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17 Research products, page 1 of 2

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hasenfratz, Adam P; Jaccard, Samuel L; Martínez‐García, Alfredo; Sigman, Daniel M; Hodell, David A; Vance, Derek; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Kleiven, Helga F; Haumann, F Alexander; Haug, Gerald H;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (144811), SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (172915), SNSF | Ciliary targeting of PDGF... (141424)

    All data are from core ODP 1094 recovered from the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean (Atlantic sector). Age model of ODP 1094 (1.5Ma) dδ18O, Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca and Mg/Ca-derived sea surface temperature and surface water d18O based on down core measurements of planktic Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) from core ODP 1094 (downcore data and averaged for MIS). δ18O, Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca and Mg/Ca-derived bottom water temperature and bottom water d18O based on down core measurements of benthic Melonis pompilioides from core ODP 1094 (downcore data and averaged for MIS). δ18O of benthic Cibicidoides spp. from core ODP 1094.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ekici, A.; Chadburn, S.; Chaudhary, N.; Hajdu, L. H.; Marmy, A.; Peng, S.; Boike, J.; Burke, E.; Friend, A. D.; Hauck, C.; +4 more
    Project: EC | PAGE21 (282700), EC | GREENCYCLESII (238366), SNSF | The evolution of mountain... (136279)

    Modeling soil thermal dynamics at high latitudes and altitudes requires representations of physical processes such as snow insulation, soil freezing and thawing and subsurface conditions like soil water/ice content and soil texture. We have compared six different land models: JSBACH, ORCHIDEE, JULES, COUP, HYBRID8 and LPJ-GUESS, at four different sites with distinct cold region landscape types, to identify the importance of physical processes in capturing observed temperature dynamics in soils. The sites include alpine, high Arctic, wet polygonal tundra and non-permafrost Arctic, thus showing how a range of models can represent distinct soil temperature regimes. For all sites, snow insulation is of major importance for estimating topsoil conditions. However, soil physics is essential for the subsoil temperature dynamics and thus the active layer thicknesses. This analysis shows that land models need more realistic surface processes, such as detailed snow dynamics and moss cover with changing thickness and wetness, along with better representations of subsoil thermal dynamics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Erhardt, Tobias; Capron, Emilie; Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Schüpbach, Simon; Bigler, Matthias; Adolphi, Florian; Fischer, Hubertus;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (159563), SNSF | Schweizerische Beteiligun... (137635), SNSF | iCEP - Climate and Enviro... (172506), SNSF | Schweizerische Beteiligun... (119612), SNSF | Beteiligung der Schweiz a... (63333)

    Decadal averages of the NEEM aerosol data for sodium and calcium, both measured by continuous flow analysis (CFA). Decadal averages of the NGRIP aerosol data for sodium and calcium, both measured by continuous flow analysis (CFA). High resolution aerosol, layer thickness and d18O data around Greenland warming events (10-60ka) from NGRIP and NEEM ice cores.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fuchs, Matthias; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M; Strauss, Jens; Baughman, Carson A; Walker, Donald A;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PETA-CARB (338335), SNSF | Permafrost carbon pool es... (171784)

    This data set describes the soil core and sample characteristics from the Ikpikpuk and Fish Creek river delta on the Arctic Coastal Plain in northern Alaska. The collection of the permafrost soil cores and the analysis of the samples are described in Fuchs et al. (2018). Sedimentary and geochemical characteristics of two small permafrost-dominated Arctic river deltas in northern Alaska. This data compilation consists of two data set. The first data set describes the properties of the collected permafrost soil cores from the Ikpikpuk river (IKP) and Fish Creek river (FCR) delta. This includes the coordinates of the nine coring locations, the field measurements of the active- and organic layer thickness at the coring locations, and the length of the collected permafrost core. In addition, soil organic carbon and soil nitrogen stocks and densities derived from the laboratory analyses for the reference depths 0-30 cm, 0-100 cm, 0-150 cm and 0-200 cm are presented in kg C m-2 and in kg C m-3. The second data set provides the raw laboratory data for all the samples of the nine collected permafrost cores in the Ikpikpuk and Fish Creek River Delta. All laboratory analyzes were carried out at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam. The third data set presents the results from the radiocarbon dating of chosen samples from five different permafrost cores. This includes the AMS radiocarbon date and the calibrated age of a sample. In addition, the sediment and organic carbon accumulation rates for the dated samples are included. This data set allows to calculate the total carbon and nitrogen storage in two small Arctic river deltas (IKP and FCR) for the first two meter of soil and enlarges the available permafrost cores for Arctic river delta deposits.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Keller, Isabel Salome; Salzburger, Walter; Roth, Olivia;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | The role of ecology and p... (156405), SNSF | The relative importance a... (138224)

    Background: Parental care, while increasing parental fitness through offspring survival also bears cost to the care-giving parent. Consequentially, trade offs between parental care and other vitally important traits, such as the immune system seem evident. In co-occurring phases of parental care and immunological challenges negative consequences through a resource allocation trade off on both the parental and the offspring conditions can be predicted. While the immune system is reflecting parental stress conditions, parental immunological investments also boost offspring survival via the transfer of immunological substances (trans-generational immune priming). We investigated this relationship adult and juvenile mouth brooding East African cichlid Astotatilapia burtoni. Prior to mating, females were exposed to an immunological activation, while others remained immunologically naive. Correspondingly, immunological status of females was either examined directly after reproduction or after mouth brooding had ceased. Offspring from both groups were exposed to immunological challenges to assess the extent of trans-generational immune priming. As proxy for immune status, cellular immunological activity and gene expression were determined. Results: Both reproducing and mouthbrooding females allocate their resources towards reproduction. While upon reproduction the innate immune system was impeded, mouthbrooding females showed an attenuation of inflammatory components and an elevated stress levels. Juveniles from immune challenged mouthbrooding females showed downregulation of immune and life history candidate genes, implying a limitation of trans-generational plasticity when parents experience stress during the costly reproductive phase. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that parental investment via mouthbrooding is beneficial for the offspring. However, both parental investment and the rise of the immunological activity upon an immune challenge are costly traits. If applied simultaneously, not only mothers seem to be impacted in their performance, but also offspring are impeded in their ability to react upon a potentially virulent pathogen exposure.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hallmann, Nadine; Camoin, Gilbert; Eisenhauer, Anton; Botella, A; Milne, Glenn A; Vella, Claude; Samankassou, Elias; Pothin, Virginie; Dussouillez, Philippe; Fleury, Jules; +1 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | Climate reconstruction us... (140618), NSERC

    The topographic survey of the studied outcrops is based on several thousands of measurements per study site and the measurement of the sample elevation with reference to sea level using a real-time kinematic GPS Trimble R8. The maximum vertical (Z) and horizontal (X and Y) elevation errors are of ± 2.0 cm and a few millimetres, respectively. During the measurement, the surveys were related to the French Polynesian Geodetic Network (Réseau Géodésique de Polynésie Française; RGPF), to operating tide gauges or tide gauge data sets, to probes that were deployed during the field work, to the instantaneous sea level or to modern adjacent microatolls growing in a similar environment than their fossil counterparts. In the absence of geodetic datum or tide gauges, probes were deployed for four to five days in order to measure the sea-level position and to compare the data to the elevation of modern microatolls. The relative sea-level curve, which is presented in this paper, is based on data acquired on islands for which longer tidal records and geodetic data are available. After acquisition, the raw data were processed with the aims: 1) to estimate the elevation of individual dated fossil microatolls based on local tide gauge parameters, and 2) to compare the elevation of all dated fossil microatolls according to the same vertical reference. The link between tide gauge data and the position of the living and fossil microatolls can be established using RGPF. However, a topographic reference at the scale of French Polynesia (4,167 km^2), which is mandatory to achieve the second objective, does not exist, as tide gauge observations are incomplete and the NGPF (Nivellement Général de Polynésie Française) vertical datum that is associated to the RGPF is not homogeneous at this regional scale. The official geodetic system in French Polynesia is the RGPF, which is associated with the NGPF vertical datum. The French Polynesian Geodetic Network is a semi-dynamic system with different levels established by the Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine; SHOM) in cooperation with the National Geographic Institute (Institut Géographique National; IGN). The selection of microatolls for dating has been based on the lack of erosion features, the absence of local moating effects and their mineralogical preservation, demonstrating that our database is robust. The chemical preparation, mass-spectrometer measurements and age dating were performed in the years 2014 to 2016 mostly directly after field collection. The data are presented in Supplementary Table 2 following recommendations from Dutton et al. (2017). The best-preserved samples, as indicated by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) measurements, comprise 97.5% aragonite on average (n = 281). Additionally, no secondary aragonite or calcite crystals were revealed by thin section and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Burckel, Pierre; Waelbroeck, Claire; Luo, Yiming; Roche, Didier M; Pichat, Sylvain; Jaccard, Samuel L; Gherardi, Jeanne-Marie; Govin, Aline; Lippold, Jörg; Thil, François;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | Quantifying changes in th... (111588), EC | ACCLIMATE (339108), SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (144811), ANR | RETRO (ANR-09-BLAN-0347)

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during Heinrich Stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20-50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa/230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa/230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present day North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin, and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich Stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow southward flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Steinle, Lea; Graves, Carolyn; Treude, Tina; Ferre, Benedicte; Biastoch, Arne; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Berndt, Christian; Krastel, Sebastian; James, Rachael H; Behrens, Erik; +7 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | Microbial methane consump... (138057), SNSF | Microbes and biogeochemic... (159878)

    Large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane are released from the seabed to the water column where it may be consumed by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria. This microbial filter is consequently the last marine sink for methane before its liberation to the atmosphere. The size and activity of methanotrophic communities, which determine the capacity of the water column methane filter, are thought to be mainly controlled by nutrient and redox dynamics, but little is known about the effects of ocean currents. Here, we report measurements of methanotrophic activity and biomass (CARD-FISH) at methane seeps west of Svalbard, and related them to physical water mass properties (CTD) and modelled current dynamics. We show that cold bottom water containing a large number of aerobic methanotrophs was rapidly displaced by warmer water with a considerably smaller methanotrophic community. This water mass exchange, caused by short-term variations of the West Spitsbergen Current, constitutes a rapid oceanographic switch severely reducing methanotrophic activity in the water column. Strong and fluctuating currents are widespread oceanographic features common at many methane seep systems and are thus likely to globally affect methane oxidation in the ocean water column.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lamy, Frank; Gersonde, Rainer; Winckler, Gisela; Esper, Oliver; Jaeschke, Andrea; Kuhn, Gerhard; Ullermann, Johannes; Martínez‐García, Alfredo; Lambert, Fabrice; Kilian, Rolf;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | Swiss participation in th... (147139), SNSF | On the Role of the Southe... (142424)

    Dust deposition in the Southern Ocean constitutes a critical modulator of past global climate variability, but how it has varied temporally and geographically is underdetermined. Here, we present data sets of glacial-interglacial dust-supply cycles from the largest Southern Ocean sector, the polar South Pacific, indicating three times higher dust deposition during glacial periods than during interglacials for the past million years. Although the most likely dust source for the South Pacific is Australia and New Zealand, the glacial-interglacial pattern and timing of lithogenic sediment deposition is similar to dust records from Antarctica and the South Atlantic dominated by Patagonian sources. These similarities imply large-scale common climate forcings such as latitudinal shifts of the southern westerlies and regionally enhanced glaciogenic dust mobilization in New Zealand and Patagonia.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Möller, Lars; Sowers, Todd A; Bock, Michael; Spahni, Renato; Behrens, Melanie; Schmitt, Jochen; Miller, Heinz; Fischer, Hubertus;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | PRoject to Initiate isoto... (121293), EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (147174), EC | MATRICS (226172)

    The response of natural CH4 sources to climate changes will be an important factor to consider as concentrations of this potent greenhouse gas continue to increase. Polar ice cores provide the means to assess this sensitivity in the past and have shown a close connection between CH4 levels and northern hemisphere temperature variability over the last glacial cycle. However, the contribution of the various CH4 sources and sinks to these changes is still a matter of debate. Contemporaneous stable CH4 isotope records in ice cores provide additional boundary conditions for assessing changes in the CH4 sources and sinks. Here we present new ice core CH4 isotope data covering the last 160,000 years, showing a clear decoupling between CH4 loading and carbon isotopic variations over most of the record. We suggest that d13CH4 variations were not dominated by a change in the source mix but rather by climate- and CO2-related ecosystem control on the isotopic composition of the methane precursor material, especially in seasonally inundated wetlands in the tropics. In contrast, relatively stable d13CH4 intervals occurred during large CH4 loading changes concurrently with past climate changes implying that most CH4 sources (most notably tropical wetlands) responded simultaneously.