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10 Research products, page 1 of 1

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ekici, A.; Chadburn, S.; Chaudhary, N.; Hajdu, L. H.; Marmy, A.; Peng, S.; Boike, J.; Burke, E.; Friend, A. D.; Hauck, C.; +4 more
    Project: EC | PAGE21 (282700), EC | GREENCYCLESII (238366), SNSF | The evolution of mountain... (136279)

    Modeling soil thermal dynamics at high latitudes and altitudes requires representations of physical processes such as snow insulation, soil freezing and thawing and subsurface conditions like soil water/ice content and soil texture. We have compared six different land models: JSBACH, ORCHIDEE, JULES, COUP, HYBRID8 and LPJ-GUESS, at four different sites with distinct cold region landscape types, to identify the importance of physical processes in capturing observed temperature dynamics in soils. The sites include alpine, high Arctic, wet polygonal tundra and non-permafrost Arctic, thus showing how a range of models can represent distinct soil temperature regimes. For all sites, snow insulation is of major importance for estimating topsoil conditions. However, soil physics is essential for the subsoil temperature dynamics and thus the active layer thicknesses. This analysis shows that land models need more realistic surface processes, such as detailed snow dynamics and moss cover with changing thickness and wetness, along with better representations of subsoil thermal dynamics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fuchs, Matthias; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M; Strauss, Jens; Baughman, Carson A; Walker, Donald A;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PETA-CARB (338335), SNSF | Permafrost carbon pool es... (171784)

    This data set describes the soil core and sample characteristics from the Ikpikpuk and Fish Creek river delta on the Arctic Coastal Plain in northern Alaska. The collection of the permafrost soil cores and the analysis of the samples are described in Fuchs et al. (2018). Sedimentary and geochemical characteristics of two small permafrost-dominated Arctic river deltas in northern Alaska. This data compilation consists of two data set. The first data set describes the properties of the collected permafrost soil cores from the Ikpikpuk river (IKP) and Fish Creek river (FCR) delta. This includes the coordinates of the nine coring locations, the field measurements of the active- and organic layer thickness at the coring locations, and the length of the collected permafrost core. In addition, soil organic carbon and soil nitrogen stocks and densities derived from the laboratory analyses for the reference depths 0-30 cm, 0-100 cm, 0-150 cm and 0-200 cm are presented in kg C m-2 and in kg C m-3. The second data set provides the raw laboratory data for all the samples of the nine collected permafrost cores in the Ikpikpuk and Fish Creek River Delta. All laboratory analyzes were carried out at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam. The third data set presents the results from the radiocarbon dating of chosen samples from five different permafrost cores. This includes the AMS radiocarbon date and the calibrated age of a sample. In addition, the sediment and organic carbon accumulation rates for the dated samples are included. This data set allows to calculate the total carbon and nitrogen storage in two small Arctic river deltas (IKP and FCR) for the first two meter of soil and enlarges the available permafrost cores for Arctic river delta deposits.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Burckel, Pierre; Waelbroeck, Claire; Luo, Yiming; Roche, Didier M; Pichat, Sylvain; Jaccard, Samuel L; Gherardi, Jeanne-Marie; Govin, Aline; Lippold, Jörg; Thil, François;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | Quantifying changes in th... (111588), EC | ACCLIMATE (339108), SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (144811), ANR | RETRO (ANR-09-BLAN-0347)

    We reconstruct the geometry and strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during Heinrich Stadial 2 and three Greenland interstadials of the 20-50 ka period based on the comparison of new and published sedimentary 231Pa/230Th data with simulated sedimentary 231Pa/230Th. We show that the deep Atlantic circulation during these interstadials was very different from that of the Holocene. Northern-sourced waters likely circulated above 2500 m depth, with a flow rate lower than that of the present day North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Southern-sourced deep waters most probably flowed northwards below 4000 m depth into the North Atlantic basin, and then southwards as a return flow between 2500 and 4000 m depth. The flow rate of this southern-sourced deep water was likely larger than that of the modern Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Our results further show that during Heinrich Stadial 2, the deep Atlantic was probably directly affected by a southern-sourced water mass below 2500 m depth, while a slow southward flowing water mass originating from the North Atlantic likely influenced depths between 1500 and 2500 m down to the equator.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Möller, Lars; Sowers, Todd A; Bock, Michael; Spahni, Renato; Behrens, Melanie; Schmitt, Jochen; Miller, Heinz; Fischer, Hubertus;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | PRoject to Initiate isoto... (121293), EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (147174), EC | MATRICS (226172)

    The response of natural CH4 sources to climate changes will be an important factor to consider as concentrations of this potent greenhouse gas continue to increase. Polar ice cores provide the means to assess this sensitivity in the past and have shown a close connection between CH4 levels and northern hemisphere temperature variability over the last glacial cycle. However, the contribution of the various CH4 sources and sinks to these changes is still a matter of debate. Contemporaneous stable CH4 isotope records in ice cores provide additional boundary conditions for assessing changes in the CH4 sources and sinks. Here we present new ice core CH4 isotope data covering the last 160,000 years, showing a clear decoupling between CH4 loading and carbon isotopic variations over most of the record. We suggest that d13CH4 variations were not dominated by a change in the source mix but rather by climate- and CO2-related ecosystem control on the isotopic composition of the methane precursor material, especially in seasonally inundated wetlands in the tropics. In contrast, relatively stable d13CH4 intervals occurred during large CH4 loading changes concurrently with past climate changes implying that most CH4 sources (most notably tropical wetlands) responded simultaneously.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schneider, Robert; Schmitt, Jochen; Koehler, Peter; Joos, Fortunat; Fischer, Hubertus;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (147174)

    The reconstruction of the stable carbon isotope evolution in atmospheric CO2 (d13Catm ), as archived in Antarctic ice cores, bears the potential to disentangle the contributions of the different carbon cycle fluxes causing past CO2 variations. Here we present a new record of d13Catm before, during and after the Marine Isotope Stage 5.5 (155 000 to 105 000 years BP). The record was derived with a well established sublimation method using ice from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and the Talos Dome ice cores in East Antarctica. We find a 0.4 permil shift to heavier values between the mean d13Catm level in the Penultimate (~ 140 000 years BP) and Last Glacial Maximum (~ 22 000 years BP), which can be explained by either (i) changes in the isotopic composition or (ii) intensity of the carbon input fluxes to the combined ocean/atmosphere carbon reservoir or (iii) by long-term peat buildup. Our isotopic data suggest that the carbon cycle evolution along Termination II and the subsequent interglacial was controlled by essentially the same processes as during the last 24 000 years, but with different phasing and magnitudes. Furthermore, a 5000 years lag in the CO2 decline relative to EDC temperatures is confirmed during the glacial inception at the end of MIS 5.5 (120 000 years BP). Based on our isotopic data this lag can be explained by terrestrial carbon release and carbonate compensation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Parrenin, Frédéric; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Köhler, Peter; Raynaud, Dominique; Paillard, Didier; Schwander, Jakob; Barbante, Carlo; Landais, Amaelle; Wegner, Anna; Jouzel, Jean;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | Klima- und Umweltphysik (135152), EC | AMON-RA (214814), ANR | DOME A (ANR-07-BLAN-0125), SNSF | Climate and Environmental... (147174)

    Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate changes requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to temperature. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic temperature at four times when their trends change abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic temperature did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pretet, Chloé; Samankassou, Elias; Felis, Thomas; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Böhm, Florian; Eisenhauer, Anton; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Camoin, Gilbert;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | EPOCA (211384), SNSF | Climate reconstruction us... (115944), SNSF | Climate reconstruction us... (140618)

    The present study investigates the influence of environmental (temperature, salinity) and biological (growth rate, inter-generic variations) parameters on calcium isotope fractionation (d44/40Ca) in scleractinian coral skeleton to better constrain this record. Previous studies focused on the d44/40Ca record in different marine organisms to reconstruct seawater composition or temperature, but only few studies investigated corals. This study presents measurements performed on modern corals from natural environments (from the Maldives for modern and from Tahiti for fossil corals) as well as from laboratory cultures (Centre Scientifique de Monaco). Measurements on Porites sp., Acropora sp., Montipora verrucosa and Stylophora pistillata allow constraining inter-generic variability. Our results show that the fractionation of d44/40Ca ranges from 0.6 to 0.1 per mil, independent of the genus or the environmental conditions. No significant relationship between the rate of calcification and d44/40Ca was found. The weak temperature dependence reported in earlier studies is most probably not the only parameter that is responsible for the fractionation. Indeed, sub-seasonal temperature variations reconstructed by d18O and Sr/Ca ratio using a multi-proxy approach, are not mirrored in the coral's d44/40Ca variations. The intergeneric variability and intrageneric variability among the studied samples are weak except for S. pistillata, which shows calcium isotopic values increasing with salinity. The variability between samples cultured at a salinity of 40 is higher than those cultured at a salinity of 36 for this species. The present study reveals a strong biological control of the skeletal calcium isotope composition by the polyp and a weak influence of environmental factors, specifically temperature and salinity (except for S. pistillata). Vital effects have to be investigated in situ to better constrain their influence on the calcium isotopic signal. If vital effects could be extracted from the isotopic signal, the calcium isotopic composition of coral skeletons could provide reliable information on the calcium composition and budget in ocean.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lambert, Fabrice; Bigler, Matthias; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Hutterli, Manuel A; Fischer, Hubertus;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908), SNSF | Klima- und Umweltphysik (135152)

    Ice core data from Antarctica provide detailed insights into the characteristics of past climate, atmospheric circulation, as well as changes in the aerosol load of the atmosphere. We present high-resolution records of soluble calcium (Ca2+), non-sea-salt soluble calcium (nssCa2+), and particulate mineral dust aerosol from the East Antarctic Plateau at a depth resolution of 1 cm, spanning the past 800 000 years. Despite the fact that all three parameters are largely dust-derived, the ratio of nssCa2+ to particulate dust is dependent on the particulate dust concentration itself. We used principal component analysis to extract the joint climatic signal and produce a common high-resolution record of dust flux. This new record is used to identify Antarctic warming events during the past eight glacial periods. The phasing of dust flux and CO2 changes during glacial-interglacial transitions reveals that iron fertilization of the Southern Ocean during the past nine glacial terminations was not the dominant factor in the deglacial rise of CO2 concentrations. Rapid changes in dust flux during glacial terminations and Antarctic warming events point to a rapid response of the southern westerly wind belt in the region of southern South American dust sources on changing climate conditions. The clear lead of these dust changes on temperature rise suggests that an atmospheric reorganization occurred in the Southern Hemisphere before the Southern Ocean warmed significantly.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schmitt, Jochen; Schneider, Robert; Elsig, Joachim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Lourantou, Anna; Chappellaz, Jérôme A; Köhler, Peter; Joos, Fortunat; Stocker, Thomas F; Leuenberger, Markus Christian; +1 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: SNSF | Klima- und Umweltphysik (135152), EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908)

    The stable carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CO2 (d13Catm) is a key parameter in deciphering past carbon cycle changes. Here we present d13Catm data for the past 24,000 years derived from three independent records from two Antarctic ice cores. We conclude that a pronounced 0.3 per mil decrease in d13Catm during the early deglaciation can be best explained by upwelling of old, carbon-enriched waters in the Southern Ocean. Later in the deglaciation, regrowth of the terrestrial biosphere, changes in sea surface temperature, and ocean circulation governed the d13Catm evolution. During the Last Glacial Maximum, d13Catm and atmospheric CO2 concentration were essentially constant, which suggests that the carbon cycle was in dynamic equilibrium and that the net transfer of carbon to the deep ocean had occurred before then. The ice cores were analyzed in three different laboratories which each lab uses a dedicated, independent analytical system referred to as Bern sublimation, Bern cracker and Grenoble mill data. The names of the different methods are composed of the University (Grenoble and two groups at Bern) and an identifier of the special extraction system ('ball mill', 'cracker', 'sublimation'). In short, the three methods involve the following analytical steps:First, enclosed atmospheric air from the ice sample is released using a dedicated extraction device (sublimation, needle cracker and a ball mill for the respective data sets: Bern sublimation, Bern cracker and Grenoble mill). In a second step, the CO2 from the released ice core air is separated from the bulk air (N2, O2 and Ar) using cryogenic trapping. Third, a gas chromatographic column purifies the CO2 sample from other trace gases such as N2O. Finally, the stable carbon isotopic ratio of the CO2 sample is measured against a bracketing standard using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The typical measurement reproducibilities of the three methods are 0.05 permil - 0.07 permil for the Bern sublimation, 0.07 permil for the Bern cracker, and 0.10 permil for the Grenoble mill data set.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wegner, Anna; Gabrielli, Paolo; Wilhelms-Dick, Dorothee; Ruth, Urs; Kriews, Michael; De Deckker, Patrick; Barbante, Carlo; Cozzi, Giulio; Delmonte, Barbara; Fischer, Hubertus;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | PAST4FUTURE (243908), SNSF | Klima- und Umweltphysik (135152)

    We present a Rare Earth Elements (REE) record at decadal resolution determined in the EPICA ice core drilled in Dronning Maud Land (EDML) in the Atlantic Sector of the East Antarctic Plateau, covering the transition from the last glacial age (LGA) to the early Holocene (26 600-7500 yr BP). Additionally, samples from potential source areas (PSAs) for Antarctic dust were analysed for their REE characteristics. The dust provenance is discussed by comparing the REE fingerprints in the ice core and the PSAs samples. We find a shift in REE composition at 15 200 yr BP in the ice core samples. Before 15 200 yr BP, the dust composition is very uniform and its provenance was likely to be dominated by a South American source. After 15 200 yr BP, multiple sources such as Australia and New Zealand become relatively more important, albeit South America is possibly still an important dust supplier. A similar change in the dust characteristics was observed in the EPICA Dome C ice core at around ~15 000 yr BP. A return to more glacial dust characteristics between ~8300 and ~7500 yr BP, as observed in the EPICA Dome C core, could not be observed in the EDML core. Consequently, the dust provenance at the two sites must have been different at that time.