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21 Research products, page 1 of 3

  • European Marine Science
  • Other research products
  • European Commission
  • EC|H2020
  • EC|FP7|SP2

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  • English
    Authors: 
    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Zens, Patrick; Black, Samuel; Lund, Kasper Holst; Svensson, Anders M; Vallelonga, Paul T;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | TiPES (820970)

    Results from six firn cores obtained during a 426 km long northern Greenland traverse in 2015 between the NEEM and the EGRIP deep drilling stations situated on the Western and Eastern side of the Greenland ice sheet, respectively. The cores (9 to 14 m long) are analysed for chemical impurities by means of Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA); Insoluble dust, ammonium, calcium, acid, conductivity and peroxide. The data was dated by means of annual layer counting of mainly peroxide supplemented by calcium seasonal cycles and spans 18 to 53 years (±3 yrs) depending on local snow accumulation that decreases from west to east. Insoluble dust, ammonium, and calcium concentrations in the 6 firn cores overlap, and also the seasonal cycles are similar in timing and magnitude across sites, while peroxide (H2O2) and conductivity both have spatial variations. H2O2 is driven by the accumulation pattern and conductivity is likely influenced by sea salt. Data is published as part of Kjær et al. 2022, Climate of the past, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2021-99

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Hauge, Lisa Lolk; Simonsen, Marius; Yoldi, Zurine; Koldtoft, Iben; Hörhold, Maria; Freitag, Johannes; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Svensson, Anders M; Vallelonga, Paul T;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | TiPES (820970)

    One and two metre snow pit accumulation, density, peroxide and conductivity on a depth and age scale from summer 2019 obtained at 7 ice core drilling sites; NEEM, B16, B19, B22 as well as 3 sites in the vicinity of EastGRIP representing the years 2014 to summer 2019. The data was analysed by means of continuous flow using the Light weight In Situ Analysis (LISA) box (Kjær et al, 2021).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Angelopoulos, Michael; Overduin, Pier Paul; Jenrich, Maren; Nitze, Ingmar; Günther, Frank; Strauss, Jens; Westermann, Sebastian; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Kholodov, Alexander L; Krautblatter, Michael; +2 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | Nunataryuk (773421), EC | PETA-CARB (338335)

    In July 2017, we collected apparent resistivity data (ohm-m) in a sub-aquatic permafrost environment on the southern coastline of the Bykovsky Peninsula in northeast Siberia. The project goal was to determine the depth to the top of frozen sediment for multiple submerged landscapes. The submerged landscapes included ice-rich Yedoma permafrost, permafrost that had undergone prior thermokarst (Alases), and a former lagoon (i.e. offshore at the lagoon's coastline positions in earlier years). The data was collected with an IRIS Syscal Pro Deep Marine resistivity system that was equipped with a GPS and an echo-sounder to record water depths. The geoelectric cable had an electrode separation of 10 m and the electrodes were arranged in a reciprocal Wenner Schlumberger array. The offset between the first electrode and the boat was approximately 10 m.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Segato, Delia; Villoslada Hidalgo, Maria Del Carmen; Edwards, Ross; Barbaro, Elena; Vallelonga, Paul T; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Simonsen, Marius; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Zangrando, Roberta; +4 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)

    This dataset presents the fire proxies levoglucosan, black carbon and ammonium measured in the RECAP ice core, in coastal East Greenland. The datasets cover a period of 5000 years and are averaged in 20 years bins. Raw concentrations of levoglucosan, black carbon and ammonium are also provided. Levoglucosan has been determined using high performance liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray ionization – tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS). Black carbon has been measured using a BC analyzer connected to the Continuous Flow Analysis system. Ammonium (NH4+) has been measured by fluorescence within the Continuous Flow Analysis setup.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rasse, Rafael; Claustre, Hervé; Poteau, Antoine;
    Project: EC | NOCEANIC (839062), EC | REMOCEAN (246777), EC | REFINE (834177)

    The shallower oxygen-poor water masses of the ocean confine a majority of the microbial communities that can produce up to 90 % of oceanic N2. This effective N2-yielding section encloses a suspended small-particle layer, inferred from particle backscattering (bbp) measurements. It is thus hypothesized that this layer (hereafter, the bbp-layer) is linked to microbial communities involved in N2 yielding such as nitrate-reducing SAR11 as well as sulfur-oxidizing, anammox, and denitrifying bacteria – a hypothesis yet to be evaluated. Here, data collected by three BGC-Argo floats deployed in the Black Sea are used to investigate the origin of this bbp-layer. To this end, we evaluate how the key drivers of N2-yielding bacteria dynamics impact the vertical distribution of bbp and the thickness of the bbp-layer. In conjunction with published data on N2 excess, our results suggest that the bbp-layer is at least partially composed of the bacteria driving N2 yielding for three main reasons: (1) strong correlations are recorded between bbp and nitrate; (2) the top location of the bbp-layer is driven by the ventilation of oxygen-rich subsurface waters, while its thickness is modulated by the amount of nitrate available to produce N2; and (3) the maxima of both bbp and N2 excess coincide at the same isopycnals where bacteria involved in N2 yielding coexist. We thus advance that bbp and O2 can be exploited as a combined proxy to delineate the N2-yielding section of the Black Sea. This proxy can potentially contribute to refining delineation of the effective N2-yielding section of oxygen-deficient zones via data from the growing BGC-Argo float network.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westerhold, Thomas;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EARTHSEQUENCING (617462), EC | TiPES (820970), EC | MIONIÑO (796220)

    Much of our understanding of Earth's past climate states comes from the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotope variations in deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Yet, major intervals in those records that lack the temporal resolution and/or age control required to identify climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we document 66 million years of global climate by a new high-fidelity Cenozoic global reference benthic carbon and oxygen isotope dataset (CENOGRID). Using recurrence analysis, we find that on timescales of millions of years Earth's climate can be grouped into Hothouse, Warmhouse, Coolhouse and Icehouse states separated by transitions related to changing greenhouse gas levels and the growth of polar ice sheets. Each Cenozoic climate state is paced by orbital cycles, but the response to radiative forcing is state dependent.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nitze, Ingmar; Fuchs, Matthias; Strauss, Jens; Günther, Frank; Wetterich, Sebastian; Kizyakov, Alexander; Fritz, Michael; Opel, Thomas; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Maksimov, Georgii T; +2 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | Nunataryuk (773421), EC | PETA-CARB (338335)

    Permafrost thaw and ice wedge degradation lead to drastic landscape changes in the permafrost region. With this data set we investigated the cliff retreat of the Sobo-Sise Cliff (SSC), a high ice-bearing yedoma cliff in the Lena River Delta. The 1,660 m long cliff SSC extends from 72°32'34 N / 128°15'59 E to 72°32'06 N / 128°18'21 E and is located on the Sardakhskaya channel, which is one of the main Lena river branches in the Lena River Delta. Erosion rates for the SSC were determined based on satellite images from different sensors (Corona, Hexagon, Landsat, Planet cube-sat) for the period 1965-2018. Cliff front lines were manually digitized and erosion rates were calculated with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) tool (Himmelstoos et al. 2018). The study Fuchs et al. (2020) (doi:10.3389/feart.2020.00336) shows that the up to 27.7 m high SSC erodes in average 15.7 m yr-1 (2015-2018). During the entire observed time period from 1965-2018, the SSC retreated in average 484 m (ranging from 322 - 680 m). This data set compilation consist of three GIS shapefiles with a corresponding metadata file and a table of the mean annual erosion rates of the yedoma SSC for the time periods 1965-1975, 1975-2000, 2000-2005, 2005-2010, 2010-2015, and 2015-2018, as well as the absolute cliff retreat rates over the entire period 1965-2018, which are derived from remote sensing imagery analyzed with the DSAS tool. In addition, the cliff front lines for each investigated time step are provided as well as the separation between yedoma and alas deposits for each time step. Related trend data for this region, based on Landsat trend analysis are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.884136 (Nitze, 2018).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Vallelonga, Paul; Edwards, Ross; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Turetta, Clara; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Barbante, Carlo; Vinther, Bo; Spolaor, Andrea;
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | CLIMAHAL (726349)

    Although it has been demonstrated that the speed and magnitude of the recent Arctic sea ice decline is unprecedented for the past 1450 years, few records are available to provide a paleoclimate context for Arctic sea ice extent. Bromine enrichment in ice cores has been suggested to indicate the extent of newly formed sea ice areas. Despite the similarities among sea ice indicators and ice core bromine enrichment records, uncertainties still exist regarding the quantitative linkages between bromine reactive chemistry and the first-year sea ice surfaces. Here we present a 120 000-year record of bromine enrichment from the RECAP (REnland ice CAP) ice core, coastal east Greenland, and interpret it as a record of first-year sea ice. We compare it to existing sea ice records from marine cores and tentatively reconstruct past sea ice conditions in the North Atlantic as far north as the Fram Strait (50–85∘ N). Our interpretation implies that during the last deglaciation, the transition from multi-year to first-year sea ice started at ∼17.5 ka, synchronously with sea ice reductions observed in the eastern Nordic Seas and with the increase in North Atlantic ocean temperature. First-year sea ice reached its maximum at 12.4–11.8 ka during the Younger Dryas, after which open-water conditions started to dominate, consistent with sea ice records from the eastern Nordic Seas and the North Icelandic shelf. Our results show that over the last 120 000 years, multi-year sea ice extent was greatest during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and possibly during MIS 4, with more extended first-year sea ice during MIS 3 and MIS 5. Sea ice extent during the Holocene (MIS 1) has been less than at any time in the last 120 000 years.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marron, Alan; Cassarino, Lucie; Hatton, Jade; Curnow, Paul; Hendry, Katharine R.;
    Project: WT , EC | BIOCOMPLEX (247333), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    The marine silicon cycle is intrinsically linked with carbon cycling in the oceans via biological production of silica by a wide range of organisms. The stable silicon isotopic composition (denoted by δ30Si) of siliceous microfossils extracted from sediment cores can be used as an archive of past oceanic silicon cycling. However, the silicon isotopic composition of biogenic silica has only been measured in diatoms, sponges and radiolarians, and isotopic fractionation relative to seawater is entirely unknown for many other silicifiers. Furthermore, the biochemical pathways and mechanisms that determine isotopic fractionation during biosilicification remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first measurements of the silicon isotopic fractionation during biosilicification by loricate choanoflagellates, a group of protists closely related to animals. We cultured two species of choanoflagellates, Diaphanoeca grandis and Stephanoeca diplocostata, which showed consistently greater isotopic fractionation (approximately −5 ‰ to −7 ‰) than cultured diatoms (−0.5 ‰ to −2.1 ‰). Instead, choanoflagellate silicon isotopic fractionation appears to be more similar to sponges grown under similar dissolved silica concentrations. Our results highlight that there is a taxonomic component to silicon isotope fractionation during biosilicification, possibly via a shared or related biochemical transport pathway. These findings have implications for the use of biogenic silica δ30Si produced by different silicifiers as proxies for past oceanic change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Goren, Tom; Sourdeval, Odran; Quaas, Johannes; Mülmenstädt, Johannes; Dipu, Sudhakar; Unglaub, Claudia; Gettelman, Andrew; Christensen, Matthew;
    Project: EC | MSCCC (703880), EC | QUAERERE (306284)

    The impact of aerosols on cloud properties is one of the largest uncertainties in the anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate. Significant progress has been made in constraining this forcing using observations, but uncertainty remains, particularly in the magnitude of cloud rapid adjustments to aerosol perturbations. Cloud liquid water path (LWP) is the leading control on liquid-cloud albedo, making it important to observationally constrain the aerosol impact on LWP. Previous modelling and observational studies have shown that multiple processes play a role in determining the LWP response to aerosol perturbations, but that the aerosol effect can be difficult to isolate. Following previous studies using mediating variables, this work investigates use of the relationship between cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) and LWP for constraining the role of aerosols. Using joint-probability histograms to account for the non-linear relationship, this work finds a relationship that is broadly consistent with previous studies. There is significant geographical variation in the relationship, partly due to role of meteorological factors (particularly relative humidity). The Nd–LWP relationship is negative in the majority of regions, suggesting that aerosol-induced LWP reductions could offset a significant fraction of the instantaneous radiative forcing from aerosol–cloud interactions (RFaci). However, variations in the Nd–LWP relationship in response to volcanic and shipping aerosol perturbations indicate that the Nd–LWP relationship overestimates the causal Nd impact on LWP due to the role of confounding factors. The weaker LWP reduction implied by these “natural experiments” means that this work provides an upper bound to the radiative forcing from aerosol-induced changes in the LWP.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
21 Research products, page 1 of 3
  • English
    Authors: 
    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Zens, Patrick; Black, Samuel; Lund, Kasper Holst; Svensson, Anders M; Vallelonga, Paul T;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | TiPES (820970)

    Results from six firn cores obtained during a 426 km long northern Greenland traverse in 2015 between the NEEM and the EGRIP deep drilling stations situated on the Western and Eastern side of the Greenland ice sheet, respectively. The cores (9 to 14 m long) are analysed for chemical impurities by means of Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA); Insoluble dust, ammonium, calcium, acid, conductivity and peroxide. The data was dated by means of annual layer counting of mainly peroxide supplemented by calcium seasonal cycles and spans 18 to 53 years (±3 yrs) depending on local snow accumulation that decreases from west to east. Insoluble dust, ammonium, and calcium concentrations in the 6 firn cores overlap, and also the seasonal cycles are similar in timing and magnitude across sites, while peroxide (H2O2) and conductivity both have spatial variations. H2O2 is driven by the accumulation pattern and conductivity is likely influenced by sea salt. Data is published as part of Kjær et al. 2022, Climate of the past, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2021-99

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Hauge, Lisa Lolk; Simonsen, Marius; Yoldi, Zurine; Koldtoft, Iben; Hörhold, Maria; Freitag, Johannes; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Svensson, Anders M; Vallelonga, Paul T;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | TiPES (820970)

    One and two metre snow pit accumulation, density, peroxide and conductivity on a depth and age scale from summer 2019 obtained at 7 ice core drilling sites; NEEM, B16, B19, B22 as well as 3 sites in the vicinity of EastGRIP representing the years 2014 to summer 2019. The data was analysed by means of continuous flow using the Light weight In Situ Analysis (LISA) box (Kjær et al, 2021).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Angelopoulos, Michael; Overduin, Pier Paul; Jenrich, Maren; Nitze, Ingmar; Günther, Frank; Strauss, Jens; Westermann, Sebastian; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Kholodov, Alexander L; Krautblatter, Michael; +2 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | Nunataryuk (773421), EC | PETA-CARB (338335)

    In July 2017, we collected apparent resistivity data (ohm-m) in a sub-aquatic permafrost environment on the southern coastline of the Bykovsky Peninsula in northeast Siberia. The project goal was to determine the depth to the top of frozen sediment for multiple submerged landscapes. The submerged landscapes included ice-rich Yedoma permafrost, permafrost that had undergone prior thermokarst (Alases), and a former lagoon (i.e. offshore at the lagoon's coastline positions in earlier years). The data was collected with an IRIS Syscal Pro Deep Marine resistivity system that was equipped with a GPS and an echo-sounder to record water depths. The geoelectric cable had an electrode separation of 10 m and the electrodes were arranged in a reciprocal Wenner Schlumberger array. The offset between the first electrode and the boat was approximately 10 m.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Segato, Delia; Villoslada Hidalgo, Maria Del Carmen; Edwards, Ross; Barbaro, Elena; Vallelonga, Paul T; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Simonsen, Marius; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Zangrando, Roberta; +4 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)

    This dataset presents the fire proxies levoglucosan, black carbon and ammonium measured in the RECAP ice core, in coastal East Greenland. The datasets cover a period of 5000 years and are averaged in 20 years bins. Raw concentrations of levoglucosan, black carbon and ammonium are also provided. Levoglucosan has been determined using high performance liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray ionization – tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS). Black carbon has been measured using a BC analyzer connected to the Continuous Flow Analysis system. Ammonium (NH4+) has been measured by fluorescence within the Continuous Flow Analysis setup.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rasse, Rafael; Claustre, Hervé; Poteau, Antoine;
    Project: EC | NOCEANIC (839062), EC | REMOCEAN (246777), EC | REFINE (834177)

    The shallower oxygen-poor water masses of the ocean confine a majority of the microbial communities that can produce up to 90 % of oceanic N2. This effective N2-yielding section encloses a suspended small-particle layer, inferred from particle backscattering (bbp) measurements. It is thus hypothesized that this layer (hereafter, the bbp-layer) is linked to microbial communities involved in N2 yielding such as nitrate-reducing SAR11 as well as sulfur-oxidizing, anammox, and denitrifying bacteria – a hypothesis yet to be evaluated. Here, data collected by three BGC-Argo floats deployed in the Black Sea are used to investigate the origin of this bbp-layer. To this end, we evaluate how the key drivers of N2-yielding bacteria dynamics impact the vertical distribution of bbp and the thickness of the bbp-layer. In conjunction with published data on N2 excess, our results suggest that the bbp-layer is at least partially composed of the bacteria driving N2 yielding for three main reasons: (1) strong correlations are recorded between bbp and nitrate; (2) the top location of the bbp-layer is driven by the ventilation of oxygen-rich subsurface waters, while its thickness is modulated by the amount of nitrate available to produce N2; and (3) the maxima of both bbp and N2 excess coincide at the same isopycnals where bacteria involved in N2 yielding coexist. We thus advance that bbp and O2 can be exploited as a combined proxy to delineate the N2-yielding section of the Black Sea. This proxy can potentially contribute to refining delineation of the effective N2-yielding section of oxygen-deficient zones via data from the growing BGC-Argo float network.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westerhold, Thomas;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EARTHSEQUENCING (617462), EC | TiPES (820970), EC | MIONIÑO (796220)

    Much of our understanding of Earth's past climate states comes from the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotope variations in deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Yet, major intervals in those records that lack the temporal resolution and/or age control required to identify climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we document 66 million years of global climate by a new high-fidelity Cenozoic global reference benthic carbon and oxygen isotope dataset (CENOGRID). Using recurrence analysis, we find that on timescales of millions of years Earth's climate can be grouped into Hothouse, Warmhouse, Coolhouse and Icehouse states separated by transitions related to changing greenhouse gas levels and the growth of polar ice sheets. Each Cenozoic climate state is paced by orbital cycles, but the response to radiative forcing is state dependent.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nitze, Ingmar; Fuchs, Matthias; Strauss, Jens; Günther, Frank; Wetterich, Sebastian; Kizyakov, Alexander; Fritz, Michael; Opel, Thomas; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Maksimov, Georgii T; +2 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | Nunataryuk (773421), EC | PETA-CARB (338335)

    Permafrost thaw and ice wedge degradation lead to drastic landscape changes in the permafrost region. With this data set we investigated the cliff retreat of the Sobo-Sise Cliff (SSC), a high ice-bearing yedoma cliff in the Lena River Delta. The 1,660 m long cliff SSC extends from 72°32'34 N / 128°15'59 E to 72°32'06 N / 128°18'21 E and is located on the Sardakhskaya channel, which is one of the main Lena river branches in the Lena River Delta. Erosion rates for the SSC were determined based on satellite images from different sensors (Corona, Hexagon, Landsat, Planet cube-sat) for the period 1965-2018. Cliff front lines were manually digitized and erosion rates were calculated with the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) tool (Himmelstoos et al. 2018). The study Fuchs et al. (2020) (doi:10.3389/feart.2020.00336) shows that the up to 27.7 m high SSC erodes in average 15.7 m yr-1 (2015-2018). During the entire observed time period from 1965-2018, the SSC retreated in average 484 m (ranging from 322 - 680 m). This data set compilation consist of three GIS shapefiles with a corresponding metadata file and a table of the mean annual erosion rates of the yedoma SSC for the time periods 1965-1975, 1975-2000, 2000-2005, 2005-2010, 2010-2015, and 2015-2018, as well as the absolute cliff retreat rates over the entire period 1965-2018, which are derived from remote sensing imagery analyzed with the DSAS tool. In addition, the cliff front lines for each investigated time step are provided as well as the separation between yedoma and alas deposits for each time step. Related trend data for this region, based on Landsat trend analysis are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.884136 (Nitze, 2018).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Vallelonga, Paul; Edwards, Ross; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Turetta, Clara; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Barbante, Carlo; Vinther, Bo; Spolaor, Andrea;
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | CLIMAHAL (726349)

    Although it has been demonstrated that the speed and magnitude of the recent Arctic sea ice decline is unprecedented for the past 1450 years, few records are available to provide a paleoclimate context for Arctic sea ice extent. Bromine enrichment in ice cores has been suggested to indicate the extent of newly formed sea ice areas. Despite the similarities among sea ice indicators and ice core bromine enrichment records, uncertainties still exist regarding the quantitative linkages between bromine reactive chemistry and the first-year sea ice surfaces. Here we present a 120 000-year record of bromine enrichment from the RECAP (REnland ice CAP) ice core, coastal east Greenland, and interpret it as a record of first-year sea ice. We compare it to existing sea ice records from marine cores and tentatively reconstruct past sea ice conditions in the North Atlantic as far north as the Fram Strait (50–85∘ N). Our interpretation implies that during the last deglaciation, the transition from multi-year to first-year sea ice started at ∼17.5 ka, synchronously with sea ice reductions observed in the eastern Nordic Seas and with the increase in North Atlantic ocean temperature. First-year sea ice reached its maximum at 12.4–11.8 ka during the Younger Dryas, after which open-water conditions started to dominate, consistent with sea ice records from the eastern Nordic Seas and the North Icelandic shelf. Our results show that over the last 120 000 years, multi-year sea ice extent was greatest during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and possibly during MIS 4, with more extended first-year sea ice during MIS 3 and MIS 5. Sea ice extent during the Holocene (MIS 1) has been less than at any time in the last 120 000 years.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marron, Alan; Cassarino, Lucie; Hatton, Jade; Curnow, Paul; Hendry, Katharine R.;
    Project: WT , EC | BIOCOMPLEX (247333), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    The marine silicon cycle is intrinsically linked with carbon cycling in the oceans via biological production of silica by a wide range of organisms. The stable silicon isotopic composition (denoted by δ30Si) of siliceous microfossils extracted from sediment cores can be used as an archive of past oceanic silicon cycling. However, the silicon isotopic composition of biogenic silica has only been measured in diatoms, sponges and radiolarians, and isotopic fractionation relative to seawater is entirely unknown for many other silicifiers. Furthermore, the biochemical pathways and mechanisms that determine isotopic fractionation during biosilicification remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first measurements of the silicon isotopic fractionation during biosilicification by loricate choanoflagellates, a group of protists closely related to animals. We cultured two species of choanoflagellates, Diaphanoeca grandis and Stephanoeca diplocostata, which showed consistently greater isotopic fractionation (approximately −5 ‰ to −7 ‰) than cultured diatoms (−0.5 ‰ to −2.1 ‰). Instead, choanoflagellate silicon isotopic fractionation appears to be more similar to sponges grown under similar dissolved silica concentrations. Our results highlight that there is a taxonomic component to silicon isotope fractionation during biosilicification, possibly via a shared or related biochemical transport pathway. These findings have implications for the use of biogenic silica δ30Si produced by different silicifiers as proxies for past oceanic change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Goren, Tom; Sourdeval, Odran; Quaas, Johannes; Mülmenstädt, Johannes; Dipu, Sudhakar; Unglaub, Claudia; Gettelman, Andrew; Christensen, Matthew;
    Project: EC | MSCCC (703880), EC | QUAERERE (306284)

    The impact of aerosols on cloud properties is one of the largest uncertainties in the anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate. Significant progress has been made in constraining this forcing using observations, but uncertainty remains, particularly in the magnitude of cloud rapid adjustments to aerosol perturbations. Cloud liquid water path (LWP) is the leading control on liquid-cloud albedo, making it important to observationally constrain the aerosol impact on LWP. Previous modelling and observational studies have shown that multiple processes play a role in determining the LWP response to aerosol perturbations, but that the aerosol effect can be difficult to isolate. Following previous studies using mediating variables, this work investigates use of the relationship between cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) and LWP for constraining the role of aerosols. Using joint-probability histograms to account for the non-linear relationship, this work finds a relationship that is broadly consistent with previous studies. There is significant geographical variation in the relationship, partly due to role of meteorological factors (particularly relative humidity). The Nd–LWP relationship is negative in the majority of regions, suggesting that aerosol-induced LWP reductions could offset a significant fraction of the instantaneous radiative forcing from aerosol–cloud interactions (RFaci). However, variations in the Nd–LWP relationship in response to volcanic and shipping aerosol perturbations indicate that the Nd–LWP relationship overestimates the causal Nd impact on LWP due to the role of confounding factors. The weaker LWP reduction implied by these “natural experiments” means that this work provides an upper bound to the radiative forcing from aerosol-induced changes in the LWP.