and surface sediment samples that were analysed for diatoms, dinoflagellate cysts, highly branched isoprenoid lipids, pigments and geochemistry. The sea ice samples were collected using a Kovacs Mark II core barrel with an internal diameter of 9 cm, and the bottom 5 cm of the sea-ice cores were used for analysis on each sampling day. The water sampling was conducted using a plankton net (Ø 18 cm, 10 µm, 30-m net haul; diatoms) and a 2,5 L Kemmerer water sampler (pooled sample from 2.5-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25- and 30-metre depths; highly branched isoprenoid lipids). For sediment trap samples, an automated Gurney Instruments Baker-style, cylindrical sediment trap (aperture 0.032 m2) was deployed at 40-m depth, 30-m above the seafloor and the rotation for the trap was set to 8-day intervals. The surface sediment sample was collected using a Kajak-Brinkhurst gravity corer. The under-ice salinities and temperatures were measured by using with RBR Concerto® and CastAway-CTD® sensors.

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  • Authors: Anhaus, Philipp; Schiller, Martin; Planat, Noémie; Katlein, Christian; +1 Authors

    Attention points as logged by the operators in the recording software Spot.On for remotely operated vehicle (ROV) surveys during the ARTofMELT2023 expedition in May and June 2023.

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    Authors: Tsai, Brandon Te-hao;

    Understanding what factors shape the magnitude of divergence under rapid evolution is critical. Phenotypic divergence, specifically, can be influenced by selective forces such as the environment (climate, geographic distance) as well as non-selective forces (genetic composition of the founding population). Threespine sticklebacks provide a unique opportunity to study the magnitude of divergence under rapid evolution. Marine sticklebacks independently colonized freshwater habitats at the end of the last ice age (~12,000 years ago) generating multiple replicate pairs that represent a natural experiment. However, studies rely on untested assumptions that marine sticklebacks are not phenotypically varied and are unchanged from their ancestors. Here, we test how differential environmental conditions impact the estimated magnitude of phenotypic divergence and parallelism of independent freshwater stickleback populations. We find that marine variation is comparable to freshwater variation. Importantly, the inferred magnitude of phenotypic divergence of each freshwater population is dependent on marine sampling location. The geographic distance and environmental similarity between the marine and freshwater pairs explain a significant degree of variance. When estimating the degree of parallelism among freshwater pairs, marine reference also affects the inferred magnitude. The observed pattern suggests the choice of reference population and its geographic distance are important aspects to consider when estimating freshwater divergence and parallelism. Results also implicate a signature of local adaptation and/or isolation by distance. We provide recommendations for choosing ecologically relevant marine references in future studies on this important evolutionary model system.

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    Authors: Bouchet, Marie; Landais, Amaëlle; Grisart, Antoine; Parrenin, Frédéric; +15 Authors

    We present the new reference chronology (AICC2023) providing an age vs depth relationship covering the last 800 kyr (thousands of years) for five ice cores (EDC, EDML, NGRIP, TALDICE and Vostok). To construct the new AICC2023 chronology, we used new highly resolved measurements for EDC ice core as well as novel absolute 81Kr ages, stratigraphic links between the five ice cores and accurate firn modeling estimates. The new chronological and glaciological information were combined in the Bayesian dating tool Paleochrono to obtain the AICC2023 timescale.

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    Authors: Eckland, Abigail; Overeem, Irina; Carlson, Brandee;

    The dataset compiles sediment, hydrologic, and temperature data collected from the Rio Grande Delta upstream of Elephant Butte Reservoir in New Mexico, USA. The data was collected during four field campaigns spanning between July 2021 and September 2022: (1) July 4-6, 2021, (2) March 20-22, 2022, (3) May 6-8, 2022, and (4) September 16-18, 2022. The temperature data, however, was measured continuously at 15-minute intervals between March 21 and September 17, 2022. Sediment analyses were conducted on four sample types: (1) suspended sediment collected from water in the Rio Grande channel at two-thirds of the total channel depth below the water surface, (2) bed material in the Rio Grande channel, (3) shallow stratigraphic column samples collected from 0 to 0.5 meters in depth in the Rio Grande Delta, and (4) Elephant Butte Reservoir water samples collected near the mouth of the Rio Grande at the top (0.5 m below the water surface) and bottom (0.5 m above the bed) of the water column. The sediment analyses include measuring Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) for sample types 1 and 4, Organic Matter Content (%) for all sample types (1-4), and Grain Size Distributions (GSD) for all sample types (1-4). SSC was determined by measuring the water volume of the sample, then freeze-drying and weighing the mass of sediment to obtain a concentration (kg/m^3). OM% was determined by performing Loss on Ignition (LOI) on all sample types (1-4), which removes organic material from the sample through exposure to high temperatures in a muffle furnace. GSD was determined for all sample types (1-4) with a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 laser diffraction grain size analysis system with a Hydro LV dispersion unit. Further, GSD for gravel residing at two point bars on the Rio Grande were determined via Wolman pebble counts in September 2022. The hydrologic data includes: (1) Rio Grande and Elephant Butte Reservoir water depth, collected with a Lowrance Hook Reveal X Series single beam sonar, and (2) Elephant Butte Reservoir water column stratification of conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) within and near the mouth of the Rio Grande channel, collected with a SonTek CastAway CTD. The temperature data includes: (1) continuous measurements of air temperature from a control location in the Rio Grande Delta, and (2) a combination of air and water temperature from the Rio Grande Delta, since it became inundated by river flooding and high reservoir levels during a portion of the study. The temperature data was collected with HOBO Tidbit v2 Temp Loggers, installed on wooden stakes two centimeters above the ground. Additional details on how the samples were collected, prepared, and processed are given in Eckland et al. (2023), and are provided within the README files. The purpose of this data collection effort was to evaluate sedimentation patterns and burial rates across the Rio Grande Delta.

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    Authors: Xue, Carolyn;

    Widespread overuse and large-scale production of antibiotics create antibiotic pollution, disrupting environmental microbiota and creating a public health risk. Highly urbanized coastal environments can be under high impact from antibiotic pollution from many trails of polluted effluents and runoff. The city of Long Beach is one such coastal area under high impact, since it is highly urban, industrialized, and experiences frequent sewage spills. We collected water samples from the LA River in a transect running southwest into the San Pedro Channel in order to investigate (1) how does strength of antibiotic resistance change as distance from shore increases, and (2) does antibiotic resistance correlate with composition of the bacterial community. There was no consistent relationship between strength of antibiotic resistance and distance from shore. Instead, we found that bacteria from the Pacific Ocean showed higher antibiotic resistance than bacteria from the LA River in five out of eleven antibiotic treatments. We also found that the alpha diversity of bacterial communities was lower in the LA River samples compared, and alpha diversity positively correlated with strength of antibiotic resistance in four antibiotic treatments. Our findings highlight how prevalence of antibiotic pollution does not always follow a distance dilution, as well as the need for understanding the strength behind antibiotic resistance in marine bacteria.

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