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210 Research products, page 1 of 21

  • European Marine Science
  • Other research products
  • 2013-2022
  • Other ORP type
  • European Commission

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  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    Katharina Biely;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SUFISA (635577)

    The documents in these folders represent part of the qualitative data collection documentation. Research has been performed in Flanders (Belgium) in 2016 and 2017. Involved stakehodlers were flemish sugar beet farmers, processors as well as other value chain members. Though, the main stakeholders involved were farmers. The raw data cannot be published. Anonymized interview transcripts and focus group transcripts exist. However, as indicated in the informed consent, farmers did not agree to the raw data being published. The codes that resulted from data analysis are in this folder. Interview questions differed slightly from farmer to farmer as follow up questions may have been posed if needed. First interviews were performed, then focus groups were conducted and finally a workshop was organized. The qualitative reserach followed the research strategy and plan determined by the SUFISA project. On the project webpage (https://www.sufisa.eu/) more information can be found.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Katharina Biely;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SUFISA (635577)

    This is the English version of the informed consent that has been used for staekholder interactions. Similar forms have been used for focus groups and workshops.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tanhua, Toste; Kazanidis, Georgios; Sá, Sandra; Neves, Caique; Obaton, Dominique; Sylaios, Georgios;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | EurofleetsPlus (824077), EC | NAUTILOS (101000825), EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | Blue Cloud (862409), EC | JERICO-S3 (871153), EC | AtlantECO (862923), EC | ODYSSEA (727277), EC | EuroSea (862626), EC | ATLAS (678760), EC | MISSION ATLANTIC (862428)

    Ten innovative EU projects to build ocean observation systems that provide input for evidence-based management of the ocean and the Blue Economy, have joined forces in the strong cluster ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge’. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group published a joint policy brief listing recommendations for sustainable ocean observation and management. The cooperation is supported by the EU Horizon Results Booster and enables the group to achieve a higher societal impact. The policy brief will be presented to the European Commission on 15 October 2021. The ocean covers 70% of the Earth’s surface and provides us with a diverse set of ecosystem services that we cannot live without or that significantly improve our quality of life. It is the primary controller of our climate, plays a critical role in providing the air we breathe and the fresh water we drink, supplies us with a large range of exploitable resources (from inorganic resources such as sand and minerals to biotic resources such as seafood), allows us to generate renewable energy, is an important pathway for world transport, an important source of income for tourism, etc. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) evaluates the Blue Economy to currently represent 2.5% of the world economic value of goods and services produced, with the potential to further double in size by 2030 (seabed mining, shipping, fishing, tourism, renewable energy systems and aquaculture will intensify). However, the overall consequences of the intensification of human activities on marine ecosystems and their services (such as ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, sea level rise, changing distribution and abundance of fish etc.) are still poorly quantified. In addition, on larger geographic and temporal scales, marine data currently appear fragmented, are inhomogeneous, contain data gaps and are difficult to access. This limits our capacity to understand the ocean variability and sustainably manage the ocean and its resources. Consequently, there is a need to develop a framework for more in-depth understanding of marine ecosystems, that links reliable, timely and fit-for-purpose ocean observations to the design and implementation of evidence-based decisions on the management of the ocean. To adequately serve governments, societies, the sustainable Blue Economy and citizens, ocean data need to be collected and delivered in line with the Value Chain of Ocean Information: 1) identification of required data; 2) deployment and maintenance of instruments that collect the data; 3) delivery of data and derived information products; and 4) impact assessment of services to end users. To provide input to the possible future establishment of such a framework, ten innovative EU projects to build user-focused, interdisciplinary, responsive and sustained ocean information systems and increase the sustainability of the Blue Economy, joined forces in a strong cluster to better address key global marine challenges. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group translated its common concerns to recommendations and listed these in the joint policy brief ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge. Ocean Information for Sustainable Management.’. Following up on these recommendations will strengthen the entire Value Chain of Ocean Information and ensure sound sustainable ocean management. In this way, the 10 projects jointly strive to achieve goals set out in the EU Green Deal, the Paris Agreement (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and the United Nations 2021-2030 Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Ocean Development. Toste Tanhua (GEOMAR), EuroSea coordinator: “It was great to collaborate with these other innovative projects and make joint recommendations based on different perspectives and expertise.”

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Strauss, Jens; Abbott, Benjamin; Hugelius, Gustaf; Schuur, Edward. A. G.; Treat, Claire; Fuchs, Matthias; Schädel, Christina; Ulrich, Mathias; Turetsky, M. R.; Keuschnig, Markus; +3 more
    Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | PETA-CARB (338335)

    Permafrost is perennially frozen ground, such as soil, rock, and ice. In permafrost regions, plant and microbial life persists primarily in the near-surface soil that thaws every summer, called the ‘active layer’ (Figure 20). The cold and wet conditions in many permafrost regions limit decomposition of organic matter. In combination with soil mixing processes caused by repeated freezing and thawing, this has led to the accumulation of large stocks of soil organic carbon in the permafrost zone over multi-millennial timescales. As the climate warms, permafrost carbon could be highly vulnerable to climatic warming. Permafrost occurs primarily in high latitudes (e.g. Arctic and Antarctic) and at high elevation (e.g. Tibetan Plateau, Figure 21). The thickness of permafrost varies from less than 1 m (in boreal peatlands) to more than 1 500 m (in Yakutia). The coldest permafrost is found in the Transantarctic Mountains in Antarctica (−36°C) and in northern Canada for the Northern Hemisphere (-15°C; Obu et al., 2019, 2020). In contrast, some of the warmest permafrost occurs in peatlands in areas with mean air temperatures above 0°C. Here permafrost exists because thick peat layers insulate the ground during the summer. Most of the permafrost existing today formed during cold glacials (e.g. before 12 000 years ago) and has persisted through warmer interglacials. Some shallow permafrost (max 30–70m depth) formed during the Holocene (past 5000 years) and some even during the Little Ice Age from 400–150 years ago. There are few extensive regions suitable for row crop agriculture in the permafrost zone. Additionally, in areas where large-scale agriculture has been conducted, ground destabilization has been common. Surface disturbance such as plowing or trampling of vegetation can alter the thermal regime of the soil, potentially triggering surface subsidence or abrupt collapse. This may influence soil hydrology, nutrient cycling, and organic matter storage. These changes often have acute and negative consequences for continued agricultural use of such landscapes. Thus, row-crop agriculture could have a negative impact on permafrost (e.g. Grünzweig et al., 2014). Conversely, animal husbandry is widespread in the permafrost zone, including horses, cattle, and reindeer.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gaiarin, Sara Pittonet;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | AANChOR (818395), EC | AtlantECO (862923), EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | Blue Cloud (862409)

    The need for a change in culture (and curricula), stimulating standards adoption via engaging with best practice and exemplary use cases, further connecting ocean-observing data collection efforts and unlocking archives with historical data: the outcomes of the workshop organised by Blue-Cloud on June 3rd engaged experts across the Atlantic in a dialogue to identify needs and challenges of data sharing ‘pole to pole’ and gave some recommendations towards setting up an Atlantic Data space for the ocean

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ramos, Manuela; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Morato, Telmo;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760), EC | iAtlantic (818123)

    Objectives: To explore deep-sea areas of the Azores EEZ to better understand the distribution patterns of large VME species and commercial fishes. Specifically, the objectives of the cruise were to (i) continue the characterization of benthic communities inhabiting the slopes of Terceira and neighboring submarine ridges, (ii) identify new areas that may fit the FAO definition of what constitutes a Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem; and (iii) to contribute with additional data to address patterns and drivers of the distribution of deep-sea benthic biodiversity in the Azores region. It will also provide valuable information in the context of Good Environmental Status (GES), Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) and provide new insights on how to sustainably manage deep-sea ecosystems. Vessel: R/V Pelagia Chief scientist: Fleur Visser (NIOZ) Scientific team: Manuela Ramos (IMAR-UAç) Cruise summary: Six new dives were performed by the towed camera system of R/V Pelagia during the cruise. Four dives were performed on the southern Terceira island depression, covering a depth range between 1300 and 1900 m. The remaining two dives were performed in the Serreta Ridge, WNW of Terceira, between 780 and 1100 m depth. Overall, we collected 6 h of new video footage.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bode, A. (Antonio); Olivar, M.P. (María Pilar); Hernández-León, S. (Santiago);
    Publisher: Centro Oceanográfico de A Coruña
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | TRIATLAS (817578)

    The values of natural abundance of stable isotopes were measured in 13 micronekton fish species sampled during the BATHYPELAGIC cruise (North Atlantic, June 2018). This dataset contains the values obtained for carbon and nitrogen in bulk tissues, and nitrogen values in amino acids. Length and biomass data for each individual analyzed are also provided. Fishes were collected using a ''Mesopelagos” net (5x7 m mouth opening, 58 m total lenght) equipped with graded-mesh netting (starting with 30 mm and ending with 4 mm) and a multi-sampler for collecting samples from 5 different depth layers (Olivar et al., 2017). Individual fish were eviscerated, freeze-dried and weighted. Aliquots of muscular tissue (or whole individuals for species of small size) were analyzed in an elemental analyzer (bulk tissues, Olivar et al., 2019) or a gas chromatograph (derivatized amino acids, Mompeán et al., 2016) coupled to isotope-ratio mass spectrometers. Carbon analyses were made before and after removal of lipids with a mixture of trichloromethane:methanol:water. This research was funded by projects BATHYPELAGIC (CTM2016-78853-R) from the Plan Estatal de I+D+I (Spain), SUMMER (Grant Agreement 817806) and TRIATLAS (Grant Agreement 817578), from the European Union (Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme), and Grant Number IN607A2018/2 from the Axencia Galega de Innovación (GAIN, Xunta de Galicia, Spain).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Grehan, A; Hynes, S; Callery, O; Norton, D; Gafeira, J; Burnett, K; Foley, N; Stirling, D; González-Irusta, J-M; Morato, T; +1 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760)

    The Convention on Biological Diversity in 2004 set out 12 principles to underpin implementation of the ecosystem approach that can be broadly grouped into four categories: People - The care of nature is a shared responsibility for all of society; we most value all knowledge and perspectives; we most involve more of society in decisions. Scale and Dynamics - Work at the right geographic scale and timescale; look well ahead into the future; work with inevitable environmental change. Functions and services - Maintain the flow of ecosystem services; work within the capacity of natural systems; balance the demand for use and conservation of the environment. Management - Allow decisions to be led locally, as far as practicable; assess the effects of decisions on others; consider economic factors. Fifteen years later the integration of ecosystem services and natural capital into environmental assessment is still very much in its infancy. Despite their seemingly remote nature, deep sea benthic habitats generate ecosystem services which provide benefits to society. Examples of these ecosystem services include provisioning ecosystem services such as fisheries, regulating ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and maintenance of biodiversity and cultural ecosystems such as existence value. This report examines the assessment, mapping and valuation of ecosystem services in the marine and specifically for deep sea benthic habitats in the ATLAS case studies. For the provisioning ecosystem service of fisheries, a comparison is made between qualitative and quantitative approaches in methods of measuring and mapping ecosystem services generated from benthic habitats. In addition, this report has collated maps assessing the risk of fisheries impact - the most widespread and impacting human activity in the North Atlantic – in areas where vulnerable marine ecosystems and fish habitat are likely to occur in each ATLAS case study. This work presented as an atlas will provide a foundation to underpin subsequent testing of blue growth scenarios in each of the case studies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    van Oevelen, D; de Froe, E; Mohn, C; Soetaert, K;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760)

    [1] An important goal of WP2 was to develop mechanistic and predictive models for the distribution and metabolic activity of cold-water corals (CWCs) and deep-water sponges (DWS) and use these models to understand how their distribution is affected by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). [2] Output from hydrodynamic models (VIKING20 or ROMS-Agrif) was used to simulate transport of reactive organic matter in the water column around CWC reefs of DWS grounds. The approach is inspired by Soetaert et al. (2016), in which suspended organic matter dynamics above coral mounds was simulated. Here, we extend this methodology by having CWCs and DWS feeding on the suspended organic matter in the bottom layer using simple formulations for passive (CWC) and active (DWS) suspension feeding and metabolic activity. Physiological model formulation was based on data collected within ATLAS (Deliverables 2.1 and 2.2). [3] We focus on three ATLAS Study regions: 1) large CWC mounds, dominated and formed by the scleractinians Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, in the Logachev mound province in the south-eastern section of Rockall Bank, 2) coral gardens, dominated by the soft-coral Viminella flagellum, on Condor seamount, and 3) extensive sponge grounds, dominated by Geodia barretti along the east Canadian shelf break in Davis Strait. [4] We faced considerable computational challenges when developing the coupled models. CWC and DWS growth is slow, which implies that long simulation periods are needed to reach a (dynamic) steady state. Long simulation periods are not feasible given the high spatial and temporal (i.e. with tidal dynamics) resolution of the models. A 3-step solution procedure is proposed to tackle this issue, in which in step 1 initial suspended organic matter (OM) concentrations in the water column are calculated. In step 2, the bottom layer concentrations from step 1 are used to calculate initial concentrations for CWCs or DWS. In step 3, the coupled model is run with suspended organic matter (step 1) and CWC or DWS (step 2) as starting conditions. This approach sufficed for most of the model applications, but we acknowledge that some regions in the different model domains have not yet reached a (dynamic) steady state. [5] The coupled models, based on hydrodynamics, organic matter biogeochemistry and physiology of reef-forming organisms, successfully predicted the coral and sponge distribution and biomass in the three case study areas and thereby provide a new mechanistic tool to understand the distribution (see figure below) and metabolic (not shown) activity of hotspot ecosystems. [6] A striking result for Rockall Bank and Condor Seamount was that the suspended organic matter concentration in the bottom layer of the model domain was heavily modified by the passive suspension feeding CWCs. The initial PSF biomass (step 2) immediately depleted the organic matter concentration in the bottom layer to near zero across the whole model domain (see figure of Condor seamount below). As a result, the remaining organic matter concentration was insufficient to meet demands, which invoked a slow but steady reduction in PSF biomass over time. We conclude that the impact of PSF on bottom layer suspended OM concentration extends over large areas of the seafloor, including regions where the natural biomass is low. [7] The distribution of CWC at Rockall Bank and Condor seamount could be accurately modelled with suspended organic matter being parameterized as labile, fast-sinking organic matter, e.g. labile marine snow and zooplankton faecal pellets. The relatively fast sinking rate of this organic matter, gives a relatively low concentration in the water column, but the high current velocities around coral mounds ensure sufficient interception by the passive suspension feeding CWCs. [8] In contrast, the concentration of labile, fast-sinking organic matter OM proved grossly insufficient to meet the carbon demands of the active suspension feeding DWS. Only when we parameterized the suspended organic matter as slow sinking, relatively refractory organic matter the ambient concentration was sufficient to allow growth of DWS. This organic matter is likely characterised by smaller particles (microbial and [colloidal] DOM). The modelled DWS distribution matched field observations substantially better with slow-sinking organic matter as opposed to predictions based on fast-sinking organic matter. Experimental work (Deliverable 2.2) already hinted at these different feeding preferences between active and passive suspension feeders. We hypothesize that CWC (i.e. passive suspension feeders) and DWS (i.e. active suspension feeders) distribution on shelf breaks and slopes can be explained by a niche separation based on organic-matter type. [9] Model simulations for different AMOC states were run for each of the three case study areas. We cannot conclude from the results to what extent AMOC influences the biomass of CWC and DWS. As mentioned in [4], it proved challenging to reach a (dynamic) steady state for the models. As a result, it remained unclear whether the small differences in hydrodynamics between AMOC states truly governed differences in biomass development. In addition, tidal dynamics proved important for the transport of organic matter to the CWCs and the tidal forcing is not influenced by AMOC. We do however believe that the models are well suited for the exploration of mechanistic relations between distributions of CWCs and DWS and for example reductions in export of organic matter or changes in the type of exported organic matter.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Collart, T; Larkin, K; Pesant, S; Gafeira, J;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760)

    Marine data are needed for many purposes: for acquiring a better scientific understanding of the marine environment, but also, increasingly, to provide information and knowledge to support ocean and coastal economic developments and underpin evidence‐based ocean and wider environmental management decision making. Data must be of sufficient quality and at the right resolution to meet the specific users’ needs. They must also be accessible in a timely manner and in appropriate formats – not only in raw data but as integrated datasets, data products, etc. – for use by marine and maritime professionals. Such expert users span scientific research, policy and industry. In addition, providing engaging and user‐friendly interfaces and tools for wider society to explore marine data and information e.g. through visualisations, is vital to promote a knowledge‐driven, ocean literate society. In addition, the blue economy, policy makers, researchers and wider society increasingly require data that are Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable (FAIR) across multiple parameters, spatial scales and resolutions. Many data services and initiatives already exist in Europe and there is a drive towards collaboration and interoperability of these to ensure data can be discovered through web services by human queries and through machine‐to‐machine communication. This ATLAS deliverable (D8.4) is driven by the philosophy of Open Data and Open Science, adding value to the diverse datasets produced by ATLAS, making them more FAIR and so, ultimately, increasing their long‐term use and impact. To this end, project partner Seascape Belgium (SBE) provided and customised a web‐GIS Platform for the ATLAS project. Using an open source geospatial content management system – GeoNode – the ATLAS GeoNode was developed as a tool to share, visualise and download geospatial data with the ATLAS consortium and wider stakeholders. In addition, ATLAS data and data products are being ingested into the European Marine Observation Data Network (EMODnet) as a long‐term solution to data availability, discovery and use. This report summarises the work conducted by SBE, in collaboration with University of Bremen (UniHB) and the PANGAEA2 information and data publisher for earth and environmental data, British Geological Survey (BGS) and others partners, to valorise the marine data being produced by ATLAS, namely building on existing methods and tools to add value, use and impact of marine data along the pipeline from data production to end‐user. This contributes in particular to the 3rd key objective of ATLAS, to transform new data, tools and understanding and make it accessible to wider stakeholders for effective ocean governance. To achieve this, SBE has worked together with UniHB (as data management and WP8 lead) and BGS to assess, optimise and – where possible – innovate the data flows in place. A key focus has been at the mid‐point of the “data pipeline”, where curated data can be ‘valorised’ through methods including data visualisation and data integration, to make them more accessible to multiand inter‐disciplinary research communities and to wider stakeholders including policy and industry. SBE administers the EMODnet Secretariat, and so has been able to facilitate direct dialogues between EMODnet Data Ingestion and the seven thematic areas of EMODnet (Bathymetry, Biology, Chemistry, Geology, Human Activities, Physics and Seabed Habitats) with ATLAS data providers to ensure a longer‐term ingestion of data into EMODnet. As a North Atlantic basin scale project with strong industry partnerships ATLAS has offered an opportunity to assess data flows and pipelines from major research activities and projects via existing data publishers and assembly centres to EMODnet, and to recommend further ways to optimise these in the future. This report also looks at the relevance of ATLAS data and outputs to policy and industry, including recommendations from meetings and consultations conducted by ATLAS WP6 and WP7. These include recommendations from ATLAS D6.4 that a desire from offshore maritime industry to see greater connectivity and interoperability between marine data to increase their impact and use and to streamline the process of marine data discovery, uptake and exploitation. Particular focus has also been dedicated to investigate the flow of data from PANGAEA data publisher to EMODnet. This has resulted in stronger collaborations between the two initiatives, leading to more systemic and operational exchanges in data flows, including a move towards automated data harvesting. The project has also offered an opportunity to develop an innovative online GIS platform as a community tool for sharing and integrating geospatial data. This was developed as a pilot and the positive user feedback shows its potential for making data ‘come alive’, connecting it to wider stakeholders and offering useful maps and products which marine and maritime professionals can use for their professional needs e.g. marine spatial planning. Recommendations from this report in terms of data stewardship and data flows can be taken forward by marine data initiatives and by the marine research community in the future. The advances that have been taken in ATLAS towards FAIR data are important steps towards streamlining the ingestion of data into EMODnet. In EMODnet, data are discoverable through data and web services, contributing to the European Union’s policy on marine knowledge, the “Marine Knowledge 2020” initiative. Here, EMODnet has a key mandate to transform Europe’s fragmented data landscape into an interoperable sharing framework, in addition to supporting coordinated European observation activities. This will increases the information available, and therefore the efficiency, for marine and maritime professionals from industry, public authorities and academia to discover and use marine data, information and knowledge. This encourages innovation that reduces our present uncertainty as to what is happening beneath the sea surface. Beyond 2020, EMODnet is working with key data initiatives to federate existing infrastructure and contribute to a Blue‐Cloud cyber platform3 that will offer enhanced capabilities for marine research including a virtual research laboratories, computational power and storage and the latest data discovery and interoperability to access data from a large diversity of data initiatives and data providers.

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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
210 Research products, page 1 of 21
  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    Katharina Biely;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SUFISA (635577)

    The documents in these folders represent part of the qualitative data collection documentation. Research has been performed in Flanders (Belgium) in 2016 and 2017. Involved stakehodlers were flemish sugar beet farmers, processors as well as other value chain members. Though, the main stakeholders involved were farmers. The raw data cannot be published. Anonymized interview transcripts and focus group transcripts exist. However, as indicated in the informed consent, farmers did not agree to the raw data being published. The codes that resulted from data analysis are in this folder. Interview questions differed slightly from farmer to farmer as follow up questions may have been posed if needed. First interviews were performed, then focus groups were conducted and finally a workshop was organized. The qualitative reserach followed the research strategy and plan determined by the SUFISA project. On the project webpage (https://www.sufisa.eu/) more information can be found.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Katharina Biely;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SUFISA (635577)

    This is the English version of the informed consent that has been used for staekholder interactions. Similar forms have been used for focus groups and workshops.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tanhua, Toste; Kazanidis, Georgios; Sá, Sandra; Neves, Caique; Obaton, Dominique; Sylaios, Georgios;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | EurofleetsPlus (824077), EC | NAUTILOS (101000825), EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | Blue Cloud (862409), EC | JERICO-S3 (871153), EC | AtlantECO (862923), EC | ODYSSEA (727277), EC | EuroSea (862626), EC | ATLAS (678760), EC | MISSION ATLANTIC (862428)

    Ten innovative EU projects to build ocean observation systems that provide input for evidence-based management of the ocean and the Blue Economy, have joined forces in the strong cluster ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge’. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group published a joint policy brief listing recommendations for sustainable ocean observation and management. The cooperation is supported by the EU Horizon Results Booster and enables the group to achieve a higher societal impact. The policy brief will be presented to the European Commission on 15 October 2021. The ocean covers 70% of the Earth’s surface and provides us with a diverse set of ecosystem services that we cannot live without or that significantly improve our quality of life. It is the primary controller of our climate, plays a critical role in providing the air we breathe and the fresh water we drink, supplies us with a large range of exploitable resources (from inorganic resources such as sand and minerals to biotic resources such as seafood), allows us to generate renewable energy, is an important pathway for world transport, an important source of income for tourism, etc. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) evaluates the Blue Economy to currently represent 2.5% of the world economic value of goods and services produced, with the potential to further double in size by 2030 (seabed mining, shipping, fishing, tourism, renewable energy systems and aquaculture will intensify). However, the overall consequences of the intensification of human activities on marine ecosystems and their services (such as ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, sea level rise, changing distribution and abundance of fish etc.) are still poorly quantified. In addition, on larger geographic and temporal scales, marine data currently appear fragmented, are inhomogeneous, contain data gaps and are difficult to access. This limits our capacity to understand the ocean variability and sustainably manage the ocean and its resources. Consequently, there is a need to develop a framework for more in-depth understanding of marine ecosystems, that links reliable, timely and fit-for-purpose ocean observations to the design and implementation of evidence-based decisions on the management of the ocean. To adequately serve governments, societies, the sustainable Blue Economy and citizens, ocean data need to be collected and delivered in line with the Value Chain of Ocean Information: 1) identification of required data; 2) deployment and maintenance of instruments that collect the data; 3) delivery of data and derived information products; and 4) impact assessment of services to end users. To provide input to the possible future establishment of such a framework, ten innovative EU projects to build user-focused, interdisciplinary, responsive and sustained ocean information systems and increase the sustainability of the Blue Economy, joined forces in a strong cluster to better address key global marine challenges. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group translated its common concerns to recommendations and listed these in the joint policy brief ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge. Ocean Information for Sustainable Management.’. Following up on these recommendations will strengthen the entire Value Chain of Ocean Information and ensure sound sustainable ocean management. In this way, the 10 projects jointly strive to achieve goals set out in the EU Green Deal, the Paris Agreement (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and the United Nations 2021-2030 Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Ocean Development. Toste Tanhua (GEOMAR), EuroSea coordinator: “It was great to collaborate with these other innovative projects and make joint recommendations based on different perspectives and expertise.”

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Strauss, Jens; Abbott, Benjamin; Hugelius, Gustaf; Schuur, Edward. A. G.; Treat, Claire; Fuchs, Matthias; Schädel, Christina; Ulrich, Mathias; Turetsky, M. R.; Keuschnig, Markus; +3 more
    Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | PETA-CARB (338335)

    Permafrost is perennially frozen ground, such as soil, rock, and ice. In permafrost regions, plant and microbial life persists primarily in the near-surface soil that thaws every summer, called the ‘active layer’ (Figure 20). The cold and wet conditions in many permafrost regions limit decomposition of organic matter. In combination with soil mixing processes caused by repeated freezing and thawing, this has led to the accumulation of large stocks of soil organic carbon in the permafrost zone over multi-millennial timescales. As the climate warms, permafrost carbon could be highly vulnerable to climatic warming. Permafrost occurs primarily in high latitudes (e.g. Arctic and Antarctic) and at high elevation (e.g. Tibetan Plateau, Figure 21). The thickness of permafrost varies from less than 1 m (in boreal peatlands) to more than 1 500 m (in Yakutia). The coldest permafrost is found in the Transantarctic Mountains in Antarctica (−36°C) and in northern Canada for the Northern Hemisphere (-15°C; Obu et al., 2019, 2020). In contrast, some of the warmest permafrost occurs in peatlands in areas with mean air temperatures above 0°C. Here permafrost exists because thick peat layers insulate the ground during the summer. Most of the permafrost existing today formed during cold glacials (e.g. before 12 000 years ago) and has persisted through warmer interglacials. Some shallow permafrost (max 30–70m depth) formed during the Holocene (past 5000 years) and some even during the Little Ice Age from 400–150 years ago. There are few extensive regions suitable for row crop agriculture in the permafrost zone. Additionally, in areas where large-scale agriculture has been conducted, ground destabilization has been common. Surface disturbance such as plowing or trampling of vegetation can alter the thermal regime of the soil, potentially triggering surface subsidence or abrupt collapse. This may influence soil hydrology, nutrient cycling, and organic matter storage. These changes often have acute and negative consequences for continued agricultural use of such landscapes. Thus, row-crop agriculture could have a negative impact on permafrost (e.g. Grünzweig et al., 2014). Conversely, animal husbandry is widespread in the permafrost zone, including horses, cattle, and reindeer.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gaiarin, Sara Pittonet;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | AANChOR (818395), EC | AtlantECO (862923), EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | Blue Cloud (862409)

    The need for a change in culture (and curricula), stimulating standards adoption via engaging with best practice and exemplary use cases, further connecting ocean-observing data collection efforts and unlocking archives with historical data: the outcomes of the workshop organised by Blue-Cloud on June 3rd engaged experts across the Atlantic in a dialogue to identify needs and challenges of data sharing ‘pole to pole’ and gave some recommendations towards setting up an Atlantic Data space for the ocean

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ramos, Manuela; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Morato, Telmo;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760), EC | iAtlantic (818123)

    Objectives: To explore deep-sea areas of the Azores EEZ to better understand the distribution patterns of large VME species and commercial fishes. Specifically, the objectives of the cruise were to (i) continue the characterization of benthic communities inhabiting the slopes of Terceira and neighboring submarine ridges, (ii) identify new areas that may fit the FAO definition of what constitutes a Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem; and (iii) to contribute with additional data to address patterns and drivers of the distribution of deep-sea benthic biodiversity in the Azores region. It will also provide valuable information in the context of Good Environmental Status (GES), Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) and provide new insights on how to sustainably manage deep-sea ecosystems. Vessel: R/V Pelagia Chief scientist: Fleur Visser (NIOZ) Scientific team: Manuela Ramos (IMAR-UAç) Cruise summary: Six new dives were performed by the towed camera system of R/V Pelagia during the cruise. Four dives were performed on the southern Terceira island depression, covering a depth range between 1300 and 1900 m. The remaining two dives were performed in the Serreta Ridge, WNW of Terceira, between 780 and 1100 m depth. Overall, we collected 6 h of new video footage.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bode, A. (Antonio); Olivar, M.P. (María Pilar); Hernández-León, S. (Santiago);
    Publisher: Centro Oceanográfico de A Coruña
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | TRIATLAS (817578)

    The values of natural abundance of stable isotopes were measured in 13 micronekton fish species sampled during the BATHYPELAGIC cruise (North Atlantic, June 2018). This dataset contains the values obtained for carbon and nitrogen in bulk tissues, and nitrogen values in amino acids. Length and biomass data for each individual analyzed are also provided. Fishes were collected using a ''Mesopelagos” net (5x7 m mouth opening, 58 m total lenght) equipped with graded-mesh netting (starting with 30 mm and ending with 4 mm) and a multi-sampler for collecting samples from 5 different depth layers (Olivar et al., 2017). Individual fish were eviscerated, freeze-dried and weighted. Aliquots of muscular tissue (or whole individuals for species of small size) were analyzed in an elemental analyzer (bulk tissues, Olivar et al., 2019) or a gas chromatograph (derivatized amino acids, Mompeán et al., 2016) coupled to isotope-ratio mass spectrometers. Carbon analyses were made before and after removal of lipids with a mixture of trichloromethane:methanol:water. This research was funded by projects BATHYPELAGIC (CTM2016-78853-R) from the Plan Estatal de I+D+I (Spain), SUMMER (Grant Agreement 817806) and TRIATLAS (Grant Agreement 817578), from the European Union (Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme), and Grant Number IN607A2018/2 from the Axencia Galega de Innovación (GAIN, Xunta de Galicia, Spain).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Grehan, A; Hynes, S; Callery, O; Norton, D; Gafeira, J; Burnett, K; Foley, N; Stirling, D; González-Irusta, J-M; Morato, T; +1 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760)

    The Convention on Biological Diversity in 2004 set out 12 principles to underpin implementation of the ecosystem approach that can be broadly grouped into four categories: People - The care of nature is a shared responsibility for all of society; we most value all knowledge and perspectives; we most involve more of society in decisions. Scale and Dynamics - Work at the right geographic scale and timescale; look well ahead into the future; work with inevitable environmental change. Functions and services - Maintain the flow of ecosystem services; work within the capacity of natural systems; balance the demand for use and conservation of the environment. Management - Allow decisions to be led locally, as far as practicable; assess the effects of decisions on others; consider economic factors. Fifteen years later the integration of ecosystem services and natural capital into environmental assessment is still very much in its infancy. Despite their seemingly remote nature, deep sea benthic habitats generate ecosystem services which provide benefits to society. Examples of these ecosystem services include provisioning ecosystem services such as fisheries, regulating ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and maintenance of biodiversity and cultural ecosystems such as existence value. This report examines the assessment, mapping and valuation of ecosystem services in the marine and specifically for deep sea benthic habitats in the ATLAS case studies. For the provisioning ecosystem service of fisheries, a comparison is made between qualitative and quantitative approaches in methods of measuring and mapping ecosystem services generated from benthic habitats. In addition, this report has collated maps assessing the risk of fisheries impact - the most widespread and impacting human activity in the North Atlantic – in areas where vulnerable marine ecosystems and fish habitat are likely to occur in each ATLAS case study. This work presented as an atlas will provide a foundation to underpin subsequent testing of blue growth scenarios in each of the case studies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    van Oevelen, D; de Froe, E; Mohn, C; Soetaert, K;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760)

    [1] An important goal of WP2 was to develop mechanistic and predictive models for the distribution and metabolic activity of cold-water corals (CWCs) and deep-water sponges (DWS) and use these models to understand how their distribution is affected by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). [2] Output from hydrodynamic models (VIKING20 or ROMS-Agrif) was used to simulate transport of reactive organic matter in the water column around CWC reefs of DWS grounds. The approach is inspired by Soetaert et al. (2016), in which suspended organic matter dynamics above coral mounds was simulated. Here, we extend this methodology by having CWCs and DWS feeding on the suspended organic matter in the bottom layer using simple formulations for passive (CWC) and active (DWS) suspension feeding and metabolic activity. Physiological model formulation was based on data collected within ATLAS (Deliverables 2.1 and 2.2). [3] We focus on three ATLAS Study regions: 1) large CWC mounds, dominated and formed by the scleractinians Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, in the Logachev mound province in the south-eastern section of Rockall Bank, 2) coral gardens, dominated by the soft-coral Viminella flagellum, on Condor seamount, and 3) extensive sponge grounds, dominated by Geodia barretti along the east Canadian shelf break in Davis Strait. [4] We faced considerable computational challenges when developing the coupled models. CWC and DWS growth is slow, which implies that long simulation periods are needed to reach a (dynamic) steady state. Long simulation periods are not feasible given the high spatial and temporal (i.e. with tidal dynamics) resolution of the models. A 3-step solution procedure is proposed to tackle this issue, in which in step 1 initial suspended organic matter (OM) concentrations in the water column are calculated. In step 2, the bottom layer concentrations from step 1 are used to calculate initial concentrations for CWCs or DWS. In step 3, the coupled model is run with suspended organic matter (step 1) and CWC or DWS (step 2) as starting conditions. This approach sufficed for most of the model applications, but we acknowledge that some regions in the different model domains have not yet reached a (dynamic) steady state. [5] The coupled models, based on hydrodynamics, organic matter biogeochemistry and physiology of reef-forming organisms, successfully predicted the coral and sponge distribution and biomass in the three case study areas and thereby provide a new mechanistic tool to understand the distribution (see figure below) and metabolic (not shown) activity of hotspot ecosystems. [6] A striking result for Rockall Bank and Condor Seamount was that the suspended organic matter concentration in the bottom layer of the model domain was heavily modified by the passive suspension feeding CWCs. The initial PSF biomass (step 2) immediately depleted the organic matter concentration in the bottom layer to near zero across the whole model domain (see figure of Condor seamount below). As a result, the remaining organic matter concentration was insufficient to meet demands, which invoked a slow but steady reduction in PSF biomass over time. We conclude that the impact of PSF on bottom layer suspended OM concentration extends over large areas of the seafloor, including regions where the natural biomass is low. [7] The distribution of CWC at Rockall Bank and Condor seamount could be accurately modelled with suspended organic matter being parameterized as labile, fast-sinking organic matter, e.g. labile marine snow and zooplankton faecal pellets. The relatively fast sinking rate of this organic matter, gives a relatively low concentration in the water column, but the high current velocities around coral mounds ensure sufficient interception by the passive suspension feeding CWCs. [8] In contrast, the concentration of labile, fast-sinking organic matter OM proved grossly insufficient to meet the carbon demands of the active suspension feeding DWS. Only when we parameterized the suspended organic matter as slow sinking, relatively refractory organic matter the ambient concentration was sufficient to allow growth of DWS. This organic matter is likely characterised by smaller particles (microbial and [colloidal] DOM). The modelled DWS distribution matched field observations substantially better with slow-sinking organic matter as opposed to predictions based on fast-sinking organic matter. Experimental work (Deliverable 2.2) already hinted at these different feeding preferences between active and passive suspension feeders. We hypothesize that CWC (i.e. passive suspension feeders) and DWS (i.e. active suspension feeders) distribution on shelf breaks and slopes can be explained by a niche separation based on organic-matter type. [9] Model simulations for different AMOC states were run for each of the three case study areas. We cannot conclude from the results to what extent AMOC influences the biomass of CWC and DWS. As mentioned in [4], it proved challenging to reach a (dynamic) steady state for the models. As a result, it remained unclear whether the small differences in hydrodynamics between AMOC states truly governed differences in biomass development. In addition, tidal dynamics proved important for the transport of organic matter to the CWCs and the tidal forcing is not influenced by AMOC. We do however believe that the models are well suited for the exploration of mechanistic relations between distributions of CWCs and DWS and for example reductions in export of organic matter or changes in the type of exported organic matter.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Collart, T; Larkin, K; Pesant, S; Gafeira, J;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760)

    Marine data are needed for many purposes: for acquiring a better scientific understanding of the marine environment, but also, increasingly, to provide information and knowledge to support ocean and coastal economic developments and underpin evidence‐based ocean and wider environmental management decision making. Data must be of sufficient quality and at the right resolution to meet the specific users’ needs. They must also be accessible in a timely manner and in appropriate formats – not only in raw data but as integrated datasets, data products, etc. – for use by marine and maritime professionals. Such expert users span scientific research, policy and industry. In addition, providing engaging and user‐friendly interfaces and tools for wider society to explore marine data and information e.g. through visualisations, is vital to promote a knowledge‐driven, ocean literate society. In addition, the blue economy, policy makers, researchers and wider society increasingly require data that are Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable (FAIR) across multiple parameters, spatial scales and resolutions. Many data services and initiatives already exist in Europe and there is a drive towards collaboration and interoperability of these to ensure data can be discovered through web services by human queries and through machine‐to‐machine communication. This ATLAS deliverable (D8.4) is driven by the philosophy of Open Data and Open Science, adding value to the diverse datasets produced by ATLAS, making them more FAIR and so, ultimately, increasing their long‐term use and impact. To this end, project partner Seascape Belgium (SBE) provided and customised a web‐GIS Platform for the ATLAS project. Using an open source geospatial content management system – GeoNode – the ATLAS GeoNode was developed as a tool to share, visualise and download geospatial data with the ATLAS consortium and wider stakeholders. In addition, ATLAS data and data products are being ingested into the European Marine Observation Data Network (EMODnet) as a long‐term solution to data availability, discovery and use. This report summarises the work conducted by SBE, in collaboration with University of Bremen (UniHB) and the PANGAEA2 information and data publisher for earth and environmental data, British Geological Survey (BGS) and others partners, to valorise the marine data being produced by ATLAS, namely building on existing methods and tools to add value, use and impact of marine data along the pipeline from data production to end‐user. This contributes in particular to the 3rd key objective of ATLAS, to transform new data, tools and understanding and make it accessible to wider stakeholders for effective ocean governance. To achieve this, SBE has worked together with UniHB (as data management and WP8 lead) and BGS to assess, optimise and – where possible – innovate the data flows in place. A key focus has been at the mid‐point of the “data pipeline”, where curated data can be ‘valorised’ through methods including data visualisation and data integration, to make them more accessible to multiand inter‐disciplinary research communities and to wider stakeholders including policy and industry. SBE administers the EMODnet Secretariat, and so has been able to facilitate direct dialogues between EMODnet Data Ingestion and the seven thematic areas of EMODnet (Bathymetry, Biology, Chemistry, Geology, Human Activities, Physics and Seabed Habitats) with ATLAS data providers to ensure a longer‐term ingestion of data into EMODnet. As a North Atlantic basin scale project with strong industry partnerships ATLAS has offered an opportunity to assess data flows and pipelines from major research activities and projects via existing data publishers and assembly centres to EMODnet, and to recommend further ways to optimise these in the future. This report also looks at the relevance of ATLAS data and outputs to policy and industry, including recommendations from meetings and consultations conducted by ATLAS WP6 and WP7. These include recommendations from ATLAS D6.4 that a desire from offshore maritime industry to see greater connectivity and interoperability between marine data to increase their impact and use and to streamline the process of marine data discovery, uptake and exploitation. Particular focus has also been dedicated to investigate the flow of data from PANGAEA data publisher to EMODnet. This has resulted in stronger collaborations between the two initiatives, leading to more systemic and operational exchanges in data flows, including a move towards automated data harvesting. The project has also offered an opportunity to develop an innovative online GIS platform as a community tool for sharing and integrating geospatial data. This was developed as a pilot and the positive user feedback shows its potential for making data ‘come alive’, connecting it to wider stakeholders and offering useful maps and products which marine and maritime professionals can use for their professional needs e.g. marine spatial planning. Recommendations from this report in terms of data stewardship and data flows can be taken forward by marine data initiatives and by the marine research community in the future. The advances that have been taken in ATLAS towards FAIR data are important steps towards streamlining the ingestion of data into EMODnet. In EMODnet, data are discoverable through data and web services, contributing to the European Union’s policy on marine knowledge, the “Marine Knowledge 2020” initiative. Here, EMODnet has a key mandate to transform Europe’s fragmented data landscape into an interoperable sharing framework, in addition to supporting coordinated European observation activities. This will increases the information available, and therefore the efficiency, for marine and maritime professionals from industry, public authorities and academia to discover and use marine data, information and knowledge. This encourages innovation that reduces our present uncertainty as to what is happening beneath the sea surface. Beyond 2020, EMODnet is working with key data initiatives to federate existing infrastructure and contribute to a Blue‐Cloud cyber platform3 that will offer enhanced capabilities for marine research including a virtual research laboratories, computational power and storage and the latest data discovery and interoperability to access data from a large diversity of data initiatives and data providers.