Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
30 Research products, page 1 of 3

  • European Marine Science
  • Other research products
  • 2018-2022
  • IE
  • ZA

10
arrow_drop_down
Date (most recent)
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Allen, John T.; Munoz, Cristian; Gardiner, Jim; Reeve, Krissy A.; Alou-Font, Eva; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos;
    Project: EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410)

    Glider vehicles are now perhaps some of the most prolific providers of real-time and near-real-time operational oceanographic data. However, the data from these vehicles can and should be considered to have a long-term legacy value capable of playing a critical role in understanding and separating inter-annual, inter-decadal, and longterm global change. To achieve this, we have to go further than simply assuming the manufacturer’s calibrations, and field correct glider data in a more traditional way, for example, by careful comparison to water bottle calibrated lowered CTD datasets and/or “gold” standard recent climatologies. In this manuscript, we bring into the 21st century a historical technique that has been used manually by oceanographers for many years/decades for field correction/inter-calibration, thermal lag correction, and adjustment for biological fouling. The technique has now been made semi-automatic for machine processing of oceanographic glider data, although its future and indeed its origins have far wider scope. The subject of this manuscript is drawn from the original Description of Work (DoW) for a key task in the recently completed JERICO-NEXT (Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatories) EU-funded program, but goes on to consider future application and the suitability for integration with machine learning. Refereed 14.A Sea surface salinity Subsurface salinity TRL 8 Actual system completed and "mission qualified" through test and demonstration in an operational environment (ground or space) Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) Standard Operating Procedure 2019-12-03

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paradis, Sarah; Pusceddu, Antonio; Masqué, Pere; Puig, Pere; Moccia, Davide; Russo, Tommaso; Iacono, Claudio;
    Project: EC | EUROFLEETS2 (312762)

    Bottom trawling in the deep sea is one of the main drivers of sediment resuspension, eroding the seafloor and altering the content and composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM). The physical and biogeochemical impacts of bottom trawling were studied on the continental slope of the Gulf of Castellammare, Sicily (southwestern Mediterranean), through the analysis of two triplicate sediment cores collected at trawled and untrawled sites (∼550 m water depth) during the summer of 2016. Geochemical and sedimentological parameters (excess 210Pb, excess 234Th, 137Cs, dry bulk density, and grain size), elemental (organic carbon and nitrogen) and biochemical composition of sedimentary OM (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids), as well as its freshness (phytopigments) and degradation rates were determined in both coring locations. The untrawled site had a sedimentation rate of 0.15 cm yr−1 and presented a 6 cm thick surface mixed layer that contained siltier sediment with low excess 210Pb concentrations, possibly resulting from the resuspension, posterior advection, and eventual deposition of coarser and older sediment from adjacent trawling grounds. In contrast, the trawled site was eroded and presented compacted century-old sediment highly depleted in OM components, which were between 20 % and 60 % lower than those in the untrawled site. However, the upper 2 cm of the trawled site consisted of recently accumulated sediments enriched in excess 234Th, excess 210Pb, and phytopigments, while OM contents were similar to those from the untrawled core. This fresh sediment supported protein turnover rates of 0.025 d−1, which doubled those quantified in surface sediments of the untrawled site. The enhancement of remineralization rates in surface sediment of the trawled site was associated with the arrival of fresh particles on a chronically trawled deep-sea region that is generally deprived of OM. We conclude that the detrimental effects of bottom trawling can be temporarily and partially abated by the arrival of fresh and nutritionally rich OM, which stimulate the response of benthic communities. However, these ephemeral deposits are likely to be swiftly eroded due to the high trawling frequency over fishing grounds, highlighting the importance of establishing science-based management strategies to mitigate the impacts of bottom trawling.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fischer, Delmarie; Annegarn, Harold; Lochner, Paul;
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis
    Country: South Africa

    Criteria for the evaluation of the effectiveness of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) have evolved internationally from the requirement for mere procedural effectiveness, to include criteria such as substantial and incremental effectiveness. This paper provides an overview of the international evolution of effectiveness evaluation for SEA and its parallel progression in South Africa. Within this context, the effectiveness of the two SEA case studies conducted in support of national-scale renewable energy planning in South Africa was reviewed against internationally recognised effectiveness criteria to test their ability to influence decision making for renewable energy projects in the country. The evaluation was informed by the role of the first author as the project director in the case studies. The review found the SEAs to be partially effective, mainly through the introduction of new legislation, processes and systems at the national level that operationalise the outcomes of the SEA. A fundamental limitation emerged in determining whether incremental effectiveness had been achieved as it is too soon to evaluate the effectiveness of the recently promulgated legislation and instruments. The paper builds on previous work on effectiveness evaluations and provides the perspective of an administrative implementer

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Racapé, Virginie; Zunino, Patricia; Mercier, Herlé; Lherminier, Pascale; Bopp, Laurent; Pérèz, Fiz F.; Gehlen, Marion;
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | AtlantOS (633211)

    The North Atlantic Ocean is a major sink region for atmospheric CO2 and contributes to the storage of anthropogenic carbon (Cant). While there is general agreement that the intensity of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) modulates uptake, transport and storage of Cant in the North Atlantic Subpolar Ocean, processes controlling their recent variability and evolution over the 21st century remain uncertain. This study investigates the relationship between transport, air–sea flux and storage rate of Cant in the North Atlantic Subpolar Ocean over the past 53 years. Its relies on the combined analysis of a multiannual in situ data set and outputs from a global biogeochemical ocean general circulation model (NEMO–PISCES) at 1∕2∘ spatial resolution forced by an atmospheric reanalysis. Despite an underestimation of Cant transport and an overestimation of anthropogenic air–sea CO2 flux in the model, the interannual variability of the regional Cant storage rate and its driving processes were well simulated by the model. Analysis of the multi-decadal simulation revealed that the MOC intensity variability was the major driver of the Cant transport variability at 25 and 36∘ N, but not at OVIDE. At the subpolar OVIDE section, the interannual variability of Cant transport was controlled by the accumulation of Cant in the MOC upper limb. At multi-decadal timescales, long-term changes in the North Atlantic storage rate of Cant were driven by the increase in air–sea fluxes of anthropogenic CO2. North Atlantic Central Water played a key role for storing Cant in the upper layer of the subtropical region and for supplying Cant to Intermediate Water and North Atlantic Deep Water. The transfer of Cant from surface to deep waters occurred mainly north of the OVIDE section. Most of the Cant transferred to the deep ocean was stored in the subpolar region, while the remainder was exported to the subtropical gyre within the lower MOC.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dromgool-Regan, Cushla; Burke, Noirin;
    Publisher: Marine Institute and Tulca
    Country: Ireland

    A hydrothermal AdVENTure - Build Your Own Unknown art and science project provides children with an exciting opportunity to learn about the deep ocean in a meaningful way. The cross-curricular lesson plans and teaching resources are an exemplar of using ICT, art and marine science in the classroom. From science, geography, history and English to creating art pieces, students can use their scientific and creative skills producing film and art pieces to communicate their discoveries.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Worsfold, Paul J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Birchill, Antony J.; Clough, Robert; Leito, Ivo; Lohan, Maeve C.; Milne, Angela; Ussher, Simon J.;
    Project: EC | AtlantOS (633211), UKRI | Shelf sources of iron to ... (NE/K001779/1)

    A realistic estimation of uncertainty is an essential requirement for all analytical measurements. It is common practice, however, for the uncertainty estimate of a chemical measurement to be based on the instrumental precision associated with the analysis of a single or multiple samples, which can lead to underestimation. Within the context of chemical oceanography such an underestimation of uncertainty could lead to an over interpretation of the result(s) and hence impact on, e.g., studies of biogeochemical cycles, and the outputs from oceanographic models. Getting high quality observational data with a firm uncertainty assessment is therefore essential for proper model validation. This paper describes and compares two recommended approaches that can give a more holistic assessment of the uncertainty associated with such measurements, referred to here as the “bottom up” or modeling approach and the “top down” or empirical approach. “Best practice” recommendations for the implementation of these strategies are provided. The “bottom up” approach combines the standard uncertainties associated with each stage of the entire measurement procedure. The “top down” approach combines the uncertainties associated with day to day reproducibility and possible bias in the complete data set and is easy to use. For analytical methods that are routinely used, laboratories will have access to the information required to calculate the uncertainty from archived quality assurance data. The determination of trace elements in seawater is a significant analytical challenge and iron is used as an example for the implementation of both approaches using real oceanographic data. Relative expanded uncertainties of 10 – 20% were estimated for both approaches compared with a typical short term precision (rsd) of less than or equal to 5%. Refereed 14.A TRL 8 Actual system completed and "mission qualified" through test and demonstration in an operational environment (ground or space) Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) Best Practice 2018-04-19

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lauvset, Siv Kari; Key, Robert M.; Olsen, Are; van Heuven, Steven; Velo, Antón; Lin, Xiaohua; Schirnick, Carsten; Kozyr, Alex; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; +7 more
    Project: EC | SEADATANET II (283607), NSF | Support for International... (1243377), EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), NSF | Southern Ocean Carbon and... (1425989), EC | AtlantOS (633211), NSF | Collaborative Research: C... (0825163)

    We present a mapped climatology (GLODAPv2.2016b) of ocean biogeochemical variables based on the new GLODAP version 2 data product (Olsen et al., 2016; Key et al., 2015), which covers all ocean basins over the years 1972 to 2013. The quality-controlled and internally consistent GLODAPv2 was used to create global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies of salinity, temperature, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2), total alkalinity (TAlk), pH, and CaCO3 saturation states using the Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) mapping method. Improving on maps based on an earlier but similar dataset, GLODAPv1.1, this climatology also covers the Arctic Ocean. Climatologies were created for 33 standard depth surfaces. The conceivably confounding temporal trends in TCO2 and pH due to anthropogenic influence were removed prior to mapping by normalizing these data to the year 2002 using first-order calculations of anthropogenic carbon accumulation rates. We additionally provide maps of accumulated anthropogenic carbon in the year 2002 and of preindustrial TCO2. For all parameters, all data from the full 1972–2013 period were used, including data that did not receive full secondary quality control. The GLODAPv2.2016b global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies, including error fields and ancillary information, are available at the GLODAPv2 web page at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP093_GLODAPv2).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olsen, Are; Key, Robert M.; Heuven, Steven; Lauvset, Siv K.; Velo, Anton; Lin, Xiaohua; Schirnick, Carsten; Kozyr, Alex; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; +6 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), NSF | Southern Ocean Carbon and... (1425989), NSF | Support for International... (1243377), NSF | Collaborative Research: C... (0825163), EC | AtlantOS (633211)

    Version 2 of the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAPv2) data product is composed of data from 724 scientific cruises covering the global ocean. It includes data assembled during the previous efforts GLODAPv1.1 (Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 1.1) in 2004, CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic) in 2009/2010, and PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) in 2013, as well as data from an additional 168 cruises. Data for 12 core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged and internally consistent data product. In the latter, adjustments have been applied to remove significant biases, respecting occurrences of any known or likely time trends or variations. Adjustments applied by previous efforts were re-evaluated. Hence, GLODAPv2 is not a simple merging of previous products with some new data added but a unique, internally consistent data product. This compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 µmol kg−1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 6 µmol kg−1 in total alkalinity, 0.005 in pH, and 5 % for the halogenated transient tracers.The original data and their documentation and doi codes are available at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/GLODAPv2/). This site also provides access to the calibrated data product, which is provided as a single global file or four regional ones – the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans – under the doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP093_GLODAPv2. The product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data. These were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation from, measured data. This paper documents the GLODAPv2 methods and products and includes a broad overview of the secondary quality control results. The magnitude of and reasoning behind each adjustment is available on a per-cruise and per-variable basis in the online Adjustment Table.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pinnegar, J. K.; Goñi, N.; Trenkel, V. M.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Melle, W.; Keating, J.; Óskarsson, G.;
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933)

    There is increasing demand for information on predator–prey interactions in the ocean as a result of legislative commitments aimed at achieving sustainable exploitation. However, comprehensive data sets are lacking for many fish species and this has hampered development of multispecies fisheries models and the formulation of effective food-web indicators. This work describes a new compilation of stomach content data for five pelagic fish species (herring, blue whiting, mackerel, albacore and bluefin tuna) sampled across the northeast Atlantic and submitted to the PANGAEA open-access data portal (www.pangaea.de). We provide detailed descriptions of sample origin and of the corresponding database structures. We describe the main results in terms of diet composition and predator–prey relationships. The feeding preferences of small pelagic fish (herring, blue whiting, mackerel) were sampled over a very broad geographic area within the North Atlantic basin, from Greenland in the west, to the Lofoten Islands in the east and from the Bay of Biscay northwards to the Arctic. This analysis revealed significant differences in the prey items selected in different parts of the region at different times of year. Tunas (albacore and bluefin) were sampled in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea. Dominant prey items for these species varied by location, year and season. This data compilation exercise represents one of the largest and most wide-ranging ever attempted for pelagic fish in the North Atlantic. The earliest data included in the database were collected in 1864, whereas the most recent were collected in 2012. Data sets are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.820041 and doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.826992.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.;
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | FIXO3 (312463), EC | GROOM (284321)

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (−1) oxygen environments in the open waters of the tropical North Atlantic, a region where oxygen concentration does normally not fall much below 40 μmol kg−1. The low-oxygen zones are created at shallow depth, just below the mixed layer, in the euphotic zone of cyclonic eddies and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. Both types of eddies are prone to high surface productivity. Net respiration rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day−1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
30 Research products, page 1 of 3
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Allen, John T.; Munoz, Cristian; Gardiner, Jim; Reeve, Krissy A.; Alou-Font, Eva; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos;
    Project: EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410)

    Glider vehicles are now perhaps some of the most prolific providers of real-time and near-real-time operational oceanographic data. However, the data from these vehicles can and should be considered to have a long-term legacy value capable of playing a critical role in understanding and separating inter-annual, inter-decadal, and longterm global change. To achieve this, we have to go further than simply assuming the manufacturer’s calibrations, and field correct glider data in a more traditional way, for example, by careful comparison to water bottle calibrated lowered CTD datasets and/or “gold” standard recent climatologies. In this manuscript, we bring into the 21st century a historical technique that has been used manually by oceanographers for many years/decades for field correction/inter-calibration, thermal lag correction, and adjustment for biological fouling. The technique has now been made semi-automatic for machine processing of oceanographic glider data, although its future and indeed its origins have far wider scope. The subject of this manuscript is drawn from the original Description of Work (DoW) for a key task in the recently completed JERICO-NEXT (Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatories) EU-funded program, but goes on to consider future application and the suitability for integration with machine learning. Refereed 14.A Sea surface salinity Subsurface salinity TRL 8 Actual system completed and "mission qualified" through test and demonstration in an operational environment (ground or space) Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) Standard Operating Procedure 2019-12-03

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paradis, Sarah; Pusceddu, Antonio; Masqué, Pere; Puig, Pere; Moccia, Davide; Russo, Tommaso; Iacono, Claudio;
    Project: EC | EUROFLEETS2 (312762)

    Bottom trawling in the deep sea is one of the main drivers of sediment resuspension, eroding the seafloor and altering the content and composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM). The physical and biogeochemical impacts of bottom trawling were studied on the continental slope of the Gulf of Castellammare, Sicily (southwestern Mediterranean), through the analysis of two triplicate sediment cores collected at trawled and untrawled sites (∼550 m water depth) during the summer of 2016. Geochemical and sedimentological parameters (excess 210Pb, excess 234Th, 137Cs, dry bulk density, and grain size), elemental (organic carbon and nitrogen) and biochemical composition of sedimentary OM (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids), as well as its freshness (phytopigments) and degradation rates were determined in both coring locations. The untrawled site had a sedimentation rate of 0.15 cm yr−1 and presented a 6 cm thick surface mixed layer that contained siltier sediment with low excess 210Pb concentrations, possibly resulting from the resuspension, posterior advection, and eventual deposition of coarser and older sediment from adjacent trawling grounds. In contrast, the trawled site was eroded and presented compacted century-old sediment highly depleted in OM components, which were between 20 % and 60 % lower than those in the untrawled site. However, the upper 2 cm of the trawled site consisted of recently accumulated sediments enriched in excess 234Th, excess 210Pb, and phytopigments, while OM contents were similar to those from the untrawled core. This fresh sediment supported protein turnover rates of 0.025 d−1, which doubled those quantified in surface sediments of the untrawled site. The enhancement of remineralization rates in surface sediment of the trawled site was associated with the arrival of fresh particles on a chronically trawled deep-sea region that is generally deprived of OM. We conclude that the detrimental effects of bottom trawling can be temporarily and partially abated by the arrival of fresh and nutritionally rich OM, which stimulate the response of benthic communities. However, these ephemeral deposits are likely to be swiftly eroded due to the high trawling frequency over fishing grounds, highlighting the importance of establishing science-based management strategies to mitigate the impacts of bottom trawling.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fischer, Delmarie; Annegarn, Harold; Lochner, Paul;
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis
    Country: South Africa

    Criteria for the evaluation of the effectiveness of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) have evolved internationally from the requirement for mere procedural effectiveness, to include criteria such as substantial and incremental effectiveness. This paper provides an overview of the international evolution of effectiveness evaluation for SEA and its parallel progression in South Africa. Within this context, the effectiveness of the two SEA case studies conducted in support of national-scale renewable energy planning in South Africa was reviewed against internationally recognised effectiveness criteria to test their ability to influence decision making for renewable energy projects in the country. The evaluation was informed by the role of the first author as the project director in the case studies. The review found the SEAs to be partially effective, mainly through the introduction of new legislation, processes and systems at the national level that operationalise the outcomes of the SEA. A fundamental limitation emerged in determining whether incremental effectiveness had been achieved as it is too soon to evaluate the effectiveness of the recently promulgated legislation and instruments. The paper builds on previous work on effectiveness evaluations and provides the perspective of an administrative implementer

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Racapé, Virginie; Zunino, Patricia; Mercier, Herlé; Lherminier, Pascale; Bopp, Laurent; Pérèz, Fiz F.; Gehlen, Marion;
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | AtlantOS (633211)

    The North Atlantic Ocean is a major sink region for atmospheric CO2 and contributes to the storage of anthropogenic carbon (Cant). While there is general agreement that the intensity of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) modulates uptake, transport and storage of Cant in the North Atlantic Subpolar Ocean, processes controlling their recent variability and evolution over the 21st century remain uncertain. This study investigates the relationship between transport, air–sea flux and storage rate of Cant in the North Atlantic Subpolar Ocean over the past 53 years. Its relies on the combined analysis of a multiannual in situ data set and outputs from a global biogeochemical ocean general circulation model (NEMO–PISCES) at 1∕2∘ spatial resolution forced by an atmospheric reanalysis. Despite an underestimation of Cant transport and an overestimation of anthropogenic air–sea CO2 flux in the model, the interannual variability of the regional Cant storage rate and its driving processes were well simulated by the model. Analysis of the multi-decadal simulation revealed that the MOC intensity variability was the major driver of the Cant transport variability at 25 and 36∘ N, but not at OVIDE. At the subpolar OVIDE section, the interannual variability of Cant transport was controlled by the accumulation of Cant in the MOC upper limb. At multi-decadal timescales, long-term changes in the North Atlantic storage rate of Cant were driven by the increase in air–sea fluxes of anthropogenic CO2. North Atlantic Central Water played a key role for storing Cant in the upper layer of the subtropical region and for supplying Cant to Intermediate Water and North Atlantic Deep Water. The transfer of Cant from surface to deep waters occurred mainly north of the OVIDE section. Most of the Cant transferred to the deep ocean was stored in the subpolar region, while the remainder was exported to the subtropical gyre within the lower MOC.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dromgool-Regan, Cushla; Burke, Noirin;
    Publisher: Marine Institute and Tulca
    Country: Ireland

    A hydrothermal AdVENTure - Build Your Own Unknown art and science project provides children with an exciting opportunity to learn about the deep ocean in a meaningful way. The cross-curricular lesson plans and teaching resources are an exemplar of using ICT, art and marine science in the classroom. From science, geography, history and English to creating art pieces, students can use their scientific and creative skills producing film and art pieces to communicate their discoveries.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Worsfold, Paul J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Birchill, Antony J.; Clough, Robert; Leito, Ivo; Lohan, Maeve C.; Milne, Angela; Ussher, Simon J.;
    Project: EC | AtlantOS (633211), UKRI | Shelf sources of iron to ... (NE/K001779/1)

    A realistic estimation of uncertainty is an essential requirement for all analytical measurements. It is common practice, however, for the uncertainty estimate of a chemical measurement to be based on the instrumental precision associated with the analysis of a single or multiple samples, which can lead to underestimation. Within the context of chemical oceanography such an underestimation of uncertainty could lead to an over interpretation of the result(s) and hence impact on, e.g., studies of biogeochemical cycles, and the outputs from oceanographic models. Getting high quality observational data with a firm uncertainty assessment is therefore essential for proper model validation. This paper describes and compares two recommended approaches that can give a more holistic assessment of the uncertainty associated with such measurements, referred to here as the “bottom up” or modeling approach and the “top down” or empirical approach. “Best practice” recommendations for the implementation of these strategies are provided. The “bottom up” approach combines the standard uncertainties associated with each stage of the entire measurement procedure. The “top down” approach combines the uncertainties associated with day to day reproducibility and possible bias in the complete data set and is easy to use. For analytical methods that are routinely used, laboratories will have access to the information required to calculate the uncertainty from archived quality assurance data. The determination of trace elements in seawater is a significant analytical challenge and iron is used as an example for the implementation of both approaches using real oceanographic data. Relative expanded uncertainties of 10 – 20% were estimated for both approaches compared with a typical short term precision (rsd) of less than or equal to 5%. Refereed 14.A TRL 8 Actual system completed and "mission qualified" through test and demonstration in an operational environment (ground or space) Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) Best Practice 2018-04-19

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lauvset, Siv Kari; Key, Robert M.; Olsen, Are; van Heuven, Steven; Velo, Antón; Lin, Xiaohua; Schirnick, Carsten; Kozyr, Alex; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; +7 more
    Project: EC | SEADATANET II (283607), NSF | Support for International... (1243377), EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), NSF | Southern Ocean Carbon and... (1425989), EC | AtlantOS (633211), NSF | Collaborative Research: C... (0825163)

    We present a mapped climatology (GLODAPv2.2016b) of ocean biogeochemical variables based on the new GLODAP version 2 data product (Olsen et al., 2016; Key et al., 2015), which covers all ocean basins over the years 1972 to 2013. The quality-controlled and internally consistent GLODAPv2 was used to create global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies of salinity, temperature, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2), total alkalinity (TAlk), pH, and CaCO3 saturation states using the Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) mapping method. Improving on maps based on an earlier but similar dataset, GLODAPv1.1, this climatology also covers the Arctic Ocean. Climatologies were created for 33 standard depth surfaces. The conceivably confounding temporal trends in TCO2 and pH due to anthropogenic influence were removed prior to mapping by normalizing these data to the year 2002 using first-order calculations of anthropogenic carbon accumulation rates. We additionally provide maps of accumulated anthropogenic carbon in the year 2002 and of preindustrial TCO2. For all parameters, all data from the full 1972–2013 period were used, including data that did not receive full secondary quality control. The GLODAPv2.2016b global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies, including error fields and ancillary information, are available at the GLODAPv2 web page at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP093_GLODAPv2).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olsen, Are; Key, Robert M.; Heuven, Steven; Lauvset, Siv K.; Velo, Anton; Lin, Xiaohua; Schirnick, Carsten; Kozyr, Alex; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; +6 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), NSF | Southern Ocean Carbon and... (1425989), NSF | Support for International... (1243377), NSF | Collaborative Research: C... (0825163), EC | AtlantOS (633211)

    Version 2 of the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAPv2) data product is composed of data from 724 scientific cruises covering the global ocean. It includes data assembled during the previous efforts GLODAPv1.1 (Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 1.1) in 2004, CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic) in 2009/2010, and PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) in 2013, as well as data from an additional 168 cruises. Data for 12 core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged and internally consistent data product. In the latter, adjustments have been applied to remove significant biases, respecting occurrences of any known or likely time trends or variations. Adjustments applied by previous efforts were re-evaluated. Hence, GLODAPv2 is not a simple merging of previous products with some new data added but a unique, internally consistent data product. This compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 µmol kg−1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 6 µmol kg−1 in total alkalinity, 0.005 in pH, and 5 % for the halogenated transient tracers.The original data and their documentation and doi codes are available at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/GLODAPv2/). This site also provides access to the calibrated data product, which is provided as a single global file or four regional ones – the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans – under the doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP093_GLODAPv2. The product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data. These were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation from, measured data. This paper documents the GLODAPv2 methods and products and includes a broad overview of the secondary quality control results. The magnitude of and reasoning behind each adjustment is available on a per-cruise and per-variable basis in the online Adjustment Table.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pinnegar, J. K.; Goñi, N.; Trenkel, V. M.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Melle, W.; Keating, J.; Óskarsson, G.;
    Project: EC | EURO-BASIN (264933)

    There is increasing demand for information on predator–prey interactions in the ocean as a result of legislative commitments aimed at achieving sustainable exploitation. However, comprehensive data sets are lacking for many fish species and this has hampered development of multispecies fisheries models and the formulation of effective food-web indicators. This work describes a new compilation of stomach content data for five pelagic fish species (herring, blue whiting, mackerel, albacore and bluefin tuna) sampled across the northeast Atlantic and submitted to the PANGAEA open-access data portal (www.pangaea.de). We provide detailed descriptions of sample origin and of the corresponding database structures. We describe the main results in terms of diet composition and predator–prey relationships. The feeding preferences of small pelagic fish (herring, blue whiting, mackerel) were sampled over a very broad geographic area within the North Atlantic basin, from Greenland in the west, to the Lofoten Islands in the east and from the Bay of Biscay northwards to the Arctic. This analysis revealed significant differences in the prey items selected in different parts of the region at different times of year. Tunas (albacore and bluefin) were sampled in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea. Dominant prey items for these species varied by location, year and season. This data compilation exercise represents one of the largest and most wide-ranging ever attempted for pelagic fish in the North Atlantic. The earliest data included in the database were collected in 1864, whereas the most recent were collected in 2012. Data sets are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.820041 and doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.826992.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.;
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879), EC | FIXO3 (312463), EC | GROOM (284321)

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (−1) oxygen environments in the open waters of the tropical North Atlantic, a region where oxygen concentration does normally not fall much below 40 μmol kg−1. The low-oxygen zones are created at shallow depth, just below the mixed layer, in the euphotic zone of cyclonic eddies and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. Both types of eddies are prone to high surface productivity. Net respiration rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day−1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.