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5 Research products, page 1 of 1

  • European Marine Science
  • Other research products
  • 2018-2022
  • Academy of Finland
  • FI

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elovaara, Samu; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Asmala, Eero; Tamelander, Tobias; Kaartokallio, Hermanni;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: AKA | Impact of climatic variab... (309748)

    The data were collected from an experiment using phytoplankton cultures (Apocalathium malmogiense and Rhodomonas marina). The aim of the experiment was to study carbon cycling among phytoplankton and bacteria, and the effects on the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool. Measured variables include phytoplankton and bacterial abundance, primary production, bacterial production and respiration, 14C-transfer from phytoplankton to DOM and bacteria, concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, phosphate and chlorophyll a, and optical characteristics of dissolved organic matter. The experiment was conducted at Tvärminne Zoological Station, Hanko, Finland with non-axenic unialgal phytoplankton cultures and bacteria originating from the Baltic Sea. The experiment was conducted between Dec. 2017 and Apr. 2018. The experiment consisted of two parts, the DOM release experiment (part 1) and the DOM consumption experiment (part 2). Separate triplicate batch cultures of both phytoplankton species were grown for each experiment. In the DOM release experiment the cultures were grown for over 4 months and three day-long incubations (key point incubations, KPI's) were initiated on three occasions; the first KPI at early exponential growth phase and the second and third KPI's when the phytoplankton had grown more abundant. During each KPI and aliquot of the culture was inoculated with freshly collected sea water bacteria, and bacterial community composition was measured. This aliquot was then divided into two further aliquots; one was incubated with radioisotopes for productivity (primary and bacterial production) and 14C-flow analyses (production line) and one filtered through 0.8 µm for analysis of DOM optical properties. During the KPI's measurements were taken at 0, 4, 8 and 12 h. Nutrient concentrations (measured from non-filtered and 0.8 µm filtered samples) and concentration of dissolved organic carbon were measured only at 0 and 12 h. Concentrations of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen and chlorophyll a were measured only once for each KPI at the beginning of the incubation. In the DOM consumption experiments the cultures were grown to high abundance, after which the phytoplankton and most of the bacteria were filtered out. The filtrate was then inoculated with freshly collected sea water bacteria, after which it was incubated for 7 days. Bacterial abundance, production, respiration, and community composition, and concentration and optical properties of DOM were measured daily. The experimental design is explained in figure 1 of the associated publication.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Spilling, Kristian;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: AKA | Changing phytoplankton co... (259164), EC | ASSEMBLE (227799)

    In an enclosure experiment, we employed two levels of inorganic NP ratios (10 and 5) for three distinct plankton communities collected along the coast of central Chile (33ºS). Each combination of community and NP level was replicated three times. The experiment lasted 12 days, and the data set include inorganic nutrients (NO3, PO4, DSi), particular organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON) and phosphorus (POP), Chlorophyll a, a range of fluorescence based measurements such as photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and community data. The primary effect of the NP treatment was related to different concentrations of NO3, which directly influenced the biomass of phytoplankton. Additionally, low inorganic NP ratio reduced the seston NP and Chl a-C ratios, and there were some effects on the plankton community composition, e.g. benefitting Synechococcus spp in some communities.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Kotta, Jonne; Weinberger, Florian; Jormalainen, Veijo; Kraufvelin, Patrik; Molis, Markus; Schubert, Hendrik; Pavia, Henrik; Nylund, Göran M; Kautsky, Lena; +8 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: AKA | Regulation of littoral bi... (251102)

    Data on morphological and biochemical traits of the bladderwrack Fucus vesiculosus were obtained from individuals simultaneously collected in September 2011 in 20 stations along the Baltic Sea and 4 stations in the North Sea. The individuals included in the analysis were collected at 0.5-1.0 m depth. Frond length, frond width, stipe width and number of fronds were directly determined in the field. All collected individuals were transported to the laboratory in cooler boxes at temperatures below 5 °C, then frozen at -20 °C within 12 h, and shipped to the GEOMAR-Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (Germany) on dry ice. Measurements of chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin in surface and tissue extracts, mannitol, phlorotannins and carbon:nitrogen ratio were performed in the laboratory (see further methodological details in the related article). The relative palatability of the algal material collected in all 24 stations was determined in palatability assays, using reconstituted algal pellets and the pan-Baltic grazer Idotea balthica. In addition to the trait information, environmental data on sea surface salinity, sea surface summer temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), wave exposure and total nitrogen have been obtained from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) or local monitoring services.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gladstone, Rupert Michael; Warner, Roland Charles; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin Keith; Gagliardini, Olivier; Zwinger, Thomas; Greve, Ralf;
    Project: AKA | Simulating Antarctic mari... (286587), EC | CRAG (299035)

    Computer models are necessary for understanding and predicting marine ice sheet behaviour. However, there is uncertainty over implementation of physical processes at the ice base, both for grounded and floating glacial ice. Here we implement several sliding relations in a marine ice sheet flow-line model accounting for all stress components and demonstrate that model resolution requirements are strongly dependent on both the choice of basal sliding relation and the spatial distribution of ice shelf basal melting.Sliding relations that reduce the magnitude of the step change in basal drag from grounded ice to floating ice (where basal drag is set to zero) show reduced dependence on resolution compared to a commonly used relation, in which basal drag is purely a power law function of basal ice velocity. Sliding relations in which basal drag goes smoothly to zero as the grounding line is approached from inland (due to a physically motivated incorporation of effective pressure at the bed) provide further reduction in resolution dependence.A similar issue is found with the imposition of basal melt under the floating part of the ice shelf: melt parameterisations that reduce the abruptness of change in basal melting from grounded ice (where basal melt is set to zero) to floating ice provide improved convergence with resolution compared to parameterisations in which high melt occurs adjacent to the grounding line.Thus physical processes, such as sub-glacial outflow (which could cause high melt near the grounding line), impact on capability to simulate marine ice sheets. If there exists an abrupt change across the grounding line in either basal drag or basal melting, then high resolution will be required to solve the problem. However, the plausible combination of a physical dependency of basal drag on effective pressure, and the possibility of low ice shelf basal melt rates next to the grounding line, may mean that some marine ice sheet systems can be reliably simulated at a coarser resolution than currently thought necessary.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Jilbert, Tom; Jakobs, Gunnar; Rehder, Gregor; Werner, Jan; Hietanen, Susanna;
    Project: AKA | Nitrogen processes in the... (139267), AKA | Biogeochemical links betw... (267112), AKA | Biogeochemical links betw... (272964), EC | EUROFLEETS2 (312762)

    In late 2014, a large, oxygen-rich salt water inflow entered the Baltic Sea and caused considerable changes in deep water oxygen concentrations. We studied the effects of the inflow on the concentration patterns of two greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide, during the following year (2015) in the water column of the Gotland Basin. In the eastern basin, methane which had previously accumulated in the deep waters was largely removed during the year. Here, volume-weighted mean concentration below 70 m decreased from 108 nM in March to 16.3 nM over a period of 141 days (0.65 nM d−1), predominantly due to oxidation (up to 79 %) following turbulent mixing with the oxygen-rich inflow. In contrast nitrous oxide, which was previously absent from deep waters, accumulated in deep waters due to enhanced nitrification following the inflow. Volume-weighted mean concentration of nitrous oxide below 70 m increased from 11.8 nM in March to 24.4 nM in 141 days (0.09 nM d−1). A transient extreme accumulation of nitrous oxide (877 nM) was observed in the deep waters of the Eastern Gotland Basin towards the end of 2015, when deep waters turned anoxic again, sedimentary denitrification was induced and methane was reintroduced to the bottom waters. The Western Gotland Basin gas biogeochemistry was not affected by the inflow.

Advanced search in Research products
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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
5 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elovaara, Samu; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Asmala, Eero; Tamelander, Tobias; Kaartokallio, Hermanni;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: AKA | Impact of climatic variab... (309748)

    The data were collected from an experiment using phytoplankton cultures (Apocalathium malmogiense and Rhodomonas marina). The aim of the experiment was to study carbon cycling among phytoplankton and bacteria, and the effects on the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool. Measured variables include phytoplankton and bacterial abundance, primary production, bacterial production and respiration, 14C-transfer from phytoplankton to DOM and bacteria, concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, phosphate and chlorophyll a, and optical characteristics of dissolved organic matter. The experiment was conducted at Tvärminne Zoological Station, Hanko, Finland with non-axenic unialgal phytoplankton cultures and bacteria originating from the Baltic Sea. The experiment was conducted between Dec. 2017 and Apr. 2018. The experiment consisted of two parts, the DOM release experiment (part 1) and the DOM consumption experiment (part 2). Separate triplicate batch cultures of both phytoplankton species were grown for each experiment. In the DOM release experiment the cultures were grown for over 4 months and three day-long incubations (key point incubations, KPI's) were initiated on three occasions; the first KPI at early exponential growth phase and the second and third KPI's when the phytoplankton had grown more abundant. During each KPI and aliquot of the culture was inoculated with freshly collected sea water bacteria, and bacterial community composition was measured. This aliquot was then divided into two further aliquots; one was incubated with radioisotopes for productivity (primary and bacterial production) and 14C-flow analyses (production line) and one filtered through 0.8 µm for analysis of DOM optical properties. During the KPI's measurements were taken at 0, 4, 8 and 12 h. Nutrient concentrations (measured from non-filtered and 0.8 µm filtered samples) and concentration of dissolved organic carbon were measured only at 0 and 12 h. Concentrations of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen and chlorophyll a were measured only once for each KPI at the beginning of the incubation. In the DOM consumption experiments the cultures were grown to high abundance, after which the phytoplankton and most of the bacteria were filtered out. The filtrate was then inoculated with freshly collected sea water bacteria, after which it was incubated for 7 days. Bacterial abundance, production, respiration, and community composition, and concentration and optical properties of DOM were measured daily. The experimental design is explained in figure 1 of the associated publication.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Spilling, Kristian;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: AKA | Changing phytoplankton co... (259164), EC | ASSEMBLE (227799)

    In an enclosure experiment, we employed two levels of inorganic NP ratios (10 and 5) for three distinct plankton communities collected along the coast of central Chile (33ºS). Each combination of community and NP level was replicated three times. The experiment lasted 12 days, and the data set include inorganic nutrients (NO3, PO4, DSi), particular organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON) and phosphorus (POP), Chlorophyll a, a range of fluorescence based measurements such as photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and community data. The primary effect of the NP treatment was related to different concentrations of NO3, which directly influenced the biomass of phytoplankton. Additionally, low inorganic NP ratio reduced the seston NP and Chl a-C ratios, and there were some effects on the plankton community composition, e.g. benefitting Synechococcus spp in some communities.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Kotta, Jonne; Weinberger, Florian; Jormalainen, Veijo; Kraufvelin, Patrik; Molis, Markus; Schubert, Hendrik; Pavia, Henrik; Nylund, Göran M; Kautsky, Lena; +8 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: AKA | Regulation of littoral bi... (251102)

    Data on morphological and biochemical traits of the bladderwrack Fucus vesiculosus were obtained from individuals simultaneously collected in September 2011 in 20 stations along the Baltic Sea and 4 stations in the North Sea. The individuals included in the analysis were collected at 0.5-1.0 m depth. Frond length, frond width, stipe width and number of fronds were directly determined in the field. All collected individuals were transported to the laboratory in cooler boxes at temperatures below 5 °C, then frozen at -20 °C within 12 h, and shipped to the GEOMAR-Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (Germany) on dry ice. Measurements of chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin in surface and tissue extracts, mannitol, phlorotannins and carbon:nitrogen ratio were performed in the laboratory (see further methodological details in the related article). The relative palatability of the algal material collected in all 24 stations was determined in palatability assays, using reconstituted algal pellets and the pan-Baltic grazer Idotea balthica. In addition to the trait information, environmental data on sea surface salinity, sea surface summer temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), wave exposure and total nitrogen have been obtained from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) or local monitoring services.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gladstone, Rupert Michael; Warner, Roland Charles; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin Keith; Gagliardini, Olivier; Zwinger, Thomas; Greve, Ralf;
    Project: AKA | Simulating Antarctic mari... (286587), EC | CRAG (299035)

    Computer models are necessary for understanding and predicting marine ice sheet behaviour. However, there is uncertainty over implementation of physical processes at the ice base, both for grounded and floating glacial ice. Here we implement several sliding relations in a marine ice sheet flow-line model accounting for all stress components and demonstrate that model resolution requirements are strongly dependent on both the choice of basal sliding relation and the spatial distribution of ice shelf basal melting.Sliding relations that reduce the magnitude of the step change in basal drag from grounded ice to floating ice (where basal drag is set to zero) show reduced dependence on resolution compared to a commonly used relation, in which basal drag is purely a power law function of basal ice velocity. Sliding relations in which basal drag goes smoothly to zero as the grounding line is approached from inland (due to a physically motivated incorporation of effective pressure at the bed) provide further reduction in resolution dependence.A similar issue is found with the imposition of basal melt under the floating part of the ice shelf: melt parameterisations that reduce the abruptness of change in basal melting from grounded ice (where basal melt is set to zero) to floating ice provide improved convergence with resolution compared to parameterisations in which high melt occurs adjacent to the grounding line.Thus physical processes, such as sub-glacial outflow (which could cause high melt near the grounding line), impact on capability to simulate marine ice sheets. If there exists an abrupt change across the grounding line in either basal drag or basal melting, then high resolution will be required to solve the problem. However, the plausible combination of a physical dependency of basal drag on effective pressure, and the possibility of low ice shelf basal melt rates next to the grounding line, may mean that some marine ice sheet systems can be reliably simulated at a coarser resolution than currently thought necessary.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Jilbert, Tom; Jakobs, Gunnar; Rehder, Gregor; Werner, Jan; Hietanen, Susanna;
    Project: AKA | Nitrogen processes in the... (139267), AKA | Biogeochemical links betw... (267112), AKA | Biogeochemical links betw... (272964), EC | EUROFLEETS2 (312762)

    In late 2014, a large, oxygen-rich salt water inflow entered the Baltic Sea and caused considerable changes in deep water oxygen concentrations. We studied the effects of the inflow on the concentration patterns of two greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide, during the following year (2015) in the water column of the Gotland Basin. In the eastern basin, methane which had previously accumulated in the deep waters was largely removed during the year. Here, volume-weighted mean concentration below 70 m decreased from 108 nM in March to 16.3 nM over a period of 141 days (0.65 nM d−1), predominantly due to oxidation (up to 79 %) following turbulent mixing with the oxygen-rich inflow. In contrast nitrous oxide, which was previously absent from deep waters, accumulated in deep waters due to enhanced nitrification following the inflow. Volume-weighted mean concentration of nitrous oxide below 70 m increased from 11.8 nM in March to 24.4 nM in 141 days (0.09 nM d−1). A transient extreme accumulation of nitrous oxide (877 nM) was observed in the deep waters of the Eastern Gotland Basin towards the end of 2015, when deep waters turned anoxic again, sedimentary denitrification was induced and methane was reintroduced to the bottom waters. The Western Gotland Basin gas biogeochemistry was not affected by the inflow.