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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aumont, Olivier; Rodgers, Keith;

    The repository contains the version of PISCES that was used to investigate the role played by low latitudes and the Southern Ocean at sustaining export production and PP in the low latitudes. This code is based on version 3.6 of NEMO and the repository only includes routines that have been changed with respect to this version. The code is in Fortran 90.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Krastel, Sebastian;
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    Authors: Bald, Carlos; Domínguez, Haizea; Iñarra, Bruno;

    Aquaculture has grown exponentially during the last decades, even overcoming traditional fishing in volume since2012 (Iñarra et al, 2018). The rise of the production of fish involves the rise of fish by-products, that in case ofbeing disposed could suppose an environmental risk. Fish viscera are part of the by-products used to producefishmeal and are the 10-18 % of the whole fish weight.Fish silage or acid autolysis is commonly used in areas with high fisheries rates and consists of liquefactionand stabilization of minced fish at room temperature, normally adding formic acid until reaching a pH between3.5 and 4.5 to prevent microbial growth. Hydrolysis of proteins occurs thanks to the endogenous acid proteasesthat are located at the fish viscera, which enable to get low molecular weight peptides and amino acids (Toppe etal, 2018). The resulting protein hydrolysates could be used as fertilisers. However, silage can take several days toachieve a high hydrolysis degree. In this work, autolysis has been carried out simulating the conditions ofenzymatic hydrolysis but only working with the endogenous enzymes from fish viscera with the aim ofaccelerating a typical silage to get free amino acids while saving costs derived from the use of commercialenzymes

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    Authors: Brandt, Peter; Körner, Mareike;

    Code and data to reproduce the analysis and figures in "Synchronous drivers of equatorial Atlantic productivity" by Brandt et al.

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  • Authors: Anhaus, Philipp; Schiller, Martin; Planat, Noémie; Katlein, Christian; +1 Authors

    Nitrate and UV-absorbance spectra were measured by a SUNA V2 UV-spectrometer (Satlantic) mounted in the sensor skid of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during the ARTofMELT2023 expedition in May and June 2023. The instrument header is SATSLS0847. Data use manufacturer calibration.

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    Authors: Jong, Dirk; Bröder, Lisa; Tesi, Tommaso; Tanski, George; +6 Authors

    This study aims to give insight into the processes affecting permafrost organic carbon (OC) during transport from its source to its sink, through a study on three sediment fractions along a land-to-ocean transect. Material was followed from thawing permafrost, through a dynamic 'disturbed zone' and the nearshore zone, to an enclosed basin offshore Herschel Island - Qikiqtaruk, to assess sorting and degradation processes on specific fractions of sediment OC. Sediment, soil and permafrost samples were taken along a transect from the source (undisturbed active layer and permafrost), via two transitional zones (a terrestrial disturbed zone, i.e. the 'scar zone' of the RTS, and the marine nearshore zone up to a water depth of 5 m), to sink (basin sediment, water depth >20 m) at the coast of Herschel Island – Qikiqtaruk and the (semi-enclosed) Herschel Basin in Yukon, Canada, just west of the Mackenzie River delta. Samples were taken in May 2016 and July 2017. Sample material was fractionated with an aqueous (MilliQ) solution of sodium polytungstate (SPT; Na6[H2W12O40]), with a density of 1.8 g cm³, followed by wet-sieving over a 63 µm mesh, thus separating loose OC from mineral-associated OC. Each fraction was analysed for element content (TOC, TN), carbon isotopes (δ¹³C, Δ¹⁴C), molecular biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, lignin phenols, cutin acids), and mineral surface area. The relative abundance of specific biomarkers can also be used as indicator for degradation of organic carbon. Furthermore, the OC 'loading' (concentration of OC normalised to mineral surface area; in mgOC/m²) and terrestrial biomarker loading (µgOC/m²) can be used to assess loss of (permafrost) OC from mineral particles. The combination of these methods allows us to disentangle sorting processes from degradation of OC along the land-to-ocean continuum, and provides a detailed insight into the fate of thawed and eroded permafrost OC.

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  • Authors: Anhaus, Philipp; Schiller, Martin; Planat, Noémie; Katlein, Christian; +1 Authors

    Quicklook plots for all data collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during the ARTofMELT2023 expedition in May and June 2023.

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    Authors: Jurányi, Zsófia; Herber, Andreas;

    During the HALO-(AC)³ aircraft campaign in 2022, onboard of Polar 6 aircraft, refractory black carbon (BC) mass and number concentration was measured by a single particle soot photometer (SP2) in the mass equivalent diameter range of 70-675 nm. The instrument was installed behind the counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet, and therefore measured the BC properties of cloud residuals when the aircraft flew through clouds and the counter flow was switched on. During out-of cloud measurements, the counter flow of the CVI was switched off and the instrument measured the total aerosol's BC properties. In the data files, the column CVI_flag indicates if total aerosol was sampled (value of 0), cloud residuals were sampled (value of 1). A CVI_flag value of 2 indicates that the inlet counter flow was currently switched on or off and therefore the measurement is not valid. The provided time resolution is 3 seconds.

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    Authors: Hoffmann-Abdi, Kirstin; Meyer, Hanno; Fernandoy, Francisco; Freitag, Johannes; +5 Authors

    Firn cores OH-7, OH-9 and OH-12 were retrieved from Plateau Laclavere, a small ice cap on the northernmost end of the Antarctic Peninsula. Firn core LP-01 was recovered from Plateau Louis Phillipe, which is located approximately 40 km south of Plateau Laclavere. OH-7 and OH-9 were drilled in January 2014 at an altitude of approximately 1130 m above sea level (a.s.l.) to a depth of 15.31 m and 11.65 m, respectively, using a mechanical 9 cm diameter drilling device (Rufli auger). OH-12 was drilled in January 2016 at about 1090 m a.s.l. to a depth of 19.93 m. LP-01 was also drilled in January 2016 at about 1390 m a.s.l. to a depth of 21.38 m. OH-12 and LP-01 were obtained using a portable solar-powered and electrically operated ice-core drill (Backpack Drill; icedrill.ch AG). Density measurements of the four firn cores were performed at the ice-core processing facilities of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany, in 2014/2015 (OH-9), 2016 (OH-7, OH-12) and 2018 (LP-01). X-ray microfocus computer tomography (ICE-CT; Freitag et al., 2013, DOI: 10.3189/2013JoG13J028) was used for the measurements, providing depth-density profiles with a resolution of better than 1 mm. The density data were used to analyse the firn core stratigraphy (e.g., determination of the snow-firn transition depth, identification of melt layers), to calculate diffusion lengths as well as to derive accumulation rates for the firn-core drill sites.

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  • Authors: Krock, Bernd; Tillmann, Urban; Möller, Kristof; Koch, Florian; +6 Authors

    The data set was acquired during the PHYCOB cruise in the frame of the Eurofleets+ programme (https://www.eurofleets.eu/2021/10/22/phycob-an-international-oceanographic-expedition-into-the-western-black-sea-coordinated-by-the-alfred-wegner-institut-helmholtz-zentrum-fur-polar-und-meeresforschung-awi/) within the Regional call in the territorrial waters of Romania and Bulgaria in the Western Baltic Sea from 11th to 17th September 2021. The aim of the cruise was to assess the occurrence of potentially harmfal algae and their associated phycotoxins in the Black Sea and the accompanying environmental parameters. Sampling was performed by CTD casts and Rosette water sampling in addition to vertical phytoplankton net hauls from 30 m depth to surface. The determined parameters include the following: Quantitative phytoplankton cell counts in water samples, qulitative determination of toxigenic species next generation sequencing data in plankton net concentrates, monoclonanal cultures established from water sample isolates, phycotoxins in plankton net concentrates, inorganic nitruinets (nitrate/nitrite, phosphate, silicate) , vitamin B12, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, flowcytometry data, and CTD data (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, oxygen, turbidity, radiance).

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    Authors: Aumont, Olivier; Rodgers, Keith;

    The repository contains the version of PISCES that was used to investigate the role played by low latitudes and the Southern Ocean at sustaining export production and PP in the low latitudes. This code is based on version 3.6 of NEMO and the repository only includes routines that have been changed with respect to this version. The code is in Fortran 90.

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    Authors: Krastel, Sebastian;
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    Authors: Bald, Carlos; Domínguez, Haizea; Iñarra, Bruno;

    Aquaculture has grown exponentially during the last decades, even overcoming traditional fishing in volume since2012 (Iñarra et al, 2018). The rise of the production of fish involves the rise of fish by-products, that in case ofbeing disposed could suppose an environmental risk. Fish viscera are part of the by-products used to producefishmeal and are the 10-18 % of the whole fish weight.Fish silage or acid autolysis is commonly used in areas with high fisheries rates and consists of liquefactionand stabilization of minced fish at room temperature, normally adding formic acid until reaching a pH between3.5 and 4.5 to prevent microbial growth. Hydrolysis of proteins occurs thanks to the endogenous acid proteasesthat are located at the fish viscera, which enable to get low molecular weight peptides and amino acids (Toppe etal, 2018). The resulting protein hydrolysates could be used as fertilisers. However, silage can take several days toachieve a high hydrolysis degree. In this work, autolysis has been carried out simulating the conditions ofenzymatic hydrolysis but only working with the endogenous enzymes from fish viscera with the aim ofaccelerating a typical silage to get free amino acids while saving costs derived from the use of commercialenzymes

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    Authors: Brandt, Peter; Körner, Mareike;

    Code and data to reproduce the analysis and figures in "Synchronous drivers of equatorial Atlantic productivity" by Brandt et al.

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  • Authors: Anhaus, Philipp; Schiller, Martin; Planat, Noémie; Katlein, Christian; +1 Authors

    Nitrate and UV-absorbance spectra were measured by a SUNA V2 UV-spectrometer (Satlantic) mounted in the sensor skid of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during the ARTofMELT2023 expedition in May and June 2023. The instrument header is SATSLS0847. Data use manufacturer calibration.

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    Authors: Jong, Dirk; Bröder, Lisa; Tesi, Tommaso; Tanski, George; +6 Authors

    This study aims to give insight into the processes affecting permafrost organic carbon (OC) during transport from its source to its sink, through a study on three sediment fractions along a land-to-ocean transect. Material was followed from thawing permafrost, through a dynamic 'disturbed zone' and the nearshore zone, to an enclosed basin offshore Herschel Island - Qikiqtaruk, to assess sorting and degradation processes on specific fractions of sediment OC. Sediment, soil and permafrost samples were taken along a transect from the source (undisturbed active layer and permafrost), via two transitional zones (a terrestrial disturbed zone, i.e. the 'scar zone' of the RTS, and the marine nearshore zone up to a water depth of 5 m), to sink (basin sediment, water depth >20 m) at the coast of Herschel Island – Qikiqtaruk and the (semi-enclosed) Herschel Basin in Yukon, Canada, just west of the Mackenzie River delta. Samples were taken in May 2016 and July 2017. Sample material was fractionated with an aqueous (MilliQ) solution of sodium polytungstate (SPT; Na6[H2W12O40]), with a density of 1.8 g cm³, followed by wet-sieving over a 63 µm mesh, thus separating loose OC from mineral-associated OC. Each fraction was analysed for element content (TOC, TN), carbon isotopes (δ¹³C, Δ¹⁴C), molecular biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, lignin phenols, cutin acids), and mineral surface area. The relative abundance of specific biomarkers can also be used as indicator for degradation of organic carbon. Furthermore, the OC 'loading' (concentration of OC normalised to mineral surface area; in mgOC/m²) and terrestrial biomarker loading (µgOC/m²) can be used to assess loss of (permafrost) OC from mineral particles. The combination of these methods allows us to disentangle sorting processes from degradation of OC along the land-to-ocean continuum, and provides a detailed insight into the fate of thawed and eroded permafrost OC.

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  • Authors: Anhaus, Philipp; Schiller, Martin; Planat, Noémie; Katlein, Christian; +1 Authors

    Quicklook plots for all data collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during the ARTofMELT2023 expedition in May and June 2023.

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    Authors: Jurányi, Zsófia; Herber, Andreas;

    During the HALO-(AC)³ aircraft campaign in 2022, onboard of Polar 6 aircraft, refractory black carbon (BC) mass and number concentration was measured by a single particle soot photometer (SP2) in the mass equivalent diameter range of 70-675 nm. The instrument was installed behind the counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet, and therefore measured the BC properties of cloud residuals when the aircraft flew through clouds and the counter flow was switched on. During out-of cloud measurements, the counter flow of the CVI was switched off and the instrument measured the total aerosol's BC properties. In the data files, the column CVI_flag indicates if total aerosol was sampled (value of 0), cloud residuals were sampled (value of 1). A CVI_flag value of 2 indicates that the inlet counter flow was currently switched on or off and therefore the measurement is not valid. The provided time resolution is 3 seconds.

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    Authors: Hoffmann-Abdi, Kirstin; Meyer, Hanno; Fernandoy, Francisco; Freitag, Johannes; +5 Authors

    Firn cores OH-7, OH-9 and OH-12 were retrieved from Plateau Laclavere, a small ice cap on the northernmost end of the Antarctic Peninsula. Firn core LP-01 was recovered from Plateau Louis Phillipe, which is located approximately 40 km south of Plateau Laclavere. OH-7 and OH-9 were drilled in January 2014 at an altitude of approximately 1130 m above sea level (a.s.l.) to a depth of 15.31 m and 11.65 m, respectively, using a mechanical 9 cm diameter drilling device (Rufli auger). OH-12 was drilled in January 2016 at about 1090 m a.s.l. to a depth of 19.93 m. LP-01 was also drilled in January 2016 at about 1390 m a.s.l. to a depth of 21.38 m. OH-12 and LP-01 were obtained using a portable solar-powered and electrically operated ice-core drill (Backpack Drill; icedrill.ch AG). Density measurements of the four firn cores were performed at the ice-core processing facilities of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany, in 2014/2015 (OH-9), 2016 (OH-7, OH-12) and 2018 (LP-01). X-ray microfocus computer tomography (ICE-CT; Freitag et al., 2013, DOI: 10.3189/2013JoG13J028) was used for the measurements, providing depth-density profiles with a resolution of better than 1 mm. The density data were used to analyse the firn core stratigraphy (e.g., determination of the snow-firn transition depth, identification of melt layers), to calculate diffusion lengths as well as to derive accumulation rates for the firn-core drill sites.

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