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86 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2018-2022
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  • European Commission
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Angelopoulos, Michael; Damm, Ellen; Simões Pereira, Patric; Abrahamsson, Katarina; +42 Authors

    We present sea ice temperature and salinity data from first-year ice (FYI) and second-year ice (SYI) relevant to the temporal development of sea ice permeability and brine drainage efficiency from the early growth phase in October 2019 to the onset of spring warming in May 2020. Our dataset was collected in the central Arctic Ocean during the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) Expedition in 2019 to 2020. MOSAiC was an international transpolar drift expedition in which the German icebreaker RV Polarstern anchored into an ice floe to gain new insights into Arctic climate over a full annual cycle. In October 2019, RV Polarstern moored to an ice floe in the Siberian sector of the Arctic at 85 degrees north and 137 degrees east to begin the drift towards the North Pole and the Fram Strait via the Transpolar Drift Stream. The data presented here were collected during the first three legs of the expedition, so all the coring activities took place on the same floe. The end dates of legs 1, 2, and 3 were 13 December, 24 February, and 4 June, respectively. The dataset contributed to a baseline study entitled, Deciphering the properties of different Arctic ice types during the growth phase of the MOSAiC floes: Implications for future studies. The study highlights downward directed gas pathways in FYI and SYI by inferring sea ice permeability and potential brine release from several time series of temperature and salinity measurements. The physical properties presented in this paper lay the foundation for subsequent analyses on actual gas contents measured in the ice cores, as well as air-ice and ice-ocean gas fluxes. Sea ice cores were collected with a Kovacs Mark II 9 cm diameter corer. To measure ice temperatures, about 4.5 cm deep holes were drilled into the core (intervals varied by site and leg) . The temperatures were measured by a digital thermometer within minutes after the cores were retrieved. The ice cores were placed into pre-labelled plastic sleeves sealed at the bottom end. The ice cores were transported to RV Polarstern and stored in a -20 degrees Celsius freezer. Each of the cores was sub-sampled, melted at room temperature, and processed for salinity within one or two days. The practical salinity was estimated by measuring the electrical conductivity and temperature of the melted samples using a WTW Cond 3151 salinometer equipped with a Tetra-Con 325 four-electrode conductivity cell. The practical salinity represents the the salinity estimated from the electrical conductivity of the solution. The dataset also contains derived variables, including sea ice density, brine volume fraction, and the Rayleigh number.

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    Authors: Valente, André; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Brotas, Vanda; Groom, Steve; +73 Authors

    A global compilation of in situ data is vital to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here, we describe data compiled for the validation of ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2021. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectance, concentration of chlorophyll-a, spectral inherent optical properties, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient and total suspended matter. The data were obtained from multi-project archives acquired via open internet services, or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The result is a merged table available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were propagated throughout the work and made available in the final table. By making the metadata available, provenance is better documented, and it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. This paper also describes the changes that were made to the compilation in relation to the previous version.

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  • Authors: Belgacem, Malek; Schroeder, Katrin; Barth, Alexander; Troupin, Charles; +4 Authors
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  • Authors: Sévéno, Julie; Sirjacobs, Damien; Witkowski, André; Gastineau,; +6 Authors

    GHaNA - The Genus Haslea, New marine resources for blue biotechnology and Aquaculture / STARE-CAPMED

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  • Authors: Simoncelli, Simona; Coatanoan, Christine; Myroshnychenko, Volodymyr; Bäck, Örjan; +10 Authors

    Data products, based on in situ temperature and salinity observations from SeaDataNet infrastructure, have been released within the framework of SeaDataCloud (SDC) project. The data from different data providers are integrated and harmonized thanks to standardized quality assurance and quality control methodologies conducted at various stages of the data value chain. The data ingested within SeaDataNet are earlier validated by data providers who assign corresponding quality flags, but a Quality Assurance Strategy has been implemented and progressively refined to guarantee the consistency of the database content and high quality derived products. Two versions of aggregated datasets for the European marginal seas have been published and used to compute regional high resolution climatologies. External datasets, the World Ocean Database from NOAA and the CORA dataset from the Copernicus Marine Service in situ Thematic Assembly Center, have been integrated with SDC data collections to maximize data coverage and minimize the mapping error. The products are available through the SDC catalogue accompanied by Product Information Documents containing the specifications about product’s generation, characteristics and usability. Digital Object Identifiers are assigned to products and relative documentation to foster transparency of the production chain, acknowledging all actors involved from data providers to information producers.

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    Authors: Stedmon, Colin A; Amon, Rainer M W; Bauch, Dorothea; Bracher, Astrid; +7 Authors

    Here we present a merged and calibrated dataset of temperature, practical salinity and dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence obtained from several Ice Tethered Profilers (ITPs) deployed across the central Arctic (2011-2016). The data offer a unique spatial coverage of the distribution of DOM in the surface 800 m below Arctic sea ice. A total of 5044 profiles are gathered. The ITP data are level 3 data products pressure-bin-averaged at 1-db vertical resolution with depth down to either 200 or approximately 750 m. Data (max 800m depth) from CTD casts made during two oceanographic cruises are also included. These were used as part of the calibration and validation of the ITP calibration routines. The cruises were PS94 (ARK-XXIX/3) with POLARSTERN in 2015 and NAACOS with DANA in 2012. The presented DOM fluorescence data are smoothed, corrected for instrument drift and calibrated to provide intercomparable data across the sensors. Fluorescence is reported in Raman Units (nm-1), and comparable to laboratory measurements conducted according to current community recommendations.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Shahzadi, Kanwal; Pinardi, Nadia; Barth, Alexander; Troupin, Charles; +2 Authors

    A new global ocean temperature and salinity climatology is proposed for two time periods: a long time mean using multiple sensor data for the 1900–2017 period and a shorter time mean using only profiling float data for the 2003–2017 period. We use the historical database of World Ocean Database 2018. The estimation approach is novel as an additional quality control procedure is implemented, along with a new mapping algorithm based on Data Interpolating Variational Analysis. The new procedure, in addition to the traditional quality control approach, resulted in low sensitivity in terms of the first guess field choice. The roughness index and the root mean square of residuals are new indices applied to the selection of the free mapping parameters along with sensitivity experiments. Overall, the new estimates were consistent with previous climatologies, but several differences were found. The cause of these discrepancies is difficult to identify due to several differences in the procedures. To minimise these uncertainties, a multi-model ensemble mean is proposed as the least uncertain estimate of the global ocean temperature and salinity climatology Refereed 14.a N/A Novel (no adoption outside originators) Method Specification of criteria

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    Authors: Barth, Alexander; Troupin, Charles; Emma, Reyes; Alvera Azcarate, Aida; +2 Authors

    DIVAnd (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis, in n-dimensions) is a tool to interpolate observations on a regular grid using the variational inverse method. We have extended DIVAnd to include additional dynamic constraints relevant to surface currents, including imposing a zero normal velocity at the coastline, imposing a low horizontal divergence of the surface currents, temporal coherence and simplified dynamics based on the Coriolis force and the possibility of including a surface pressure gradient. The impact of these constraints is evaluated by cross-validation using the HF (High-Frequency) radar surface current observations in the Ibiza Channel from the Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB). A small fraction of the radial current observations are set aside to validate the velocity reconstruction. The remaining radial currents from the two radar sites are combined to derive total surface currents using DIVAnd and then compared to the cross-validation data set and to drifter observations. The benefit of the dynamic constraints is shown relative to a variational interpolation without these dynamical constraints. The best results were obtained using the Coriolis force and the surface pressure gradient as a constraint which are able to improve the reconstruction from the Open-boundary Modal Analysis, a quite commonly used method to interpolate HF radar observations, once multiple time instances are considered together. SeaDataCloud project; JERICO-S3 project

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  • Authors: Watelet, Sylvain;

    In this study, the Gulf Stream’s (GS) response to the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is investigated by generating an observation-based reconstruction of the GS path between 70° and 50°W since 1940. Using in situ data from WOD, SeaDataNet, ICES, Hydrobase3 and ARGO floats, a harmonized database of more than 40 million entries is created. A variational inverse method implemented in the software DIVA (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) allows the production of time series of monthly analyses of temperature and salinity over the North Atlantic (NA). These time series are used to derive two GS indices: the GS North Wall (GSNW) index for position and the GS Delta (GSD) index as a proxy of its transport. We find a significant correlation (0.37) between the GSNW and the NAO at a lag of 1 year (NAO preceding GS) since 1940 and significant correlations (0.50 and 0.43) between the GSD and the NAO at lags of 0 and 2 years between 1960–2014. We suggest this 2-year lag is due to Rossby waves, generated by NAO variability, that propagate westwards from the center of the NA. This is the first reconstruction of GS indices over a 75-year period based on an objective method using the largest in situ dataset so far. This enhanced tracking and quantification of the GS confirms and extends the temporal scope of this property: NAO+ phases lead to a stronger and more northward GS, and conversely for NAO− phases. The teleconnections between the NAO and the variability of the GS were extensively studied these last years, often exhibiting time delays between both phenomena. These time lags, usually ranging between 0–2 years, are sometimes explained by the hypothesis of baroclinic Rossby waves generated by the NAO in the central NA and travelling westward before interacting with the GS. In this study, we use a numerical hindcast at an eddy-resolving resolution (1/12°) from the DRAKKAR project to examine the occurrence and properties of such Rossby waves between 1970–2015, thus including a large pre-TOPEX/Poseidon period. Through the use of a two-dimensional Radon Transform (2D-RT) on Hovmöller diagrams of the Sea Surface Height (SSH), a methodology easily portable to other oceanic model outputs, we show evidence of baroclinic Rossby waves travelling at 39°N at a speed of 4.17 cm/s. This study extends the period over which Rossby waves have been found that far north to a much longer period, which reinforces the findings of previous works. These results are consistent with the time lags observed between the NAO and the GS transport while the GS latitudinal shifts might obey additional processes. The Barents Sea, located between the Norwegian Sea and the Arctic Ocean, is one of the main pathways of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Changes in the water mass transformations in the Barents Sea potentially affect the thermohaline circulation through the alteration of the dense water formation process. In order to investigate such changes, we present here a seasonal atlas of the Barents Sea including both temperature and salinity for the period 1965–2016. The atlas is built as a compilation of datasets from the World Ocean Database, the Polar Branch of Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, and the Norwegian Polar Institute using the DIVA tool. DIVA allows for a minimization of the expected error variance with respect to the true field. The atlas is used to provide a volumetric analysis of water mass characteristics and an estimation of the ocean heat and freshwater contents. The results show a recent "Atlantification" of the Barents Sea, that is a general increase of both temperature and salinity, while its density remains stable. The atlas is made freely accessible as handy NetCDF files to encourage further research in the Barents Sea physics. SeaDataNet II

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    Authors: Clyne, Margot; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Mills, Michael J.; Khodri, Myriam; +19 Authors

    As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP), several climate modeling centers performed a coordinated pre-study experiment with interactive stratospheric aerosol models simulating the volcanic aerosol cloud from an eruption resembling the 1815 Mt. Tambora eruption (VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble). The pre-study provided the ancillary ability to assess intermodel diversity in the radiative forcing for a large stratospheric-injecting equatorial eruption when the volcanic aerosol cloud is simulated interactively. An initial analysis of the VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble showed large disparities between models in the stratospheric global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study, we now show that stratospheric global mean AOD differences among the participating models are primarily due to differences in aerosol size, which we track here by effective radius. We identify specific physical and chemical processes that are missing in some models and/or parameterized differently between models, which are together causing the differences in effective radius. In particular, our analysis indicates that interactively tracking hydroxyl radical (OH) chemistry following a large volcanic injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important factor in allowing for the timescale for sulfate formation to be properly simulated. In addition, depending on the timescale of sulfate formation, there can be a large difference in effective radius and subsequently AOD that results from whether the SO2 is injected in a single model grid cell near the location of the volcanic eruption, or whether it is injected as a longitudinally averaged band around the Earth.

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    Authors: Angelopoulos, Michael; Damm, Ellen; Simões Pereira, Patric; Abrahamsson, Katarina; +42 Authors

    We present sea ice temperature and salinity data from first-year ice (FYI) and second-year ice (SYI) relevant to the temporal development of sea ice permeability and brine drainage efficiency from the early growth phase in October 2019 to the onset of spring warming in May 2020. Our dataset was collected in the central Arctic Ocean during the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) Expedition in 2019 to 2020. MOSAiC was an international transpolar drift expedition in which the German icebreaker RV Polarstern anchored into an ice floe to gain new insights into Arctic climate over a full annual cycle. In October 2019, RV Polarstern moored to an ice floe in the Siberian sector of the Arctic at 85 degrees north and 137 degrees east to begin the drift towards the North Pole and the Fram Strait via the Transpolar Drift Stream. The data presented here were collected during the first three legs of the expedition, so all the coring activities took place on the same floe. The end dates of legs 1, 2, and 3 were 13 December, 24 February, and 4 June, respectively. The dataset contributed to a baseline study entitled, Deciphering the properties of different Arctic ice types during the growth phase of the MOSAiC floes: Implications for future studies. The study highlights downward directed gas pathways in FYI and SYI by inferring sea ice permeability and potential brine release from several time series of temperature and salinity measurements. The physical properties presented in this paper lay the foundation for subsequent analyses on actual gas contents measured in the ice cores, as well as air-ice and ice-ocean gas fluxes. Sea ice cores were collected with a Kovacs Mark II 9 cm diameter corer. To measure ice temperatures, about 4.5 cm deep holes were drilled into the core (intervals varied by site and leg) . The temperatures were measured by a digital thermometer within minutes after the cores were retrieved. The ice cores were placed into pre-labelled plastic sleeves sealed at the bottom end. The ice cores were transported to RV Polarstern and stored in a -20 degrees Celsius freezer. Each of the cores was sub-sampled, melted at room temperature, and processed for salinity within one or two days. The practical salinity was estimated by measuring the electrical conductivity and temperature of the melted samples using a WTW Cond 3151 salinometer equipped with a Tetra-Con 325 four-electrode conductivity cell. The practical salinity represents the the salinity estimated from the electrical conductivity of the solution. The dataset also contains derived variables, including sea ice density, brine volume fraction, and the Rayleigh number.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Valente, André; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Brotas, Vanda; Groom, Steve; +73 Authors

    A global compilation of in situ data is vital to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here, we describe data compiled for the validation of ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2021. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectance, concentration of chlorophyll-a, spectral inherent optical properties, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient and total suspended matter. The data were obtained from multi-project archives acquired via open internet services, or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The result is a merged table available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were propagated throughout the work and made available in the final table. By making the metadata available, provenance is better documented, and it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. This paper also describes the changes that were made to the compilation in relation to the previous version.

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  • Authors: Belgacem, Malek; Schroeder, Katrin; Barth, Alexander; Troupin, Charles; +4 Authors
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  • Authors: Sévéno, Julie; Sirjacobs, Damien; Witkowski, André; Gastineau,; +6 Authors

    GHaNA - The Genus Haslea, New marine resources for blue biotechnology and Aquaculture / STARE-CAPMED

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  • Authors: Simoncelli, Simona; Coatanoan, Christine; Myroshnychenko, Volodymyr; Bäck, Örjan; +10 Authors

    Data products, based on in situ temperature and salinity observations from SeaDataNet infrastructure, have been released within the framework of SeaDataCloud (SDC) project. The data from different data providers are integrated and harmonized thanks to standardized quality assurance and quality control methodologies conducted at various stages of the data value chain. The data ingested within SeaDataNet are earlier validated by data providers who assign corresponding quality flags, but a Quality Assurance Strategy has been implemented and progressively refined to guarantee the consistency of the database content and high quality derived products. Two versions of aggregated datasets for the European marginal seas have been published and used to compute regional high resolution climatologies. External datasets, the World Ocean Database from NOAA and the CORA dataset from the Copernicus Marine Service in situ Thematic Assembly Center, have been integrated with SDC data collections to maximize data coverage and minimize the mapping error. The products are available through the SDC catalogue accompanied by Product Information Documents containing the specifications about product’s generation, characteristics and usability. Digital Object Identifiers are assigned to products and relative documentation to foster transparency of the production chain, acknowledging all actors involved from data providers to information producers.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stedmon, Colin A; Amon, Rainer M W; Bauch, Dorothea; Bracher, Astrid; +7 Authors

    Here we present a merged and calibrated dataset of temperature, practical salinity and dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence obtained from several Ice Tethered Profilers (ITPs) deployed across the central Arctic (2011-2016). The data offer a unique spatial coverage of the distribution of DOM in the surface 800 m below Arctic sea ice. A total of 5044 profiles are gathered. The ITP data are level 3 data products pressure-bin-averaged at 1-db vertical resolution with depth down to either 200 or approximately 750 m. Data (max 800m depth) from CTD casts made during two oceanographic cruises are also included. These were used as part of the calibration and validation of the ITP calibration routines. The cruises were PS94 (ARK-XXIX/3) with POLARSTERN in 2015 and NAACOS with DANA in 2012. The presented DOM fluorescence data are smoothed, corrected for instrument drift and calibrated to provide intercomparable data across the sensors. Fluorescence is reported in Raman Units (nm-1), and comparable to laboratory measurements conducted according to current community recommendations.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma