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31 Research products, page 1 of 4

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bode, A. (Antonio); Olivar, M. Pilar; López-Pérez, Cristina; Hernández-León, Santiago;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | TRIATLAS (817578)

    The values of natural abundance of stable isotopes were measured in 13 micronekton fish species sampled during the MAFIA cruise (North Atlantic, April 2015). This dataset contains the values obtained for carbon and nitrogen in bulk tissues, and nitrogen values in amino acids. Length data and the number of individuals analysed for each species are also provided. Mesopelagic fishes were collected using a ''Mesopelagos” net (5x7 m mouth opening, 58 m total lenght) equipped with graded-mesh netting (starting with 30 mm and ending with 4 mm) and a multi-sampler for collecting samples from 5 different depth layers (Olivar et al., 2017). For C:N and stable isotope analyses, individual fish were eviscerated, freeze-dried and weighted. Aliquots of muscular tissue (or whole individuals for species of small size) were analyzed in an elemental analyzer (bulk tissues, Olivar et al., 2019) or a gas chromatograph (derivatized amino acids, Mompeán et al., 2016) coupled to isotope-ratio mass spectrometers. This research was funded by projects MAFIA (CTM2012-39587-C04), BATHYPELAGIC (CTM2016-78853-R), and QLOCKS (PID2020-115620RB-100) from the Plan Estatal de I+D+I (Spain), projects SUMMER (Grant Agreement 817806) and TRIATLAS (Grant Agreement 817578), from the European Union (Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme), and the support through the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Bode, A. (Antonio); Olivar, M.P. (María Pilar); Hernández-León, S. (Santiago);
    Publisher: Centro Oceanográfico de A Coruña
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | TRIATLAS (817578)

    The values of natural abundance of stable isotopes were measured in 13 micronekton fish species sampled during the BATHYPELAGIC cruise (North Atlantic, June 2018). This dataset contains the values obtained for carbon and nitrogen in bulk tissues, and nitrogen values in amino acids. Length and biomass data for each individual analyzed are also provided. Fishes were collected using a ''Mesopelagos” net (5x7 m mouth opening, 58 m total lenght) equipped with graded-mesh netting (starting with 30 mm and ending with 4 mm) and a multi-sampler for collecting samples from 5 different depth layers (Olivar et al., 2017). Individual fish were eviscerated, freeze-dried and weighted. Aliquots of muscular tissue (or whole individuals for species of small size) were analyzed in an elemental analyzer (bulk tissues, Olivar et al., 2019) or a gas chromatograph (derivatized amino acids, Mompeán et al., 2016) coupled to isotope-ratio mass spectrometers. Carbon analyses were made before and after removal of lipids with a mixture of trichloromethane:methanol:water. This research was funded by projects BATHYPELAGIC (CTM2016-78853-R) from the Plan Estatal de I+D+I (Spain), SUMMER (Grant Agreement 817806) and TRIATLAS (Grant Agreement 817578), from the European Union (Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme), and Grant Number IN607A2018/2 from the Axencia Galega de Innovación (GAIN, Xunta de Galicia, Spain).

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020 . Embargo End Date: 27 Aug 2020
    Authors: 
    Waldron, A.; Adams, V.; Allan, J.; Arnell, A.; Asner, G.; Atkinson, S.; Baccini, A.; Baillie, J.; Balmford, A.; Austin Beau, J.; +103 more
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: Austria
    Project: EC | TRIATLAS (817578), EC | BIGSEA (682602)

    Working paper analysing the economic implications of the proposed 30% target for areal protection in the draft post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hopwood, Mark J.; Sanchez, Nicolas; Polyviou, Despo; Leiknes, Øystein; Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto; Achterberg, Eric P.; Ardelan, Murat V.; Aristegui, Javier; Bach, Lennart; Besiktepe, Sengul; +6 more
    Project: EC | OCEAN-CERTAIN (603773)

    The extracellular concentration of H2O2 in surface aquatic environments is controlled by a balance between photochemical production and the microbial synthesis of catalase and peroxidase enzymes to remove H2O2 from solution. In any kind of incubation experiment, the formation rates and equilibrium concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) such as H2O2 may be sensitive to both the experiment design, particularly to the regulation of incident light, and the abundance of different microbial groups, as both cellular H2O2 production and catalase–peroxidase enzyme production rates differ between species. Whilst there are extensive measurements of photochemical H2O2 formation rates and the distribution of H2O2 in the marine environment, it is poorly constrained how different microbial groups affect extracellular H2O2 concentrations, how comparable extracellular H2O2 concentrations within large-scale incubation experiments are to those observed in the surface-mixed layer, and to what extent a mismatch with environmentally relevant concentrations of ROS in incubations could influence biological processes differently to what would be observed in nature. Here we show that both experiment design and bacterial abundance consistently exert control on extracellular H2O2 concentrations across a range of incubation experiments in diverse marine environments. During four large-scale (>1000 L) mesocosm experiments (in Gran Canaria, the Mediterranean, Patagonia and Svalbard) most experimental factors appeared to exert only minor, or no, direct effect on H2O2 concentrations. For example, in three of four experiments where pH was manipulated to 0.4–0.5 below ambient pH, no significant change was evident in extracellular H2O2 concentrations relative to controls. An influence was sometimes inferred from zooplankton density, but not consistently between different incubation experiments, and no change in H2O2 was evident in controlled experiments using different densities of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus grazing on the diatom Skeletonema costatum (<1 % change in [H2O2] comparing copepod densities from 1 to 10 L−1). Instead, the changes in H2O2 concentration contrasting high- and low-zooplankton incubations appeared to arise from the resulting changes in bacterial activity. The correlation between bacterial abundance and extracellular H2O2 was stronger in some incubations than others (R2 range 0.09 to 0.55), yet high bacterial densities were consistently associated with low H2O2. Nonetheless, the main control on H2O2 concentrations during incubation experiments relative to those in ambient, unenclosed waters was the regulation of incident light. In an open (lidless) mesocosm experiment in Gran Canaria, H2O2 was persistently elevated (2–6-fold) above ambient concentrations; whereas using closed high-density polyethylene mesocosms in Crete, Svalbard and Patagonia H2O2 within incubations was always reduced (median 10 %–90 %) relative to ambient waters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hopwood, Mark J.; Santana-González, Carolina; Gallego-Urrea, Julian Alberto; Sanchez, Nicolas; Achterberg, Eric P.; Ardelan, Murat Van; Gledhill, Martha; González-Dávila, Melchor; Hoffmann, Linn; Leiknes, Øystein; +3 more
    Project: EC | OCEAN-CERTAIN (603773)

    The speciation of dissolved iron (DFe) in the ocean is widely assumed to consist almost exclusively of Fe(III)-ligand complexes. Yet in most aqueous environments a poorly defined fraction of DFe also exists as Fe(II), the speciation of which is uncertain. Here we deploy flow injection analysis to measure in situ Fe(II) concentrations during a series of mesocosm/microcosm/multistressor experiments in coastal environments in addition to the decay rate of this Fe(II) when moved into the dark. During five mesocosm/microcosm/multistressor experiments in Svalbard and Patagonia, where dissolved (0.2 µm) Fe and Fe(II) were quantified simultaneously, Fe(II) constituted 24 %–65 % of DFe, suggesting that Fe(II) was a large fraction of the DFe pool. When this Fe(II) was allowed to decay in the dark, the vast majority of measured oxidation rate constants were less than calculated constants derived from ambient temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved O2. The oxidation rates of Fe(II) spikes added to Atlantic seawater more closely matched calculated rate constants. The difference between observed and theoretical decay rates in Svalbard and Patagonia was most pronounced at Fe(II) concentrations <2 nM, suggesting that the effect may have arisen from organic Fe(II) ligands. This apparent enhancement of Fe(II) stability under post-bloom conditions and the existence of such a high fraction of DFe as Fe(II) challenge the assumption that DFe speciation in coastal seawater is dominated by ligand bound-Fe(III) species.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Allen, John T.; Munoz, Cristian; Gardiner, Jim; Reeve, Krissy A.; Alou-Font, Eva; Zarokanellos, Nikolaos;
    Project: EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410)

    Glider vehicles are now perhaps some of the most prolific providers of real-time and near-real-time operational oceanographic data. However, the data from these vehicles can and should be considered to have a long-term legacy value capable of playing a critical role in understanding and separating inter-annual, inter-decadal, and longterm global change. To achieve this, we have to go further than simply assuming the manufacturer’s calibrations, and field correct glider data in a more traditional way, for example, by careful comparison to water bottle calibrated lowered CTD datasets and/or “gold” standard recent climatologies. In this manuscript, we bring into the 21st century a historical technique that has been used manually by oceanographers for many years/decades for field correction/inter-calibration, thermal lag correction, and adjustment for biological fouling. The technique has now been made semi-automatic for machine processing of oceanographic glider data, although its future and indeed its origins have far wider scope. The subject of this manuscript is drawn from the original Description of Work (DoW) for a key task in the recently completed JERICO-NEXT (Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatories) EU-funded program, but goes on to consider future application and the suitability for integration with machine learning. Refereed 14.A Sea surface salinity Subsurface salinity TRL 8 Actual system completed and "mission qualified" through test and demonstration in an operational environment (ground or space) Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) Standard Operating Procedure 2019-12-03

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Vallelonga, Paul; Edwards, Ross; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Turetta, Clara; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Barbante, Carlo; Vinther, Bo; Spolaor, Andrea;
    Project: EC | CLIMAHAL (726349), EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    Although it has been demonstrated that the speed and magnitude of the recent Arctic sea ice decline is unprecedented for the past 1450 years, few records are available to provide a paleoclimate context for Arctic sea ice extent. Bromine enrichment in ice cores has been suggested to indicate the extent of newly formed sea ice areas. Despite the similarities among sea ice indicators and ice core bromine enrichment records, uncertainties still exist regarding the quantitative linkages between bromine reactive chemistry and the first-year sea ice surfaces. Here we present a 120 000-year record of bromine enrichment from the RECAP (REnland ice CAP) ice core, coastal east Greenland, and interpret it as a record of first-year sea ice. We compare it to existing sea ice records from marine cores and tentatively reconstruct past sea ice conditions in the North Atlantic as far north as the Fram Strait (50–85∘ N). Our interpretation implies that during the last deglaciation, the transition from multi-year to first-year sea ice started at ∼17.5 ka, synchronously with sea ice reductions observed in the eastern Nordic Seas and with the increase in North Atlantic ocean temperature. First-year sea ice reached its maximum at 12.4–11.8 ka during the Younger Dryas, after which open-water conditions started to dominate, consistent with sea ice records from the eastern Nordic Seas and the North Icelandic shelf. Our results show that over the last 120 000 years, multi-year sea ice extent was greatest during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and possibly during MIS 4, with more extended first-year sea ice during MIS 3 and MIS 5. Sea ice extent during the Holocene (MIS 1) has been less than at any time in the last 120 000 years.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paradis, Sarah; Pusceddu, Antonio; Masqué, Pere; Puig, Pere; Moccia, Davide; Russo, Tommaso; Iacono, Claudio;
    Project: EC | EUROFLEETS2 (312762)

    Bottom trawling in the deep sea is one of the main drivers of sediment resuspension, eroding the seafloor and altering the content and composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM). The physical and biogeochemical impacts of bottom trawling were studied on the continental slope of the Gulf of Castellammare, Sicily (southwestern Mediterranean), through the analysis of two triplicate sediment cores collected at trawled and untrawled sites (∼550 m water depth) during the summer of 2016. Geochemical and sedimentological parameters (excess 210Pb, excess 234Th, 137Cs, dry bulk density, and grain size), elemental (organic carbon and nitrogen) and biochemical composition of sedimentary OM (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids), as well as its freshness (phytopigments) and degradation rates were determined in both coring locations. The untrawled site had a sedimentation rate of 0.15 cm yr−1 and presented a 6 cm thick surface mixed layer that contained siltier sediment with low excess 210Pb concentrations, possibly resulting from the resuspension, posterior advection, and eventual deposition of coarser and older sediment from adjacent trawling grounds. In contrast, the trawled site was eroded and presented compacted century-old sediment highly depleted in OM components, which were between 20 % and 60 % lower than those in the untrawled site. However, the upper 2 cm of the trawled site consisted of recently accumulated sediments enriched in excess 234Th, excess 210Pb, and phytopigments, while OM contents were similar to those from the untrawled core. This fresh sediment supported protein turnover rates of 0.025 d−1, which doubled those quantified in surface sediments of the untrawled site. The enhancement of remineralization rates in surface sediment of the trawled site was associated with the arrival of fresh particles on a chronically trawled deep-sea region that is generally deprived of OM. We conclude that the detrimental effects of bottom trawling can be temporarily and partially abated by the arrival of fresh and nutritionally rich OM, which stimulate the response of benthic communities. However, these ephemeral deposits are likely to be swiftly eroded due to the high trawling frequency over fishing grounds, highlighting the importance of establishing science-based management strategies to mitigate the impacts of bottom trawling.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Racapé, Virginie; Zunino, Patricia; Mercier, Herlé; Lherminier, Pascale; Bopp, Laurent; Pérèz, Fiz F.; Gehlen, Marion;
    Project: EC | AtlantOS (633211), EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879)

    The North Atlantic Ocean is a major sink region for atmospheric CO2 and contributes to the storage of anthropogenic carbon (Cant). While there is general agreement that the intensity of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) modulates uptake, transport and storage of Cant in the North Atlantic Subpolar Ocean, processes controlling their recent variability and evolution over the 21st century remain uncertain. This study investigates the relationship between transport, air–sea flux and storage rate of Cant in the North Atlantic Subpolar Ocean over the past 53 years. Its relies on the combined analysis of a multiannual in situ data set and outputs from a global biogeochemical ocean general circulation model (NEMO–PISCES) at 1∕2∘ spatial resolution forced by an atmospheric reanalysis. Despite an underestimation of Cant transport and an overestimation of anthropogenic air–sea CO2 flux in the model, the interannual variability of the regional Cant storage rate and its driving processes were well simulated by the model. Analysis of the multi-decadal simulation revealed that the MOC intensity variability was the major driver of the Cant transport variability at 25 and 36∘ N, but not at OVIDE. At the subpolar OVIDE section, the interannual variability of Cant transport was controlled by the accumulation of Cant in the MOC upper limb. At multi-decadal timescales, long-term changes in the North Atlantic storage rate of Cant were driven by the increase in air–sea fluxes of anthropogenic CO2. North Atlantic Central Water played a key role for storing Cant in the upper layer of the subtropical region and for supplying Cant to Intermediate Water and North Atlantic Deep Water. The transfer of Cant from surface to deep waters occurred mainly north of the OVIDE section. Most of the Cant transferred to the deep ocean was stored in the subpolar region, while the remainder was exported to the subtropical gyre within the lower MOC.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    de Juan, Silvia; Ospina-Álvarez, Andrés; Demestre, Montserrat; Maynou, Francesc;
    Publisher: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
    Project: EC | MINOUW (634495), EC | FishMan (743545), EC | Co-tRiP (746361)

    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Annual Science Conference 2019, 9-12 September 2019 Gothenburg, Sweden.-- 1 page, figures Trawling activities are mainly driven by fishermen decisions on where to fish, market demands and fishing regulation. But, the ecological condition of benthic ecosystems feedback on fishermen through their ability to provide catch. In this complex interacting matrix, small decisions such as fishing over certain habitats, discarding fractions of the catch, or increasing effort can have significant effects through the system, with ultimate returns to the fishermen through profits. • This approach is used to explore the linkages between ecosystem components, services' provision, fishing activities and welfare in a coastal fishing area. • Major drivers identified by the BBN (e.g., benthic community structure or discards) should be used to identify management priorities and trade-offs, and develop strategies to achieve a balance of management targets. We applied a BBN approach to illustrate a Mediterranean trawling system, where fishing activities are regulated by effort limits, by-catch and discards are high, and profits are relatively high Funding: H2020-MSCA-IF-2016 [Project ID: 743545 and 746361] and MINOUW EU project (Project ID: 634495) This preliminar BBN illustrates expected links in the trawling system, with the environmental setting conditioning the catch biomass per unit of effort, while the final profits are conditioned by fish price, but also by labour costs (including costs for processing a discarded fractions) and fishing effort costs. Improved versions of the BBN will allow to explore the cascading effects of modifying decisions, such as fishing effort or discards, or optimise variables to maximise profits Coastal fisheries are complex socio-ecological systems controlled by the interaction between humans and the environment. Benthic ecosystems are shaped by trawling activities that are mainly driven by fishermen decisions on where to fish, by market demands and by fishing regulation. In return, changes in benthic ecosystems feedback on fishermen through their ability to provide food demands. In this complex interacting matrix, small decisions such as fishing over certain habitats, discarding fractions of the catch, or increasing effort can have significant and cascading effects through the system, with ultimate returns to the fishermen through overall catches and profits. We use a Bayesian Belief Network approach (BBN) to illustrate these multiple interactions in a Mediterranean trawling ground. The model relies on multiple data sources, including empirical data, long-term fishery registers, bio-economic models and expert knowledge. This approach is used to explore the linkages between ecosystem structure, services, human activities and welfare in a coastal fishing area. Major drivers identified by the BBN should be used to identify management priorities and trade-offs, and develop strategies to achieve a balance of management targets. The novelty of the approach is its ability to explore interactions by the integration of human dimensions into studies of ecosystem change, while it provides an illustrative interface for stakeholders Funding: H2020-MSCA-IF-2016 [Project ID: 743545 and 746361] and MINOUW EU project (Project ID: 634495)