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164 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2019-2023
  • Other research products
  • European Commission
  • EC|FP7
  • EU
  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pallacks, Sven; Ziveri, Patrizia; Schiebel, Ralf; Vonhof, Hubert B; +6 Authors

    Three high resolution multicore records have been collected at three sites in the western Mediterranean with a MC400-Multicorer system during the MedSeA cruise (Mediterranean Sea Acidification in a changing climate) on 2 May to 2 June 2013 onboard the R/V Angeles Álvarino. Core MedSeA-S3-c1 was retrieved in the Alboran basin (Lat. 36.0746° N, Long. 04.11040° W) at a water depth of 1137 m, with a core length of 33 cm. Core MedSeA-S23-c1 was recovered at a water depth of 1156 m in the Balearic basin offshore Barcelona (Lat. 41.1121° N, Long. 2.38200° E) with a core length of 43 cm. MedSeA-S7-c2 was collected at the Strait of Sicily (Lat. 37.7080° N, Long. 12.40553° E) at a water depth of 263 m, with a core length of 46.5 cm. All three cores have been analyzed for changes in size normalized weight (SNW) and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C), measured in planktic foraminiferal clacite shells of the two species Globigerina bulloides and Globigerinoides elongatus. Boron (δ11B) isotopes have been measured in tests of Globigerinoides elongatus at the Alboran site, and in Globigerinoides ruber albus at the Strait of Sicily. Complementary data for the Strait of Sicily record has been obtained, including a 210Pb based age depth model, sea surface temperatures (SST), alkenone concentrations and planktic foraminiferal assemblage changes. The Strait of Sicily record (MedSeA-S7-c2) covers around the last 200 a, describing environmental changes throughout the Industrial Era (IE) at high temporal resolution. The Alboran (MedSeA-S3-c1) and Balearic Sea (MedSeA-S23-c1) records spanning the last about 1 ka at lower temporal resolution, displaying oceanographic changes throughout the transition from the pre-industrial era to present, as discussed in (Pallacks et al., 2021; doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103549). Data has been collected to investigate the response of marine calcifiers to the combined effects of climate change stressors on decadal to centennial timescales, caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

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    Authors: Kjær, Helle Astrid; Zens, Patrick; Black, Samuel; Lund, Kasper Holst; +2 Authors

    Results from six firn cores obtained during a 426 km long northern Greenland traverse in 2015 between the NEEM and the EGRIP deep drilling stations situated on the Western and Eastern side of the Greenland ice sheet, respectively. The cores (9 to 14 m long) are analysed for chemical impurities by means of Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA); Insoluble dust, ammonium, calcium, acid, conductivity and peroxide. The data was dated by means of annual layer counting of mainly peroxide supplemented by calcium seasonal cycles and spans 18 to 53 years (±3 yrs) depending on local snow accumulation that decreases from west to east. Insoluble dust, ammonium, and calcium concentrations in the 6 firn cores overlap, and also the seasonal cycles are similar in timing and magnitude across sites, while peroxide (H2O2) and conductivity both have spatial variations. H2O2 is driven by the accumulation pattern and conductivity is likely influenced by sea salt. Data is published as part of Kjær et al. 2022, Climate of the past, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2021-99

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    Authors: Tuchen, Franz Philip (Ed.); Brandt, Peter (Ed.); Hahn, Johannes (Ed.); Hummels, Rebecca (Ed.); +5 Authors

    Since 2001, current velocities have been measured continuously as part of a multilateral collaboration, the Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA), that regularly services a moored observatory located at 0°N, 23°W. Here, we present an update of 20 years of full-depth current velocity observations at 0°N, 23°W. With the presented current velocity data product, we aim to provide an important and accessible reference data set against which models and reanalysis output could be validated. The velocity time series will also be helpful for studies focusing on long-term climate variability to search for connections with changes in the equatorial circulation over the last 20 years. Earlier versions of this data product have already been used in a variety of studies and provided a significant contribution to an overall improved understanding of equatorial ocean dynamics. The moored observatory at 0°N, 23°W is an ongoing example of a successful multinational collaboration extending over more than two decades.

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    Authors: Waelbroeck, Claire; Tjiputra, Jerry; Guo, Chuncheng; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; +9 Authors

    We combine consistently dated benthic carbon isotopic records distributed over the entire Atlantic Ocean with numerical simulations performed by a glacial configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model with active ocean biogeochemistry, in order to interpret the observed Cibicides δ13C changes at the stadial-interstadial transition corresponding to the end of Heinrich Stadial 4 (HS4) in terms of ocean circulation and remineralization changes. We show that the marked increase in Cibicides δ13C observed at the end of HS4 between ~2000 and 4200 m in the Atlantic can be explained by changes in nutrient concentrations as simulated by the model in response to the halting of freshwater input in the high latitude glacial North Atlantic. Our model results show that this Cibicides δ13C signal is associated with changes in the ratio of southern-sourced (SSW) versus northern-sourced (NSW) water masses at the core sites, whereby SSW is replaced by NSW as a consequence of the resumption of deep water formation in the northern North Atlantic and Nordic Seas after the freshwater input is halted. Our results further suggest that the contribution of ocean circulation changes to this signal increases from ~40 % at 2000 m to ~80 % at 4000 m. Below ~4200 m, the model shows little ocean circulation change but an increase in remineralization across the transition marking the end of HS4. The simulated lower remineralization during stadials than interstadials is particularly pronounced in deep subantarctic sites, in agreement with the decrease in the export production of carbon to the deep Southern Ocean during stadials found in previous studies.

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    Authors: Kjær, Helle Astrid; Zens, Patrick; Black, Samuel; Lund, Kasper Holst; +2 Authors

    Greenland ice cores provide information about past climate. Few impurity records covering the past 2 decades exist from Greenland. Here we present results from six firn cores obtained during a 426 km long northern Greenland traverse made in 2015 between the NEEM and the EGRIP deep-drilling stations situated on the western side and eastern side of the Greenland ice sheet, respectively. The cores (9 to 14 m long) are analyzed for chemical impurities and cover time spans of 18 to 53 years (±3 years) depending on local snow accumulation that decreases from west to east. The high temporal resolution allows for annual layers and seasons to be resolved. Insoluble dust, ammonium, and calcium concentrations in the six firn cores overlap, and the seasonal cycles are also similar in timing and magnitude across sites, while peroxide (H2O2) and conductivity both have spatial variations, H2O2 driven by the accumulation pattern, and conductivity likely influenced by sea salt. Overall, we determine a rather constant dust flux over the period, but in the data from recent years (1998–2015) we identify an increase in large dust particles that we ascribe to an activation of local Greenland sources. We observe an expected increase in acidity and conductivity in the mid-1970s as a result of anthropogenic emissions, followed by a decrease due to mitigation. Several volcanic horizons identified in the conductivity and acidity records can be associated with eruptions in Iceland and in the Barents Sea region. From a composite ammonium record we obtain a robust forest fire proxy associated primarily with Canadian forest fires (R=0.49).

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    Authors: Droste, Elise S.; Hoppema, Mario; González-Dávila, Melchor; Santana-Casiano, Juana Magdalena; +8 Authors

    Tides significantly affect polar coastlines by modulating ice shelf melt and modifying shelf water properties through transport and mixing. However, the effect of tides on the marine carbonate chemistry in such regions, especially around Antarctica, remains largely unexplored. We address this topic with two case studies in a coastal polynya in the south-eastern Weddell Sea, neighbouring the Ekström Ice Shelf. The case studies were conducted in January 2015 (PS89) and January 2019 (PS117), capturing semi-diurnal oscillations in the water column. These are pronounced in both physical and biogeochemical variables for PS89. During rising tide, advection of sea ice meltwater from the north-east created a fresher, warmer, and more deeply mixed water column with lower dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) content. During ebbing tide, water from underneath the ice shelf decreased the polynya's temperature, increased the DIC and TA content, and created a more stratified water column. The variability during the PS117 case study was much smaller, as it had less sea ice meltwater input during rising tide and was better mixed with sub-ice shelf water. The contrasts in the variability between the two case studies could be wind and sea ice driven, and they underline the complexity and highly dynamic nature of the system. The variability in the polynya induced by the tides results in an air–sea CO2 flux that can range between a strong sink (−24 mmol m−2 d−1) and a small source (3 mmol m−2 d−1) on a semi-diurnal timescale. If the variability induced by tides is not taken into account, there is a potential risk of overestimating the polynya's CO2 uptake by 67 % or underestimating it by 73 %, compared to the average flux determined over several days. Depending on the timing of limited sampling, the polynya may appear to be a source or a sink of CO2. Given the disproportionate influence of polynyas on heat and carbon exchange in polar oceans, we recommend future studies around the Antarctic and Arctic coastlines to consider the timing of tidal currents in their sampling strategies and analyses. This will help constrain variability in oceanographic measurements and avoid potential biases in our understanding of these highly complex systems.

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    Authors: Kajanto, Karita; Straneo, Fiammetta; Nisancioglu, Kerim;

    The role of icebergs in narrow fjords hosting marine terminating glaciers in Greenland is poorly understood, even though icebergs provide a substantial freshwater flux that can exceed the subglacial discharge. Iceberg melt is distributed at depth, contributing to fjord stratification, thus impacting melt and dynamics of the glacier front. We model the high-silled Ilulissat Icefjord in Western Greenland with the MITgcm ocean model, using the IceBerg package to study the effect of icebergs on fjord properties, and compare our results with available observations from 2014. We find the subglacial discharge plume to be the primary driver of the seasonality of circulation, glacier melt and iceberg melt. Icebergs are necessary to include to correctly understand the properties of Ilulissat Icefjord, since they modify the fjord in three main ways: First, icebergs cool and freshen the water column within their vertical extent; Second, icebergs depress the neutral buoyancy depth of the plume and the outflow route of glacially modified water; Third, icebergs modify the deep basin, below their vertical extent, due to both increased entrainment of glacially modified water into the fjord, and iceberg modification of the incoming ambient water. Furthermore, the depressed neutral buoyancy depth of the plume limits melt to the deep section of the front of Sermeq Kujalleq (Jakobshavn Isbræ) even during peak summer, and thus promotes undercutting. We postulate that the impact of icebergs on the neutral buoyancy depth of the plume is a key mechanism connecting iceberg melange and glacier calving, independent of mechanical support.

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    Authors: Ribotti, Alberto; Sorgente, Roberto; Pessini, Federica; Cucco, Andrea; +2 Authors

    Since 2000, and for the following 20 years, hydrological data of the Mediterranean Sea, with a particular focus on the western and central Mediterranean sub-basins, have been acquired to study the hydrodynamics at both coastal and open sea scales. In total, 1468 hydrological casts were realized in 29 oceanographic cruises planned due to scientific purposes linked with funding research projects but were also sometimes driven by sea conditions and type of vessel. After accurate quality assurance and control, following standard procedures, all hydrological data were included in four online public open-access repositories in SEANOE (SEA scieNtific Open data Edition), available from https://doi.org/10.17882/87567 (Ribotti et al., 2022). Hydrological and dissolved oxygen data are always present in all of the datasets, whereas pH, fluorescence, turbidity, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are available just for some cruises. Samplings were carried out mainly along transects, with some repetition over the years. The results of two data analyses, i.e., staircase systems in the Tyrrhenian Sea and in the Algero-Provençal sub-basin and spreading of the Western Mediterranean Transient, are mentioned.

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    Authors: Romero-Alvarez, Johana; Lupaşcu, Aurelia; Lowe, Douglas; Badia, Alba; +4 Authors

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations depend on a combination of hemispheric, regional, and local-scale processes. Estimates of how much O3 is produced locally vs. transported from further afield are essential in air quality management and regulatory policies. Here, a tagged-ozone mechanism within the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the contributions to surface O3 in the UK from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from inside and outside the UK during May–August 2015. The contribution of the different source regions to three regulatory O3 metrics is also examined. It is shown that model simulations predict the concentration and spatial distribution of surface O3 with a domain-wide mean bias of −3.7 ppbv. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from the UK and Europe account for 13 % and 16 %, respectively, of the monthly mean surface O3 in the UK, as the majority (71 %) of O3 originates from the hemispheric background. Hemispheric O3 contributes the most to concentrations in the north and the west of the UK with peaks in May, whereas European and UK contributions are most significant in the east, south-east, and London, i.e. the UK's most populated areas, intensifying towards June and July. Moreover, O3 from European sources is generally transported to the UK rather than produced in situ. It is demonstrated that more stringent emission controls over continental Europe, particularly in western Europe, would be necessary to improve the health-related metric MDA8 O3 above 50 and 60 ppbv. Emission controls over larger areas, such as the Northern Hemisphere, are instead required to lessen the impacts on ecosystems as quantified by the AOT40 metric.

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    Authors: Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Freitag, Johannes; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Weißbach, Stefanie; +3 Authors

    The firn core array of the North Greenland Traverse (NGT) provides unique climatic information for North Greenland until the mid 1990ies. In order to extend this climate record into more recent time, some of the drill sites were revisited and extension cores were drilled. The record is a composite of snow liners (from the surface to 1.29 m depth) and a consecutive firn core from 1.47 m depth to 30.00 m depth with a diameter of 75 cm. Density was measured by weighing the 55 cm long bags. Stable oxygen isotopes (δ18O) were measured at the Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark. Using raw, un-calibrated dielectrical profiling (DEP) data from the field (NEEM Set-up), volcanic tie points were derived. Together with the smoothed density data and the isotopic composition the record was dated by layer counting. The annual mean values of δ18O were obtained based on this dating. Based on the density measurements and the dating, the annual accumulation rate in water equivalent depth was derived.

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    Authors: Pallacks, Sven; Ziveri, Patrizia; Schiebel, Ralf; Vonhof, Hubert B; +6 Authors

    Three high resolution multicore records have been collected at three sites in the western Mediterranean with a MC400-Multicorer system during the MedSeA cruise (Mediterranean Sea Acidification in a changing climate) on 2 May to 2 June 2013 onboard the R/V Angeles Álvarino. Core MedSeA-S3-c1 was retrieved in the Alboran basin (Lat. 36.0746° N, Long. 04.11040° W) at a water depth of 1137 m, with a core length of 33 cm. Core MedSeA-S23-c1 was recovered at a water depth of 1156 m in the Balearic basin offshore Barcelona (Lat. 41.1121° N, Long. 2.38200° E) with a core length of 43 cm. MedSeA-S7-c2 was collected at the Strait of Sicily (Lat. 37.7080° N, Long. 12.40553° E) at a water depth of 263 m, with a core length of 46.5 cm. All three cores have been analyzed for changes in size normalized weight (SNW) and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C), measured in planktic foraminiferal clacite shells of the two species Globigerina bulloides and Globigerinoides elongatus. Boron (δ11B) isotopes have been measured in tests of Globigerinoides elongatus at the Alboran site, and in Globigerinoides ruber albus at the Strait of Sicily. Complementary data for the Strait of Sicily record has been obtained, including a 210Pb based age depth model, sea surface temperatures (SST), alkenone concentrations and planktic foraminiferal assemblage changes. The Strait of Sicily record (MedSeA-S7-c2) covers around the last 200 a, describing environmental changes throughout the Industrial Era (IE) at high temporal resolution. The Alboran (MedSeA-S3-c1) and Balearic Sea (MedSeA-S23-c1) records spanning the last about 1 ka at lower temporal resolution, displaying oceanographic changes throughout the transition from the pre-industrial era to present, as discussed in (Pallacks et al., 2021; doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2021.103549). Data has been collected to investigate the response of marine calcifiers to the combined effects of climate change stressors on decadal to centennial timescales, caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

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    Authors: Kjær, Helle Astrid; Zens, Patrick; Black, Samuel; Lund, Kasper Holst; +2 Authors

    Results from six firn cores obtained during a 426 km long northern Greenland traverse in 2015 between the NEEM and the EGRIP deep drilling stations situated on the Western and Eastern side of the Greenland ice sheet, respectively. The cores (9 to 14 m long) are analysed for chemical impurities by means of Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA); Insoluble dust, ammonium, calcium, acid, conductivity and peroxide. The data was dated by means of annual layer counting of mainly peroxide supplemented by calcium seasonal cycles and spans 18 to 53 years (±3 yrs) depending on local snow accumulation that decreases from west to east. Insoluble dust, ammonium, and calcium concentrations in the 6 firn cores overlap, and also the seasonal cycles are similar in timing and magnitude across sites, while peroxide (H2O2) and conductivity both have spatial variations. H2O2 is driven by the accumulation pattern and conductivity is likely influenced by sea salt. Data is published as part of Kjær et al. 2022, Climate of the past, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2021-99

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    Authors: Tuchen, Franz Philip (Ed.); Brandt, Peter (Ed.); Hahn, Johannes (Ed.); Hummels, Rebecca (Ed.); +5 Authors

    Since 2001, current velocities have been measured continuously as part of a multilateral collaboration, the Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA), that regularly services a moored observatory located at 0°N, 23°W. Here, we present an update of 20 years of full-depth current velocity observations at 0°N, 23°W. With the presented current velocity data product, we aim to provide an important and accessible reference data set against which models and reanalysis output could be validated. The velocity time series will also be helpful for studies focusing on long-term climate variability to search for connections with changes in the equatorial circulation over the last 20 years. Earlier versions of this data product have already been used in a variety of studies and provided a significant contribution to an overall improved understanding of equatorial ocean dynamics. The moored observatory at 0°N, 23°W is an ongoing example of a successful multinational collaboration extending over more than two decades.

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    Authors: Waelbroeck, Claire; Tjiputra, Jerry; Guo, Chuncheng; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; +9 Authors

    We combine consistently dated benthic carbon isotopic records distributed over the entire Atlantic Ocean with numerical simulations performed by a glacial configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model with active ocean biogeochemistry, in order to interpret the observed Cibicides δ13C changes at the stadial-interstadial transition corresponding to the end of Heinrich Stadial 4 (HS4) in terms of ocean circulation and remineralization changes. We show that the marked increase in Cibicides δ13C observed at the end of HS4 between ~2000 and 4200 m in the Atlantic can be explained by changes in nutrient concentrations as simulated by the model in response to the halting of freshwater input in the high latitude glacial North Atlantic. Our model results show that this Cibicides δ13C signal is associated with changes in the ratio of southern-sourced (SSW) versus northern-sourced (NSW) water masses at the core sites, whereby SSW is replaced by NSW as a consequence of the resumption of deep water formation in the northern North Atlantic and Nordic Seas after the freshwater input is halted. Our results further suggest that the contribution of ocean circulation changes to this signal increases from ~40 % at 2000 m to ~80 % at 4000 m. Below ~4200 m, the model shows little ocean circulation change but an increase in remineralization across the transition marking the end of HS4. The simulated lower remineralization during stadials than interstadials is particularly pronounced in deep subantarctic sites, in agreement with the decrease in the export production of carbon to the deep Southern Ocean during stadials found in previous studies.

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    Authors: Kjær, Helle Astrid; Zens, Patrick; Black, Samuel; Lund, Kasper Holst; +2 Authors

    Greenland ice cores provide information about past climate. Few impurity records covering the past 2 decades exist from Greenland. Here we present results from six firn cores obtained during a 426 km long northern Greenland traverse made in 2015 between the NEEM and the EGRIP deep-drilling stations situated on the western side and eastern side of the Greenland ice sheet, respectively. The cores (9 to 14 m long) are analyzed for chemical impurities and cover time spans of 18 to 53 years (±3 years) depending on local snow accumulation that decreases from west to east. The high temporal resolution allows for annual layers and seasons to be resolved. Insoluble dust, ammonium, and calcium concentrations in the six firn cores overlap, and the seasonal cycles are also similar in timing and magnitude across sites, while peroxide (H2O2) and conductivity both have spatial variations, H2O2 driven by the accumulation pattern, and conductivity likely influenced by sea salt. Overall, we determine a rather constant dust flux over the period, but in the data from recent years (1998–2015) we identify an increase in large dust particles that we ascribe to an activation of local Greenland sources. We observe an expected increase in acidity and conductivity in the mid-1970s as a result of anthropogenic emissions, followed by a decrease due to mitigation. Several volcanic horizons identified in the conductivity and acidity records can be associated with eruptions in Iceland and in the Barents Sea region. From a composite ammonium record we obtain a robust forest fire proxy associated primarily with Canadian forest fires (R=0.49).

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    Authors: Droste, Elise S.; Hoppema, Mario; González-Dávila, Melchor; Santana-Casiano, Juana Magdalena; +8 Authors

    Tides significantly affect polar coastlines by modulating ice shelf melt and modifying shelf water properties through transport and mixing. However, the effect of tides on the marine carbonate chemistry in such regions, especially around Antarctica, remains largely unexplored. We address this topic with two case studies in a coastal polynya in the south-eastern Weddell Sea, neighbouring the Ekström Ice Shelf. The case studies were conducted in January 2015 (PS89) and January 2019 (PS117), capturing semi-diurnal oscillations in the water column. These are pronounced in both physical and biogeochemical variables for PS89. During rising tide, advection of sea ice meltwater from the north-east created a fresher, warmer, and more deeply mixed water column with lower dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) content. During ebbing tide, water from underneath the ice shelf decreased the polynya's temperature, increased the DIC and TA content, and created a more stratified water column. The variability during the PS117 case study was much smaller, as it had less sea ice meltwater input during rising tide and was better mixed with sub-ice shelf water. The contrasts in the variability between the two case studies could be wind and sea ice driven, and they underline the complexity and highly dynamic nature of the system. The variability in the polynya induced by the tides results in an air–sea CO2 flux that can range between a strong sink (−24 mmol m−2 d−1) and a small source (3 mmol m−2 d−1) on a semi-diurnal timescale. If the variability induced by tides is not taken into account, there is a potential risk of overestimating the polynya's CO2 uptake by 67 % or underestimating it by 73 %, compared to the average flux determined over several days. Depending on the timing of limited sampling, the polynya may appear to be a source or a sink of CO2. Given the disproportionate influence of polynyas on heat and carbon exchange in polar oceans, we recommend future studies around the Antarctic and Arctic coastlines to consider the timing of tidal currents in their sampling strategies and analyses. This will help constrain variability in oceanographic measurements and avoid potential biases in our understanding of these highly complex systems.

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    Authors: Kajanto, Karita; Straneo, Fiammetta; Nisancioglu, Kerim;

    The role of icebergs in narrow fjords hosting marine terminating glaciers in Greenland is poorly understood, even though icebergs provide a substantial freshwater flux that can exceed the subglacial discharge. Iceberg melt is distributed at depth, contributing to fjord stratification, thus impacting melt and dynamics of the glacier front. We model the high-silled Ilulissat Icefjord in Western Greenland with the MITgcm ocean model, using the IceBerg package to study the effect of icebergs on fjord properties, and compare our results with available observations from 2014. We find the subglacial discharge plume to be the primary driver of the seasonality of circulation, glacier melt and iceberg melt. Icebergs are necessary to include to correctly understand the properties of Ilulissat Icefjord, since they modify the fjord in three main ways: First, icebergs cool and freshen the water column within their vertical extent; Second, icebergs depress the neutral buoyancy depth of the plume and the outflow route of glacially modified water; Third, icebergs modify the deep basin, below their vertical extent, due to both increased entrainment of glacially modified water into the fjord, and iceberg modification of the incoming ambient water. Furthermore, the depressed neutral buoyancy depth of the plume limits melt to the deep section of the front of Sermeq Kujalleq (Jakobshavn Isbræ) even during peak summer, and thus promotes undercutting. We postulate that the impact of icebergs on the neutral buoyancy depth of the plume is a key mechanism connecting iceberg melange and glacier calving, independent of mechanical support.

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    Authors: Ribotti, Alberto; Sorgente, Roberto; Pessini, Federica; Cucco, Andrea; +2 Authors

    Since 2000, and for the following 20 years, hydrological data of the Mediterranean Sea, with a particular focus on the western and central Mediterranean sub-basins, have been acquired to study the hydrodynamics at both coastal and open sea scales. In total, 1468 hydrological casts were realized in 29 oceanographic cruises planned due to scientific purposes linked with funding research projects but were also sometimes driven by sea conditions and type of vessel. After accurate quality assurance and control, following standard procedures, all hydrological data were included in four online public open-access repositories in SEANOE (SEA scieNtific Open data Edition), available from https://doi.org/10.17882/87567 (Ribotti et al., 2022). Hydrological and dissolved oxygen data are always present in all of the datasets, whereas pH, fluorescence, turbidity, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are available just for some cruises. Samplings were carried out mainly along transects, with some repetition over the years. The results of two data analyses, i.e., staircase systems in the Tyrrhenian Sea and in the Algero-Provençal sub-basin and spreading of the Western Mediterranean Transient, are mentioned.

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    Authors: Romero-Alvarez, Johana; Lupaşcu, Aurelia; Lowe, Douglas; Badia, Alba; +4 Authors

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations depend on a combination of hemispheric, regional, and local-scale processes. Estimates of how much O3 is produced locally vs. transported from further afield are essential in air quality management and regulatory policies. Here, a tagged-ozone mechanism within the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the contributions to surface O3 in the UK from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from inside and outside the UK during May–August 2015. The contribution of the different source regions to three regulatory O3 metrics is also examined. It is shown that model simulations predict the concentration and spatial distribution of surface O3 with a domain-wide mean bias of −3.7 ppbv. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from the UK and Europe account for 13 % and 16 %, respectively, of the monthly mean surface O3 in the UK, as the majority (71 %) of O3 originates from the hemispheric background. Hemispheric O3 contributes the most to concentrations in the north and the west of the UK with peaks in May, whereas European and UK contributions are most significant in the east, south-east, and London, i.e. the UK's most populated areas, intensifying towards June and July. Moreover, O3 from European sources is generally transported to the UK rather than produced in situ. It is demonstrated that more stringent emission controls over continental Europe, particularly in western Europe, would be necessary to improve the health-related metric MDA8 O3 above 50 and 60 ppbv. Emission controls over larger areas, such as the Northern Hemisphere, are instead required to lessen the impacts on ecosystems as quantified by the AOT40 metric.

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