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41 Research products, page 1 of 5

  • European Marine Science
  • Other research products
  • European Commission
  • EC|H2020
  • SDSN - Greece

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  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    Katharina Biely;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SUFISA (635577)

    The documents in these folders represent part of the qualitative data collection documentation. Research has been performed in Flanders (Belgium) in 2016 and 2017. Involved stakehodlers were flemish sugar beet farmers, processors as well as other value chain members. Though, the main stakeholders involved were farmers. The raw data cannot be published. Anonymized interview transcripts and focus group transcripts exist. However, as indicated in the informed consent, farmers did not agree to the raw data being published. The codes that resulted from data analysis are in this folder. Interview questions differed slightly from farmer to farmer as follow up questions may have been posed if needed. First interviews were performed, then focus groups were conducted and finally a workshop was organized. The qualitative reserach followed the research strategy and plan determined by the SUFISA project. On the project webpage (https://www.sufisa.eu/) more information can be found.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Katharina Biely;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SUFISA (635577)

    This is the English version of the informed consent that has been used for staekholder interactions. Similar forms have been used for focus groups and workshops.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tanhua, Toste; Kazanidis, Georgios; Sá, Sandra; Neves, Caique; Obaton, Dominique; Sylaios, Georgios;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | EurofleetsPlus (824077), EC | NAUTILOS (101000825), EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | Blue Cloud (862409), EC | JERICO-S3 (871153), EC | AtlantECO (862923), EC | ODYSSEA (727277), EC | EuroSea (862626), EC | ATLAS (678760), EC | MISSION ATLANTIC (862428)

    Ten innovative EU projects to build ocean observation systems that provide input for evidence-based management of the ocean and the Blue Economy, have joined forces in the strong cluster ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge’. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group published a joint policy brief listing recommendations for sustainable ocean observation and management. The cooperation is supported by the EU Horizon Results Booster and enables the group to achieve a higher societal impact. The policy brief will be presented to the European Commission on 15 October 2021. The ocean covers 70% of the Earth’s surface and provides us with a diverse set of ecosystem services that we cannot live without or that significantly improve our quality of life. It is the primary controller of our climate, plays a critical role in providing the air we breathe and the fresh water we drink, supplies us with a large range of exploitable resources (from inorganic resources such as sand and minerals to biotic resources such as seafood), allows us to generate renewable energy, is an important pathway for world transport, an important source of income for tourism, etc. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) evaluates the Blue Economy to currently represent 2.5% of the world economic value of goods and services produced, with the potential to further double in size by 2030 (seabed mining, shipping, fishing, tourism, renewable energy systems and aquaculture will intensify). However, the overall consequences of the intensification of human activities on marine ecosystems and their services (such as ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, sea level rise, changing distribution and abundance of fish etc.) are still poorly quantified. In addition, on larger geographic and temporal scales, marine data currently appear fragmented, are inhomogeneous, contain data gaps and are difficult to access. This limits our capacity to understand the ocean variability and sustainably manage the ocean and its resources. Consequently, there is a need to develop a framework for more in-depth understanding of marine ecosystems, that links reliable, timely and fit-for-purpose ocean observations to the design and implementation of evidence-based decisions on the management of the ocean. To adequately serve governments, societies, the sustainable Blue Economy and citizens, ocean data need to be collected and delivered in line with the Value Chain of Ocean Information: 1) identification of required data; 2) deployment and maintenance of instruments that collect the data; 3) delivery of data and derived information products; and 4) impact assessment of services to end users. To provide input to the possible future establishment of such a framework, ten innovative EU projects to build user-focused, interdisciplinary, responsive and sustained ocean information systems and increase the sustainability of the Blue Economy, joined forces in a strong cluster to better address key global marine challenges. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group translated its common concerns to recommendations and listed these in the joint policy brief ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge. Ocean Information for Sustainable Management.’. Following up on these recommendations will strengthen the entire Value Chain of Ocean Information and ensure sound sustainable ocean management. In this way, the 10 projects jointly strive to achieve goals set out in the EU Green Deal, the Paris Agreement (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and the United Nations 2021-2030 Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Ocean Development. Toste Tanhua (GEOMAR), EuroSea coordinator: “It was great to collaborate with these other innovative projects and make joint recommendations based on different perspectives and expertise.”

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; Godrijan, Jelena; Cerino, Federica; Malinverno, Elisa; Langer, Gerald; Brownlee, Colin;
    Project: UKRI | GW4+ - a consortium of ex... (NE/L002434/1), UKRI | NSFGEO-NERC An unexpected... (NE/N011708/1), MZOS | Mechanism of long-term ch... (098-0982705-2731), EC | MEDSEA (265103), EC | SEACELLS (670390)

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Picard-Sánchez, Amparo;
    Publisher: Universidad Politécnica de Valencia
    Project: EC | ParaFishControl (634429)

    Tesis doctoral.-- Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Programa de Doctorado en Ciencia y Tecnología de la Producción Animal. [EN]: In the last few decades, aquaculture production has experienced an enormous growth, and currently exceeds the supplies from capture fisheries production. However, this production is being hampered by the emergence of a number of diseases in the various fish farming systems. Among them, mostly those that are caused by parasites are the ones that lead to significant economic losses. Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) is a marine fish produced mainly in the Mediterranean Sea. In this Doctoral Thesis two enteric parasites of gilthead sea bream are studied: Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa) and Enterospora nucleophila (Microsporidia). Both parasites represent a threat to the cultivation of sea bream and there is no vaccine or treatment against them. To date, no in vitro culture has been established for either parasite, and only for E. leei was it possible to establish a model for maintaining the infection in vivo. The difficulty to isolate these parasites has hindered their study as well as the development of preventive or palliative measures. The aim of this thesis is to gain new knowledge about these parasites and their relationship with the host, also the basic foundations for generating solutions that can be applied in aquaculture.] [ES]: En las últimas décadas la producción en acuicultura ha sufrido un enorme crecimiento, superando actualmente a las capturas de las pesquerías. Sin embargo, esta producción se ve afectada por la aparición de enfermedades en los distintos sistemas de cría de peces. Entre ellas, las causadas por parásitos producen pérdidas económicas significativas. La dorada (Sparus aurata) es un pez marino producido principalmente en el mar Mediterráneo. En la presente tesis doctoral se estudian dos parásitos entéricos de la dorada: Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa) y Enterospora nucleophila (Microsporidia). Ambos parásitos representan una amenaza para el cultivo de la dorada y no existen vacunas ni tratamientos frente a ellos. Hasta la fecha, para ninguno de los dos parásitos se ha establecido un cultivo in vitro, y sólo para E. leei se ha conseguido establecer un modelo de mantenimiento de la infección in vivo. La dificultad para aislar estos parásitos ha obstaculizado el estudio y desarrollo de medidas preventivas o paliativas. La presente tesis pretende incrementar el conocimiento sobre estos parásitos y sus relaciones con el hospedador, sentando las bases para generar soluciones que puedan ser aplicadas en la acuicultura. La presente tesis ha sido realizada gracias a un contrato predoctoral (Personal Investigador en Formación) de 4 años otorgado a María Amparo Picard Sánchez dentro del Proyecto Europeo ParaFishControl (Horizon2020, GA nº 634429) y coordinado por el CSIC, entre marzo 2016 y marzo de 2020. Durante este periodo la estudiante realizó dos estancias en el extranjero. La primera estancia tuvo una duración de 2 meses en la Universidad de Aberdeen (Escocia, Reino Unido) y fue costeada parcialmente por el proyecto del ParaFishControl. La segunda estancia, de 2.1 meses en CAS Biology Centre (České Budějovice, República Checa), fue costeada por el proyecto ParaFishControl y por una ayuda ERASMUS+ concedida por la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Segato, Delia; Villoslada Hidalgo, Maria Del Carmen; Edwards, Ross; Barbaro, Elena; Vallelonga, Paul T; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Simonsen, Marius; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Zangrando, Roberta; +4 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)

    This dataset presents the fire proxies levoglucosan, black carbon and ammonium measured in the RECAP ice core, in coastal East Greenland. The datasets cover a period of 5000 years and are averaged in 20 years bins. Raw concentrations of levoglucosan, black carbon and ammonium are also provided. Levoglucosan has been determined using high performance liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray ionization – tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS). Black carbon has been measured using a BC analyzer connected to the Continuous Flow Analysis system. Ammonium (NH4+) has been measured by fluorescence within the Continuous Flow Analysis setup.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020
    English
    Authors: 
    Penna, Pierluigi; Belardinelli, Andrea; Croci, Camilla Sofia; Domenichetti, Filippo; Martinelli, Michela;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410), EC | JERICO (262584), EC | NEXOS (614102)

    From 2003 to 2013, the Ancona section of CNR-IRBIM (formerly part of CNR-Institute of Marine Science) runned the "Fishery Observing System" (FOS) program aimed at using Italian fishing vessels as Vessels Of Opportunity (VOOs) for the collection of scientifically useful datasets (Falco et al. 2007). Some commercial fishing vessels, targetting small pelagic species in the northern and central Adriatic Sea, were equipped with an integrated system for the collection of information on catches, position of the fishing operation, depth and water temperature during the haul, producing a great amount of data that demonstrated to be helpful both for oceanographic and fishery biology purposes (Carpi et al. 2015; Aydo?du et a. 2016; Sparnocchia et al. 2016; Lucchetti et al. 2018). In 2012, thanks to the participation to some national and international projects (e.g. SSD-Pesca, EU-FP7 JERICO etc.), CNR started the development of a new modular "Fishery & Oceanography Observing System" (FOOS; Patti et al. 2013). New sensors for oceanographic and meteorological data allow nowadays the FOOS to collect more parameters, with higher accuracy and to send them directly to a data center in near real time (Martinelli et al. 2016; Sparnocchia et al. 2017). Furthermore, the FOOS is a multifunction system able to collect various kind of data from the fishing operations and also to send back to the fishermen useful information (e.g. weather and sea forecasts, etc.) through an electronic logbook with an ad hoc software embedded. The new FOOS installed on various kind of fishing vessels targetting different resources, allowed a spatial extension of the monitored areas in the Mediterranean Sea (Patti et al. 2013). CNR-IRBIM implemented the "AdriFOOS" observational system, by installing the FOOS on some commercial fishing boats operating in the Adriatic Sea. Since then the datacenter based in Ancona receives daily data sets of environmental parameters collected along the water column and close to the sea bottom (eg. temperature, salinity, etc.), together with GPS haul tracks, catch amounts per haul, target species sizes and weather information. Some temperature and salinity measurements acquired by the FOOS in the Adriatic Sea from January 2014 to March 2015 were published within the JERICO project and some oxygen and fluorescence profiles obtained in 2017 within the NEXOS project. The dataset here presented contains 14803 depth/temperature profiles collected by 10 vessels of the AdriFOOS fleet in the period 2012-2020. All the profiles were subjected to quality control.Data are flagged according the L20 (SEADATANET MEASURAND QUALIFIER FLAGS).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Larsen, Erling; Iñarra, Bruno; Peral, Irene;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | DiscardLess (633680)

    This document is the fourth deliverable in work package six (WP6) of the DiscardLess project, which aims to contribute to the gradual elimination of the discards in the European fisheries, in agreement with the reformed Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) of the EU and the implementation of the landing obligation (LO). The LO states that all regulated species shall be landed. This implies developing alternative solutions at land to manage and make best use of Unavoidable Unwanted Catches (UUC). However, the CFP also states that these solutions shall avoid incentivising the targeting of fishing on these UUC. On the other hand, the handling of UUC onboard will increase onboard handling, which is already time consuming and demanding for the crew. This will increase costs. Shortage of storage capacity because of the space needed for UUC onboard may also contribute to reducing income, therefore viable solutions for UUC management are needed to minimise the impact of the LO on the industry. The suggested uses of unavoidable unwanted catches reported in deliverable D6.2. need thus to be economically attractive for the processors and for the fishers and at the same time must avoid creating incentives to the fisheries. The present deliverable 6.4 looks into some of the initiatives that have actually already taken place using the UUC as raw-material. To get an overview of the amount of UUC landed and of what would be viable options for the processing industry, and to collect data needed for the cost-benefit analyses of the options, many interviews were performed in the three countries of Denmark, France and Spain. The overall conclusion of all the interviews is that no product is currently made from a single source of UUC, but the landed UUC are integrated in the raw-material stream of the processing industries, especially fish meal and fish oil industries. Box 1: Report Highlights There is a broad range of possibilities to valorise UUC fish and fish compounds, however, not all the solutions are able to cope with the huge variability of the expected UUC landings. The LO states that only UUC above Minimum Conservation Reference Size (MCRS) can be used for human consumption. There is a need for designing new fish products that avoid incentivising the catching of undersized fish, and, at the same time, avoid affecting negatively the existing markets. A more in-depth analysis of the economic feasibility of some of the valorisation options for different UUC fractions in different scenarios (D6.2) has been performed. For the Bay of Biscay case study (BoB-CS), some fish species as mackerel, horse mackerel and blue whiting have important volumes of discards due to their low commercial value. They are thus considered as UUC for which better commercialization and consumption could be enhanced by developing new seafood products or concepts. Also, in the Bay of Biscay, there is an important amount of hake under MCRS that can’t be used in direct human consumption but can be very valuable for the production of food ingredients such as flavouring agents. Finally, the production of fishmeal and fish oil used for animal feed, mainly for aquaculture, is the most common use of fish by-products and is a straightforward option for the treatment of UUC when there is an available facility nearby. The feasibility study indicates that the proposed solutions are economically feasible within the scope of the study even at low price. The North Sea case study describes the activities taking place in the Danish port of Hanstholm, with a case study on the fishery targeted at plaice. Several interviews with relevant buyers of the UUC were conducted and their evaluation is presented. Box 2: The methods/approaches followed The expected amount of potential UUC in the different CS were quantified based on current discards data, and the most favourable valorisation options were selected based on their economic feasibility. For various solutions the economic analysis was performed through calculation of the Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Return Rate (IRR), etc. Due to the important variation of the amount of UUC foreseen, several scenarios were evaluated. Furthermore, the calculation of UUC price range was performed to reach a “non incentivising” scenario. The North Sea case study is based on personal interviews with relevant persons from the processing and final product links in the value chain. Box 3: How these results can be used and by who? The results from the economic evaluation of different valorisation option can be used by: Research centres to contrast different solutions and compare with its own Fishermen organization willing to evaluate the value of their UUC Local companies: fish processing industries, “waste” managers looking for improving their fish by products or the UUC Investor willing to start a new business Local administration bodies to develop integrated valorisation plans for discards Policy makers to promote the implementation of selected strategies In general, the economic feasibility of a technically viable solution is of great interest for any actor of the chain looking for a solution to minimize the economic impact of the LO application. Box 4: Policy Recommendations Due to economic viability of the proposed valorisation schemas for UUC can be proposed for the definition of best available techniques. Changes in the CFP regarding proper on board handling and storage of UUC can help obtain more value from these fractions.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Savina, Marie; Ulrich, Clara; Borges, Lisa; Reid, David; Quetglas, Antoni; Guijarro, Beatriz; Massutí, Enric; Vaz, Sandrine; Jadaud, Angelique; Robert, Marianne; +10 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | DiscardLess (633680)

    The Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union was reformed in 2013 to improve the conservation of marine biological resources and the viability of the fishing sector and reduce unsustainable fishing practices (European Union 2013). One of the cornerstones of the reform is Article 15 (termed the Landing Obligation, LO), stipulating the obligation to bring to land all catches of quota- or size-regulated species with the overall aim to gradually eliminate discards. The shift of focus from landed catches to all catches (i.e. including discards) in the current CFP has had a number of wide-ranging implications on the scientific ecological knowledge and on the ways the scientific community is providing advice on fishing opportunities. Article 15, paragraph 2(b), of the CFP describes an exemption from the Landing Obligation for “species for which scientific evidence demonstrates high survival rates, taking into account the characteristics of the gear, of the fishing practices and of the ecosystem”. This provision has sparked a high interest in discard survival assessments and mobilised Member States and fishing industry representative organisations. The STECF a well as the dedicated ICES group WKMEDS have been heavily involved in providing guidance and developing protocols on how to quantify discard survival robustly in the early stages. Spanning from the Mediterranean to the Baltic, more than 20 studies have been carried out all over Europe between 2013 and 2018 and assessed by the STECF. Generating robust evidence on discard survival estimates that is representative of a fishery still remains challenging. Defining what “high survival” means has also been challenging. The Landing Obligation has rendered the provision of scientific advice more complex to perform and quality-check, and more difficult to formulate. Since 2015, two main changes have been triggered in the ICES process, involving the way catch data are collected and the way forecasts are performed and presented. Changes in catch data have emerged from the need to quantify and use new categories, i.e. Landings below minimum conservation reference size and Logbook Registered Discard). Conceptual decisions must be made on how to sample, monitor and include these catch components in the stock assessment. Until now however, the data sent to ICES for these new categories have remained negligible. In theory, the landing obligation would ensure that all catches would be landed, and a single catch advice would suffice. In practice, this poses a number of quantitative challenges, linked to the facts that: i) discarding still takes place and cannot be ignored; and ii) legal provisions (e.g. high survivability, de minimis and predator damage fish) in article 15 mean that the landing obligation is only partially applicable. Finally, the phased implementation together with incomplete discard data have made the calculation of TAC uplift particularly challenging. On the management side, TACs have been adjusted to facilitate the implementation of the LO, although overall, discarding practices have little changed in Europe to date. This may well lead to counterproductive increases in fishing mortality. The final section summarises the situation in the DiscardLess case studies, providing updated discard plans. No significant changes have been observed over the 2015-2018 period due to the implementation of the the LO, in the discarding patterns and volumes. An exception to that would be in the North Sea and west of Scotland, haddock, and to a lesser extent North Sea cod and Saithe (in the west of Scotland only) for which discard volumes have decreased.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ulrich, Clara;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | DiscardLess (633680)

    This deliverable provides an overview of the various Discard Mitigation Strategies (DMS) that have been analysed and investigated in the various case studies. The DMSs are proposed and examined as case specific approaches to support the implementation of the European Landing Obligation (LO). The DMSs represent potential approaches to reduce unvanted catches through fishing gear technology (WP3) changes in fishing patterns (WP4), by finding efficient solutions for handling unavoidable unwanted onboard (WP5), and through identifying existing and novel ways to utilize unwanted catches (WP6). This deliverable represents thus a synthesis of the work developed in these four “innovation” Work Packages, summarised by region. The technical details of the various approaches can be found in the corresponding deliverables from these WPs and where applicable, in scientific publications. The work has been diverse, and not all tasks / work package have been performed in each case study. But in every case studies, significant amounts of new knowledge have been developed about the possible technical and tactical approaches to reduce discards and/or to best utilise them in the value chain. A number of approaches are specific to a given issue in a given case study, but there are also many commonalities and some developments are of interest at a much wider scale than the case study. In the Azores case study, several mitigation measures to the Landing Obligation were assessed for the bottom hook-and-line fisheries. The main technical measures analysed hook size and hook shape. Fishing experiments performed by the DiscardLess team proved that the J-hooks, currently used in the fishery, are better than circle hooks to limit deep-water shark bycatch. The main tactical measures included spatial and vertical/depth avoidance strategies. Spatial avoidance strategies appear of limited potential for blackspot seabream. For deep-water sharks, habitat suitability models showed large distribution, mostly influenced by depth, of most species, and some areas with high number of deep-water sharks. Some areas of high conflict (high number of zero TAC species and high fishing effort) could be identified. The large number of species included within the zero TAC limitation, and the high mobility of some species, render spatial avoidance measures difficult to implement. However,depth avoidance strategies could be more promising. The most promising measure to avoid unwanted catch appears to be the conversion of bottom longlining to handlining., which has also been ongoing for some years. Data collected as part of the DiscardLess project in the Azores were used to support requests for exemptions asked by the Regional Government of the Azores, which were granted in 2018. In the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Agean Sea) case study, selectivity analyses have shown that both 40mm square and 50mm diamond meshes, compared to the 40mm diamond, would increase escapement and reduce discards. There seems to be little scope for avoidance strategies. Some feasibility analyses were performed for the use of discards at shore. investigating options for small quantities of unwanted landings in small harbours. Two options were suggested: fishmeal/fishoil and silage, using small mobile production plants. However, the initial investments costs are important and the expected returns are limited. In the Western Mediterranean Sea (Balearic Islands / Gulf of Lions), the problem of small-sized fish is mainly related to hake, and discard rates for all other species under the LO are low, except for horse mackerel. Most trawlers from the Balearic Islands have already changed to 40 mm square mesh cod-end, but there is still scope for improving the fishery selectivity and avoid juveniles of hake and mackerel by changing the mesh size and shape or introducing other devices such as panels and grids. Spatial management is widely used and supported in the Mediterranean as a strategy to reduce unwanted catches. Fishers highly support the mapping of juvenile hotspots based on scientific knowledge. DiscardLess developed a number of spatial models in this area, and made them available through Apps consultable via Internet. However, forecasting the impact of discard avoidance management on the sustainability of trawler fisheries is challenging, requiring data, time and trained human-resources. In the Bay of Biscaye case study, most of the work performed by DiscardLess dealt with the use of unwanted catches in the value chain. A catalogue of more than 30 different utllisations was published online, and a systematic approach was developed for a rapid appraisal of which of the possible utilisations might be preferable in a case-by-case approach, depending on the quantity, quality and variability of the expected volumes of unwanted catches, of the existing and required infrastructures and logistics, and of the potential market demand. Some trials were conducted, producing e.g. fish pulp and hydrolysates out of unwanted mackerel and juvenile hake brought to land. Different options for the adequate handling of unwanted catches onboard were proposed, and an automatic system at shore for the identification and classification of unwanted fish that would be landed iced and preserved as normal catches was developed and successfully tested. Some cost-efficient DNA tests for the rapid detection of the presence/absence of a species in a mix were also developed. The mixed nature of the species targeted by demersal fisheries in the Celtic Sea case study results in numerous challenges with the introduction of the Landing Obligation. It is likely that a combination of improved gear selectivity and the adoption of alternative fishing strategies will be required to avoid some of the unwanted catches, and to maximise on fishing opportunities under the LO. There is certainly no one-size fits all solution, and it is likely that gear and behaviour adaptations will mitigate some, but not all problems with choke species and <MCRS fish. DiscardLess provided resources in the form of the selectivity manual and mapping apps for the Celtic Sea, but further collaborations with industry will be required to ensure that future developments of mapping applications meet the needs of interested stakeholders in appropriate formats and time frames. By sharing information on occurrences of undersize fish or spawning aggregations for example, coupled with the information provided in the maps developed in this project, fishers should be much better equipped to avoid choke species and juvenile fish. A major problem in the Celtic Sea remains that due to quota allocation rules as well as stock status, all Member States encounter choke issues, while TAC is globally undershot for a number of species. There is thus some potential for management measures to help mitigate the impacts of the LO. In the Eastern English Channel case study as well, the mixed nature of the fisheries results in numerous challenges with the introduction of the Landing Obligation. One of the main obstacle to gear selectivity improvement is the diversity of species (with large differences in size, shape, market value and management regime), which have made attempts to improve gear selectivity little conclusive in the area. Some „challenge“ experiments to test the Landing Obligation in real conditions showed issues in increasing workload and storage capacity onboard. DiscardLess performed numerous interviews and studies dedicated to the mapping of unwanted catches including some user-friendly maps apps. Fishermen engaged in collaboration for designing adequate knowldge plateforms and scenarios given their limited sets of options for changing fishing zones, given the large amount of other usages of the maritime space in the area. In the North Sea/West of Scotland case study, many different DMS analyses were conducted. but mainly involving desk studies and laboratory experiments rather than actual trials at sea. Major progresses in knowlegde on gear selectivity was brought together and shared, including the publication of numerous factsheets on selective devices and some in-depth analyses of how and why the various elements of a trawls modify selectivity by affecting fish behaviour. Extensive experiments of the use of light were conducted, in order to test the avoidance/attraction reactions of fish to different types of light (color, intensity, flash etc). The results demonstrate some differences in behaviour between different species of fish, which could be a promising avenue for improving catch composition. Several studies were published advancing knowledge on the spatial distribution of choke species and unwanted catches, not least using fine-scale fisheries data coming from different previous Danish pilot trials involving Electronic Monitoring and weighting-packing at sea. Regarding the valoriation of unwanted catches in the value chain, a project was run in collaboration with the harbour of Hanstholm (DK), which established new facilities for the storage and delivery of fish in 2017. At present, most unwated catches and rest raw products are used for feed in the mink farms. The project also foresaw initially the rebuilding of the processing deck of a trawler, but the discard levels in that fishery remain limited and not worth the investment. Finally, a large part of the work performed by DiscardLess in this case study related to the issue of Monitoring, Control and Surveillance. This included both the publication of various studies on experiences and progresses with Fully Documented Fisheries and Electronic Monitoring, and major progresses achieved on the use of DNA technology for the characterisation of species in a mix (e.g. bulk or silage) and the quantification of the relative biomass of each species. This represents a promising break-through for the control and traceability of unanted catches in the value chain. Alltogether, important progresses in scientific knowledge has been achieved in a number of topics, including e.g. fish behaviour (swimming, escapement and reaction to light), fish mortality and survival, fine-scale spatial distribution of key species, handling and flesh properties of a number of different fish species, DNA characterisation etc. As such, it must be recognised that the landing Obligation has triggered significant advances in fundamental biological, ecological and technological knowledge, way beyond the state of the art at the time of the reform of the Common Fishery Policy in 2013. It is certain that this research activity would not have taken place without the political pressure to reduce discards. However, in spite of these intense scientific and technical analyses, it is obvious that the discarding issue has not been solved yet. The complexity of the issue is immense, and there are still many technical, economic, social, cultural, psychological, institutional and political barriers that hinder the achievement of the objectives of the landing obligation. There are thus no simple and unique „one-size-fits-all“ technical solutions that would solve all issues and without economic impact. But there are many small steps that can be taken, which individually can contribute to reducing discards. Box 1: Highlights In all case studies, new knowledge have been developed about the possible technical and tactical approaches to reduce discards and/or to best utilise them in the value chain There is no simple and unique technical solutions that would solve all issues and without economic impact. But there are many small steps that can be taken, which individually can contribute to reducing discards A number of approaches are specific to a given issue in a given case study, but there are also many commonalities and some developments are of interest at a much wider scale than the case study The landing Obligation has triggered significant progresses in scientific knowledge on a number of topics, including e.g. fish behaviour (swimming, escapement and reaction to light), fine-scale spatial distribution of key species, handling and flesh properties of a number of different fish species, DNA characterisation etc Important efforts have been made to make all this new knowledge easily available, easily understandable and easily shareable, through the public sharing of information via the DiscardLess website, including popular documents such as Discard Mitigation Toolbox, short reports, videos and powerpoint presentations. Box 2: The Methods/Approaches followed Synthesis of deliverables from Work Packages 3 (Gear Technology), 4 (Fishing strategies), 5 (onboard handling) and 6 (products to the value chain) compalied by case studies Additional references where appropriate Box 3: How these results can be used and by whom These sections by case studies will be made as individual chapters and published on http://www.discardless.eu/where-do-we-work, allowing for a regional synthetic overview of the knowledge available. This is of interest for all actors in a region, stakeholders and policy makers, in the frame of the regionaliation of the CFP, to

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  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    Katharina Biely;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SUFISA (635577)

    The documents in these folders represent part of the qualitative data collection documentation. Research has been performed in Flanders (Belgium) in 2016 and 2017. Involved stakehodlers were flemish sugar beet farmers, processors as well as other value chain members. Though, the main stakeholders involved were farmers. The raw data cannot be published. Anonymized interview transcripts and focus group transcripts exist. However, as indicated in the informed consent, farmers did not agree to the raw data being published. The codes that resulted from data analysis are in this folder. Interview questions differed slightly from farmer to farmer as follow up questions may have been posed if needed. First interviews were performed, then focus groups were conducted and finally a workshop was organized. The qualitative reserach followed the research strategy and plan determined by the SUFISA project. On the project webpage (https://www.sufisa.eu/) more information can be found.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Katharina Biely;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SUFISA (635577)

    This is the English version of the informed consent that has been used for staekholder interactions. Similar forms have been used for focus groups and workshops.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tanhua, Toste; Kazanidis, Georgios; Sá, Sandra; Neves, Caique; Obaton, Dominique; Sylaios, Georgios;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | EurofleetsPlus (824077), EC | NAUTILOS (101000825), EC | iAtlantic (818123), EC | Blue Cloud (862409), EC | JERICO-S3 (871153), EC | AtlantECO (862923), EC | ODYSSEA (727277), EC | EuroSea (862626), EC | ATLAS (678760), EC | MISSION ATLANTIC (862428)

    Ten innovative EU projects to build ocean observation systems that provide input for evidence-based management of the ocean and the Blue Economy, have joined forces in the strong cluster ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge’. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group published a joint policy brief listing recommendations for sustainable ocean observation and management. The cooperation is supported by the EU Horizon Results Booster and enables the group to achieve a higher societal impact. The policy brief will be presented to the European Commission on 15 October 2021. The ocean covers 70% of the Earth’s surface and provides us with a diverse set of ecosystem services that we cannot live without or that significantly improve our quality of life. It is the primary controller of our climate, plays a critical role in providing the air we breathe and the fresh water we drink, supplies us with a large range of exploitable resources (from inorganic resources such as sand and minerals to biotic resources such as seafood), allows us to generate renewable energy, is an important pathway for world transport, an important source of income for tourism, etc. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) evaluates the Blue Economy to currently represent 2.5% of the world economic value of goods and services produced, with the potential to further double in size by 2030 (seabed mining, shipping, fishing, tourism, renewable energy systems and aquaculture will intensify). However, the overall consequences of the intensification of human activities on marine ecosystems and their services (such as ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, sea level rise, changing distribution and abundance of fish etc.) are still poorly quantified. In addition, on larger geographic and temporal scales, marine data currently appear fragmented, are inhomogeneous, contain data gaps and are difficult to access. This limits our capacity to understand the ocean variability and sustainably manage the ocean and its resources. Consequently, there is a need to develop a framework for more in-depth understanding of marine ecosystems, that links reliable, timely and fit-for-purpose ocean observations to the design and implementation of evidence-based decisions on the management of the ocean. To adequately serve governments, societies, the sustainable Blue Economy and citizens, ocean data need to be collected and delivered in line with the Value Chain of Ocean Information: 1) identification of required data; 2) deployment and maintenance of instruments that collect the data; 3) delivery of data and derived information products; and 4) impact assessment of services to end users. To provide input to the possible future establishment of such a framework, ten innovative EU projects to build user-focused, interdisciplinary, responsive and sustained ocean information systems and increase the sustainability of the Blue Economy, joined forces in a strong cluster to better address key global marine challenges. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group translated its common concerns to recommendations and listed these in the joint policy brief ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge. Ocean Information for Sustainable Management.’. Following up on these recommendations will strengthen the entire Value Chain of Ocean Information and ensure sound sustainable ocean management. In this way, the 10 projects jointly strive to achieve goals set out in the EU Green Deal, the Paris Agreement (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and the United Nations 2021-2030 Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Ocean Development. Toste Tanhua (GEOMAR), EuroSea coordinator: “It was great to collaborate with these other innovative projects and make joint recommendations based on different perspectives and expertise.”

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; Godrijan, Jelena; Cerino, Federica; Malinverno, Elisa; Langer, Gerald; Brownlee, Colin;
    Project: UKRI | GW4+ - a consortium of ex... (NE/L002434/1), UKRI | NSFGEO-NERC An unexpected... (NE/N011708/1), MZOS | Mechanism of long-term ch... (098-0982705-2731), EC | MEDSEA (265103), EC | SEACELLS (670390)

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Picard-Sánchez, Amparo;
    Publisher: Universidad Politécnica de Valencia
    Project: EC | ParaFishControl (634429)

    Tesis doctoral.-- Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. Programa de Doctorado en Ciencia y Tecnología de la Producción Animal. [EN]: In the last few decades, aquaculture production has experienced an enormous growth, and currently exceeds the supplies from capture fisheries production. However, this production is being hampered by the emergence of a number of diseases in the various fish farming systems. Among them, mostly those that are caused by parasites are the ones that lead to significant economic losses. Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) is a marine fish produced mainly in the Mediterranean Sea. In this Doctoral Thesis two enteric parasites of gilthead sea bream are studied: Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa) and Enterospora nucleophila (Microsporidia). Both parasites represent a threat to the cultivation of sea bream and there is no vaccine or treatment against them. To date, no in vitro culture has been established for either parasite, and only for E. leei was it possible to establish a model for maintaining the infection in vivo. The difficulty to isolate these parasites has hindered their study as well as the development of preventive or palliative measures. The aim of this thesis is to gain new knowledge about these parasites and their relationship with the host, also the basic foundations for generating solutions that can be applied in aquaculture.] [ES]: En las últimas décadas la producción en acuicultura ha sufrido un enorme crecimiento, superando actualmente a las capturas de las pesquerías. Sin embargo, esta producción se ve afectada por la aparición de enfermedades en los distintos sistemas de cría de peces. Entre ellas, las causadas por parásitos producen pérdidas económicas significativas. La dorada (Sparus aurata) es un pez marino producido principalmente en el mar Mediterráneo. En la presente tesis doctoral se estudian dos parásitos entéricos de la dorada: Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa) y Enterospora nucleophila (Microsporidia). Ambos parásitos representan una amenaza para el cultivo de la dorada y no existen vacunas ni tratamientos frente a ellos. Hasta la fecha, para ninguno de los dos parásitos se ha establecido un cultivo in vitro, y sólo para E. leei se ha conseguido establecer un modelo de mantenimiento de la infección in vivo. La dificultad para aislar estos parásitos ha obstaculizado el estudio y desarrollo de medidas preventivas o paliativas. La presente tesis pretende incrementar el conocimiento sobre estos parásitos y sus relaciones con el hospedador, sentando las bases para generar soluciones que puedan ser aplicadas en la acuicultura. La presente tesis ha sido realizada gracias a un contrato predoctoral (Personal Investigador en Formación) de 4 años otorgado a María Amparo Picard Sánchez dentro del Proyecto Europeo ParaFishControl (Horizon2020, GA nº 634429) y coordinado por el CSIC, entre marzo 2016 y marzo de 2020. Durante este periodo la estudiante realizó dos estancias en el extranjero. La primera estancia tuvo una duración de 2 meses en la Universidad de Aberdeen (Escocia, Reino Unido) y fue costeada parcialmente por el proyecto del ParaFishControl. La segunda estancia, de 2.1 meses en CAS Biology Centre (České Budějovice, República Checa), fue costeada por el proyecto ParaFishControl y por una ayuda ERASMUS+ concedida por la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Segato, Delia; Villoslada Hidalgo, Maria Del Carmen; Edwards, Ross; Barbaro, Elena; Vallelonga, Paul T; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Simonsen, Marius; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Zangrando, Roberta; +4 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)

    This dataset presents the fire proxies levoglucosan, black carbon and ammonium measured in the RECAP ice core, in coastal East Greenland. The datasets cover a period of 5000 years and are averaged in 20 years bins. Raw concentrations of levoglucosan, black carbon and ammonium are also provided. Levoglucosan has been determined using high performance liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray ionization – tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS). Black carbon has been measured using a BC analyzer connected to the Continuous Flow Analysis system. Ammonium (NH4+) has been measured by fluorescence within the Continuous Flow Analysis setup.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020
    English
    Authors: 
    Penna, Pierluigi; Belardinelli, Andrea; Croci, Camilla Sofia; Domenichetti, Filippo; Martinelli, Michela;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410), EC | JERICO (262584), EC | NEXOS (614102)

    From 2003 to 2013, the Ancona section of CNR-IRBIM (formerly part of CNR-Institute of Marine Science) runned the "Fishery Observing System" (FOS) program aimed at using Italian fishing vessels as Vessels Of Opportunity (VOOs) for the collection of scientifically useful datasets (Falco et al. 2007). Some commercial fishing vessels, targetting small pelagic species in the northern and central Adriatic Sea, were equipped with an integrated system for the collection of information on catches, position of the fishing operation, depth and water temperature during the haul, producing a great amount of data that demonstrated to be helpful both for oceanographic and fishery biology purposes (Carpi et al. 2015; Aydo?du et a. 2016; Sparnocchia et al. 2016; Lucchetti et al. 2018). In 2012, thanks to the participation to some national and international projects (e.g. SSD-Pesca, EU-FP7 JERICO etc.), CNR started the development of a new modular "Fishery & Oceanography Observing System" (FOOS; Patti et al. 2013). New sensors for oceanographic and meteorological data allow nowadays the FOOS to collect more parameters, with higher accuracy and to send them directly to a data center in near real time (Martinelli et al. 2016; Sparnocchia et al. 2017). Furthermore, the FOOS is a multifunction system able to collect various kind of data from the fishing operations and also to send back to the fishermen useful information (e.g. weather and sea forecasts, etc.) through an electronic logbook with an ad hoc software embedded. The new FOOS installed on various kind of fishing vessels targetting different resources, allowed a spatial extension of the monitored areas in the Mediterranean Sea (Patti et al. 2013). CNR-IRBIM implemented the "AdriFOOS" observational system, by installing the FOOS on some commercial fishing boats operating in the Adriatic Sea. Since then the datacenter based in Ancona receives daily data sets of environmental parameters collected along the water column and close to the sea bottom (eg. temperature, salinity, etc.), together with GPS haul tracks, catch amounts per haul, target species sizes and weather information. Some temperature and salinity measurements acquired by the FOOS in the Adriatic Sea from January 2014 to March 2015 were published within the JERICO project and some oxygen and fluorescence profiles obtained in 2017 within the NEXOS project. The dataset here presented contains 14803 depth/temperature profiles collected by 10 vessels of the AdriFOOS fleet in the period 2012-2020. All the profiles were subjected to quality control.Data are flagged according the L20 (SEADATANET MEASURAND QUALIFIER FLAGS).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Larsen, Erling; Iñarra, Bruno; Peral, Irene;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | DiscardLess (633680)

    This document is the fourth deliverable in work package six (WP6) of the DiscardLess project, which aims to contribute to the gradual elimination of the discards in the European fisheries, in agreement with the reformed Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) of the EU and the implementation of the landing obligation (LO). The LO states that all regulated species shall be landed. This implies developing alternative solutions at land to manage and make best use of Unavoidable Unwanted Catches (UUC). However, the CFP also states that these solutions shall avoid incentivising the targeting of fishing on these UUC. On the other hand, the handling of UUC onboard will increase onboard handling, which is already time consuming and demanding for the crew. This will increase costs. Shortage of storage capacity because of the space needed for UUC onboard may also contribute to reducing income, therefore viable solutions for UUC management are needed to minimise the impact of the LO on the industry. The suggested uses of unavoidable unwanted catches reported in deliverable D6.2. need thus to be economically attractive for the processors and for the fishers and at the same time must avoid creating incentives to the fisheries. The present deliverable 6.4 looks into some of the initiatives that have actually already taken place using the UUC as raw-material. To get an overview of the amount of UUC landed and of what would be viable options for the processing industry, and to collect data needed for the cost-benefit analyses of the options, many interviews were performed in the three countries of Denmark, France and Spain. The overall conclusion of all the interviews is that no product is currently made from a single source of UUC, but the landed UUC are integrated in the raw-material stream of the processing industries, especially fish meal and fish oil industries. Box 1: Report Highlights There is a broad range of possibilities to valorise UUC fish and fish compounds, however, not all the solutions are able to cope with the huge variability of the expected UUC landings. The LO states that only UUC above Minimum Conservation Reference Size (MCRS) can be used for human consumption. There is a need for designing new fish products that avoid incentivising the catching of undersized fish, and, at the same time, avoid affecting negatively the existing markets. A more in-depth analysis of the economic feasibility of some of the valorisation options for different UUC fractions in different scenarios (D6.2) has been performed. For the Bay of Biscay case study (BoB-CS), some fish species as mackerel, horse mackerel and blue whiting have important volumes of discards due to their low commercial value. They are thus considered as UUC for which better commercialization and consumption could be enhanced by developing new seafood products or concepts. Also, in the Bay of Biscay, there is an important amount of hake under MCRS that can’t be used in direct human consumption but can be very valuable for the production of food ingredients such as flavouring agents. Finally, the production of fishmeal and fish oil used for animal feed, mainly for aquaculture, is the most common use of fish by-products and is a straightforward option for the treatment of UUC when there is an available facility nearby. The feasibility study indicates that the proposed solutions are economically feasible within the scope of the study even at low price. The North Sea case study describes the activities taking place in the Danish port of Hanstholm, with a case study on the fishery targeted at plaice. Several interviews with relevant buyers of the UUC were conducted and their evaluation is presented. Box 2: The methods/approaches followed The expected amount of potential UUC in the different CS were quantified based on current discards data, and the most favourable valorisation options were selected based on their economic feasibility. For various solutions the economic analysis was performed through calculation of the Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Return Rate (IRR), etc. Due to the important variation of the amount of UUC foreseen, several scenarios were evaluated. Furthermore, the calculation of UUC price range was performed to reach a “non incentivising” scenario. The North Sea case study is based on personal interviews with relevant persons from the processing and final product links in the value chain. Box 3: How these results can be used and by who? The results from the economic evaluation of different valorisation option can be used by: Research centres to contrast different solutions and compare with its own Fishermen organization willing to evaluate the value of their UUC Local companies: fish processing industries, “waste” managers looking for improving their fish by products or the UUC Investor willing to start a new business Local administration bodies to develop integrated valorisation plans for discards Policy makers to promote the implementation of selected strategies In general, the economic feasibility of a technically viable solution is of great interest for any actor of the chain looking for a solution to minimize the economic impact of the LO application. Box 4: Policy Recommendations Due to economic viability of the proposed valorisation schemas for UUC can be proposed for the definition of best available techniques. Changes in the CFP regarding proper on board handling and storage of UUC can help obtain more value from these fractions.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Savina, Marie; Ulrich, Clara; Borges, Lisa; Reid, David; Quetglas, Antoni; Guijarro, Beatriz; Massutí, Enric; Vaz, Sandrine; Jadaud, Angelique; Robert, Marianne; +10 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | DiscardLess (633680)

    The Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union was reformed in 2013 to improve the conservation of marine biological resources and the viability of the fishing sector and reduce unsustainable fishing practices (European Union 2013). One of the cornerstones of the reform is Article 15 (termed the Landing Obligation, LO), stipulating the obligation to bring to land all catches of quota- or size-regulated species with the overall aim to gradually eliminate discards. The shift of focus from landed catches to all catches (i.e. including discards) in the current CFP has had a number of wide-ranging implications on the scientific ecological knowledge and on the ways the scientific community is providing advice on fishing opportunities. Article 15, paragraph 2(b), of the CFP describes an exemption from the Landing Obligation for “species for which scientific evidence demonstrates high survival rates, taking into account the characteristics of the gear, of the fishing practices and of the ecosystem”. This provision has sparked a high interest in discard survival assessments and mobilised Member States and fishing industry representative organisations. The STECF a well as the dedicated ICES group WKMEDS have been heavily involved in providing guidance and developing protocols on how to quantify discard survival robustly in the early stages. Spanning from the Mediterranean to the Baltic, more than 20 studies have been carried out all over Europe between 2013 and 2018 and assessed by the STECF. Generating robust evidence on discard survival estimates that is representative of a fishery still remains challenging. Defining what “high survival” means has also been challenging. The Landing Obligation has rendered the provision of scientific advice more complex to perform and quality-check, and more difficult to formulate. Since 2015, two main changes have been triggered in the ICES process, involving the way catch data are collected and the way forecasts are performed and presented. Changes in catch data have emerged from the need to quantify and use new categories, i.e. Landings below minimum conservation reference size and Logbook Registered Discard). Conceptual decisions must be made on how to sample, monitor and include these catch components in the stock assessment. Until now however, the data sent to ICES for these new categories have remained negligible. In theory, the landing obligation would ensure that all catches would be landed, and a single catch advice would suffice. In practice, this poses a number of quantitative challenges, linked to the facts that: i) discarding still takes place and cannot be ignored; and ii) legal provisions (e.g. high survivability, de minimis and predator damage fish) in article 15 mean that the landing obligation is only partially applicable. Finally, the phased implementation together with incomplete discard data have made the calculation of TAC uplift particularly challenging. On the management side, TACs have been adjusted to facilitate the implementation of the LO, although overall, discarding practices have little changed in Europe to date. This may well lead to counterproductive increases in fishing mortality. The final section summarises the situation in the DiscardLess case studies, providing updated discard plans. No significant changes have been observed over the 2015-2018 period due to the implementation of the the LO, in the discarding patterns and volumes. An exception to that would be in the North Sea and west of Scotland, haddock, and to a lesser extent North Sea cod and Saithe (in the west of Scotland only) for which discard volumes have decreased.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ulrich, Clara;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | DiscardLess (633680)

    This deliverable provides an overview of the various Discard Mitigation Strategies (DMS) that have been analysed and investigated in the various case studies. The DMSs are proposed and examined as case specific approaches to support the implementation of the European Landing Obligation (LO). The DMSs represent potential approaches to reduce unvanted catches through fishing gear technology (WP3) changes in fishing patterns (WP4), by finding efficient solutions for handling unavoidable unwanted onboard (WP5), and through identifying existing and novel ways to utilize unwanted catches (WP6). This deliverable represents thus a synthesis of the work developed in these four “innovation” Work Packages, summarised by region. The technical details of the various approaches can be found in the corresponding deliverables from these WPs and where applicable, in scientific publications. The work has been diverse, and not all tasks / work package have been performed in each case study. But in every case studies, significant amounts of new knowledge have been developed about the possible technical and tactical approaches to reduce discards and/or to best utilise them in the value chain. A number of approaches are specific to a given issue in a given case study, but there are also many commonalities and some developments are of interest at a much wider scale than the case study. In the Azores case study, several mitigation measures to the Landing Obligation were assessed for the bottom hook-and-line fisheries. The main technical measures analysed hook size and hook shape. Fishing experiments performed by the DiscardLess team proved that the J-hooks, currently used in the fishery, are better than circle hooks to limit deep-water shark bycatch. The main tactical measures included spatial and vertical/depth avoidance strategies. Spatial avoidance strategies appear of limited potential for blackspot seabream. For deep-water sharks, habitat suitability models showed large distribution, mostly influenced by depth, of most species, and some areas with high number of deep-water sharks. Some areas of high conflict (high number of zero TAC species and high fishing effort) could be identified. The large number of species included within the zero TAC limitation, and the high mobility of some species, render spatial avoidance measures difficult to implement. However,depth avoidance strategies could be more promising. The most promising measure to avoid unwanted catch appears to be the conversion of bottom longlining to handlining., which has also been ongoing for some years. Data collected as part of the DiscardLess project in the Azores were used to support requests for exemptions asked by the Regional Government of the Azores, which were granted in 2018. In the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Agean Sea) case study, selectivity analyses have shown that both 40mm square and 50mm diamond meshes, compared to the 40mm diamond, would increase escapement and reduce discards. There seems to be little scope for avoidance strategies. Some feasibility analyses were performed for the use of discards at shore. investigating options for small quantities of unwanted landings in small harbours. Two options were suggested: fishmeal/fishoil and silage, using small mobile production plants. However, the initial investments costs are important and the expected returns are limited. In the Western Mediterranean Sea (Balearic Islands / Gulf of Lions), the problem of small-sized fish is mainly related to hake, and discard rates for all other species under the LO are low, except for horse mackerel. Most trawlers from the Balearic Islands have already changed to 40 mm square mesh cod-end, but there is still scope for improving the fishery selectivity and avoid juveniles of hake and mackerel by changing the mesh size and shape or introducing other devices such as panels and grids. Spatial management is widely used and supported in the Mediterranean as a strategy to reduce unwanted catches. Fishers highly support the mapping of juvenile hotspots based on scientific knowledge. DiscardLess developed a number of spatial models in this area, and made them available through Apps consultable via Internet. However, forecasting the impact of discard avoidance management on the sustainability of trawler fisheries is challenging, requiring data, time and trained human-resources. In the Bay of Biscaye case study, most of the work performed by DiscardLess dealt with the use of unwanted catches in the value chain. A catalogue of more than 30 different utllisations was published online, and a systematic approach was developed for a rapid appraisal of which of the possible utilisations might be preferable in a case-by-case approach, depending on the quantity, quality and variability of the expected volumes of unwanted catches, of the existing and required infrastructures and logistics, and of the potential market demand. Some trials were conducted, producing e.g. fish pulp and hydrolysates out of unwanted mackerel and juvenile hake brought to land. Different options for the adequate handling of unwanted catches onboard were proposed, and an automatic system at shore for the identification and classification of unwanted fish that would be landed iced and preserved as normal catches was developed and successfully tested. Some cost-efficient DNA tests for the rapid detection of the presence/absence of a species in a mix were also developed. The mixed nature of the species targeted by demersal fisheries in the Celtic Sea case study results in numerous challenges with the introduction of the Landing Obligation. It is likely that a combination of improved gear selectivity and the adoption of alternative fishing strategies will be required to avoid some of the unwanted catches, and to maximise on fishing opportunities under the LO. There is certainly no one-size fits all solution, and it is likely that gear and behaviour adaptations will mitigate some, but not all problems with choke species and <MCRS fish. DiscardLess provided resources in the form of the selectivity manual and mapping apps for the Celtic Sea, but further collaborations with industry will be required to ensure that future developments of mapping applications meet the needs of interested stakeholders in appropriate formats and time frames. By sharing information on occurrences of undersize fish or spawning aggregations for example, coupled with the information provided in the maps developed in this project, fishers should be much better equipped to avoid choke species and juvenile fish. A major problem in the Celtic Sea remains that due to quota allocation rules as well as stock status, all Member States encounter choke issues, while TAC is globally undershot for a number of species. There is thus some potential for management measures to help mitigate the impacts of the LO. In the Eastern English Channel case study as well, the mixed nature of the fisheries results in numerous challenges with the introduction of the Landing Obligation. One of the main obstacle to gear selectivity improvement is the diversity of species (with large differences in size, shape, market value and management regime), which have made attempts to improve gear selectivity little conclusive in the area. Some „challenge“ experiments to test the Landing Obligation in real conditions showed issues in increasing workload and storage capacity onboard. DiscardLess performed numerous interviews and studies dedicated to the mapping of unwanted catches including some user-friendly maps apps. Fishermen engaged in collaboration for designing adequate knowldge plateforms and scenarios given their limited sets of options for changing fishing zones, given the large amount of other usages of the maritime space in the area. In the North Sea/West of Scotland case study, many different DMS analyses were conducted. but mainly involving desk studies and laboratory experiments rather than actual trials at sea. Major progresses in knowlegde on gear selectivity was brought together and shared, including the publication of numerous factsheets on selective devices and some in-depth analyses of how and why the various elements of a trawls modify selectivity by affecting fish behaviour. Extensive experiments of the use of light were conducted, in order to test the avoidance/attraction reactions of fish to different types of light (color, intensity, flash etc). The results demonstrate some differences in behaviour between different species of fish, which could be a promising avenue for improving catch composition. Several studies were published advancing knowledge on the spatial distribution of choke species and unwanted catches, not least using fine-scale fisheries data coming from different previous Danish pilot trials involving Electronic Monitoring and weighting-packing at sea. Regarding the valoriation of unwanted catches in the value chain, a project was run in collaboration with the harbour of Hanstholm (DK), which established new facilities for the storage and delivery of fish in 2017. At present, most unwated catches and rest raw products are used for feed in the mink farms. The project also foresaw initially the rebuilding of the processing deck of a trawler, but the discard levels in that fishery remain limited and not worth the investment. Finally, a large part of the work performed by DiscardLess in this case study related to the issue of Monitoring, Control and Surveillance. This included both the publication of various studies on experiences and progresses with Fully Documented Fisheries and Electronic Monitoring, and major progresses achieved on the use of DNA technology for the characterisation of species in a mix (e.g. bulk or silage) and the quantification of the relative biomass of each species. This represents a promising break-through for the control and traceability of unanted catches in the value chain. Alltogether, important progresses in scientific knowledge has been achieved in a number of topics, including e.g. fish behaviour (swimming, escapement and reaction to light), fish mortality and survival, fine-scale spatial distribution of key species, handling and flesh properties of a number of different fish species, DNA characterisation etc. As such, it must be recognised that the landing Obligation has triggered significant advances in fundamental biological, ecological and technological knowledge, way beyond the state of the art at the time of the reform of the Common Fishery Policy in 2013. It is certain that this research activity would not have taken place without the political pressure to reduce discards. However, in spite of these intense scientific and technical analyses, it is obvious that the discarding issue has not been solved yet. The complexity of the issue is immense, and there are still many technical, economic, social, cultural, psychological, institutional and political barriers that hinder the achievement of the objectives of the landing obligation. There are thus no simple and unique „one-size-fits-all“ technical solutions that would solve all issues and without economic impact. But there are many small steps that can be taken, which individually can contribute to reducing discards. Box 1: Highlights In all case studies, new knowledge have been developed about the possible technical and tactical approaches to reduce discards and/or to best utilise them in the value chain There is no simple and unique technical solutions that would solve all issues and without economic impact. But there are many small steps that can be taken, which individually can contribute to reducing discards A number of approaches are specific to a given issue in a given case study, but there are also many commonalities and some developments are of interest at a much wider scale than the case study The landing Obligation has triggered significant progresses in scientific knowledge on a number of topics, including e.g. fish behaviour (swimming, escapement and reaction to light), fine-scale spatial distribution of key species, handling and flesh properties of a number of different fish species, DNA characterisation etc Important efforts have been made to make all this new knowledge easily available, easily understandable and easily shareable, through the public sharing of information via the DiscardLess website, including popular documents such as Discard Mitigation Toolbox, short reports, videos and powerpoint presentations. Box 2: The Methods/Approaches followed Synthesis of deliverables from Work Packages 3 (Gear Technology), 4 (Fishing strategies), 5 (onboard handling) and 6 (products to the value chain) compalied by case studies Additional references where appropriate Box 3: How these results can be used and by whom These sections by case studies will be made as individual chapters and published on http://www.discardless.eu/where-do-we-work, allowing for a regional synthetic overview of the knowledge available. This is of interest for all actors in a region, stakeholders and policy makers, in the frame of the regionaliation of the CFP, to