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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Crotti, Ilaria; Quiquet, Aurélien; Landais, Amaëlle; Stenni, Barbara; +6 Authors

    The data here described are presented in the submitted paper Response of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin Ice Sheet to Southern Ocean Warming During Late Pleistocene Interglacials by Crotti et al. This data set includes new high resolution measurements of d-excess, d18O and ssNa+ for the Antarctic TALDICE ice core (Latitude: -72.783330, Longitude: 159.066670, Elevation: 2315.0 m). The new data set covers the interglacials periods of MIS 5.5, MIS 7.5 and MIS 9.3 (1486 m depth - 1548 m depth). The data are drawn on the TALDICE deep1 chronology (Crotti et al. 2021). The d-excess (d = δD − 8 × δ18O) (permill) record covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 5 cm resolution and spans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 5.5. Between 1378.5 and 1421.65 m depth, 110-135 ka • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.85 and 1524.5 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.80 and 1547.90 m depth, 320-343 ka The d18O record (permill) covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 5 cm resolution and spans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.85 and 1524.5 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.80 and 1547.90 m depth, 320-343 ka The ssNa+ fluxes record covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 8 cm resolution and pans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.81 and 1524.54 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.73 and 1547.96 m depth, 320-343 ka The d18O and dD (non presented here) to calculate the d-excess were analysed in Italy (University of Venice) and France (LSCE) using the Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. Analyses were performed using a Picarro isotope water analyser (L2130-i version for both laboratories). The data were calibrated using a three-point linear calibration with three lab-standards that were themselves calibrated versus Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW). The average precision for the δ18O and δD measurements is 0.1 and 0.7 ‰, respectively. The concentrations of ssNa+ were measured on TALDICE ice samples at 8 cm resolution by classical ion chromatography on discrete samples collected using a melting device connected to an auto-sampler for the MIS 7.5 and MIS 9.3 whereas Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) was applied for MIS 5.5 samples. The total deposition ssNa+ flux was calculated multiplying the measured ice concentration of ssNa+ by the reconstructed accumulation rate. The accumulation rates were derived from the accumulation rates were obtained from the TALDICE deep1 age scale (Crotti et al. 2021).

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    Authors: Ziveri, Patrizia; Gray, William Robert; Anglada-Ortiz, Griselda; Manno, Clara; +4 Authors

    The data collection consists of 3 datasets: - Zooplankton standing stocks: this dataset compiles the standing stocks (ind/m³), the integrated standing stocks (ind/m²) and the integrated CaCO3 standing stocks (mg/m²) for three groups of zooplanktonic calcifying organisms, pteropods, heteropods and foraminifers. The organisms were collected by oblique towing (Ø 0.5 m, 90 μm mesh size, SeaGear mechanical flowmeter) in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017. The sampling strategy was designed to capture an integrated sample of all foraminifers, pteropods and heteropods from juveniles to adults living throughout the upper water column. - Phytoplankton standing stocks: this dataset compiles the CaCO3 standing stocks of living coccolithophores (mg/m³), of detached coccoliths (mg/m³) and the integrated CaCO3 standing stocks of coccolithophores (mg/m²). The samples were collected in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017, with rosette Niskin bottles equiped with CTD (Sea-Bird SBE 9) at different depths throughout the photic zone including the deep chlorophyll maximum. - Integrated CaCO3 production: this dataset compiles the estimates of annual CaCO3 production, including the upper and lower limits of the estimates, for the 4 planktic calcifying groups considered in the study, the pteropods (mg/m²/yr), the heteropods (mg/m²/yr), the foraminifers (mg/m²/yr) and the coccolithophores (mg/m²/yr). The estimates derived from the living standing stocks of these 4 groups of organisms collected in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017.

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    Authors: Valente, André; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Brotas, Vanda; Groom, Steve; +73 Authors

    A global compilation of in situ data is vital to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here, we describe data compiled for the validation of ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2021. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectance, concentration of chlorophyll-a, spectral inherent optical properties, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient and total suspended matter. The data were obtained from multi-project archives acquired via open internet services, or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The result is a merged table available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were propagated throughout the work and made available in the final table. By making the metadata available, provenance is better documented, and it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. This paper also describes the changes that were made to the compilation in relation to the previous version.

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    Authors: Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; +5 Authors

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.

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    Authors: Vollmar, Nele Manon; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Saavedra-Pellitero, Mariem; Hernández-Almeida, Iván;

    We studied the distribution of coccoliths in surface sediments across the Drake Passage and calcification of Emiliania huxleyi morphotypes in surface sediment samples retrieved during PS97. Dataset 1 (morphometrical measurements and mass estimations) is reporting the morphometrical measurements of E. huxleyi coccoliths measured with the Coccobiom2 macro (Coccobiom2 macros: http://ina.tmsoc.org/nannos/coccobiom/Usernotes.html, last access: 3 September 2016) based on 570 Scanning Electron Microscope images (showing E. huxleyi coccoliths of morphotypes A, Aovercalcified, B/C and O), and calcite mass estimations based on two different formulas 1) after Beuvier et al. 2019 (doi:10.1038/s41467-019-08635-x) and 2) after Young and Ziveri 2000 (doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00003-5). The morphometrical measurements (in µm) include coccolith distal shield length, distal shield width, Central Area length, Central Area width. The mass estimations (in pg) include the mass calculated after 1) and 2) and the respective shape factor used for 2). The coccoliths stem from surface sediments that were sampled with a Multicorer and are approximately of Mid to Late Holocene Age. Dataset 2 (morphotype counts) is reporting the relative number of E. huxleyi morphotypes per sample, based on an additional count with the SEM. Further details in the material and methods section in the corresponding paper.

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    Authors: Thompson, Nick; Salzmann, Ulrich; López-Quirós, Adrián; Bijl, Peter K; +7 Authors

    A total of 35 samples from the late-middle Eocene to earliest Oligocene (643.73-520.88 mbsf) were analysed for their pollen and spore content. Slides were analysed using a Leica DM500 and Leica DM2000 transmitted light microscopes at 200x and 1000x magnification. Where possible, counts of 300 (excluding reworked grains) sporomorphs were made. Only samples containing 50 or more in situ sporomorphs were used for further analysis and evaluation. Sporomorph diversity was measured using both the Shannon–Wiener index and the observed number of taxa. A rarefaction method for sums of ≥50 and ≥100 grains was applied, so that the effect caused by differences in the sample size may be removed allowing the estimation of the number of sporomorph species at a constant sample size. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was performed, with downweighting of rare species by removing pollen types whose representation is <5%. Estimates for terrestrial mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), warmest month mean temperature (WMMT) and coldest month mean temperature (CMMT) were obtained using the NLR approach in conjunction with the Probability Density Function (PDF) method.

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    Authors: Clyne, Margot; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Mills, Michael J.; Khodri, Myriam; +19 Authors

    As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP), several climate modeling centers performed a coordinated pre-study experiment with interactive stratospheric aerosol models simulating the volcanic aerosol cloud from an eruption resembling the 1815 Mt. Tambora eruption (VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble). The pre-study provided the ancillary ability to assess intermodel diversity in the radiative forcing for a large stratospheric-injecting equatorial eruption when the volcanic aerosol cloud is simulated interactively. An initial analysis of the VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble showed large disparities between models in the stratospheric global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study, we now show that stratospheric global mean AOD differences among the participating models are primarily due to differences in aerosol size, which we track here by effective radius. We identify specific physical and chemical processes that are missing in some models and/or parameterized differently between models, which are together causing the differences in effective radius. In particular, our analysis indicates that interactively tracking hydroxyl radical (OH) chemistry following a large volcanic injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important factor in allowing for the timescale for sulfate formation to be properly simulated. In addition, depending on the timescale of sulfate formation, there can be a large difference in effective radius and subsequently AOD that results from whether the SO2 is injected in a single model grid cell near the location of the volcanic eruption, or whether it is injected as a longitudinally averaged band around the Earth.

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    Authors: Nehrbass-Ahles, Christoph; Shin, Jinhwa; Schmitt, Jochen; Bereiter, Bernhard; +10 Authors

    High-resolution atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) records derived from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C ice core covering Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9e - 12a (~330 - 450 ka BP). The majority of the CO2 data were measured at an average temporal resolution of ~300 years using a novel dry-extraction device called the Centrifugal Ice Microtome (CIM) employed at Climate and Environmental Physics (CEP), Physics Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland. Additional 33 data points were measured at the Institut des Géosciences de l'Environnement (IGE), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, France using the Ball Mill dry-extraction system. The CH4 data were measured at both CEP and IGE, improving the temporal resolution of existing data previously published by the same laboratories to ~350 years on average. These ice core records are complemented by high-resolution planktic and benthic stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) records from the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1385 located on the Iberian Margin off the coast of Portugal (Shackleton Site) covering MIS 9e - 11c (~330 - 410 ka BP). All marine sediment data were measured at an average temporal resolution of ~150 years at the Godwin Laboratory of Palaeoclimate Research, University of Cambridge, UK.

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    Authors: Westerhold, Thomas;

    Much of our understanding of Earth's past climate states comes from the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotope variations in deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Yet, major intervals in those records that lack the temporal resolution and/or age control required to identify climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we document 66 million years of global climate by a new high-fidelity Cenozoic global reference benthic carbon and oxygen isotope dataset (CENOGRID). Using recurrence analysis, we find that on timescales of millions of years Earth's climate can be grouped into Hothouse, Warmhouse, Coolhouse and Icehouse states separated by transitions related to changing greenhouse gas levels and the growth of polar ice sheets. Each Cenozoic climate state is paced by orbital cycles, but the response to radiative forcing is state dependent.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2020
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    Authors: Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; De Vleeschouwer, David; Batenburg, Sietske J; Edgar, Kirsty M; +10 Authors

    The geologic time scale for the Cenozoic Era has been notably improved over the last decades by virtue of integrated stratigraphy, combining high-resolution astrochronologies, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy with high-precision radioisotopic dates. However, the middle Eocene remains a weak link. The so-called "Eocene time scale gap" reflects the scarcity of suitable study sections with clear astronomically-forced variations in carbonate content, primarily because large parts of the oceans were starved of carbonate during the Eocene greenhouse. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 369 cored a carbonate-rich sedimentary sequence of Eocene age in the Mentelle Basin (Site U1514, offshore southwest Australia). The sequence consists of nannofossil chalk and exhibits rhythmic clay content variability. Here, we show that IODP Site U1514 allows for the extraction of an astronomical signal and the construction of an Eocene astrochronology, using 3-cm resolution X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) core scans. The XRF-derived ratio between calcium and iron content (Ca/Fe) tracks the lithologic variability and serves as the basis for our U1514 astrochronology. We present a 16 million-year-long (40-56 Ma) nearly continuous history of Eocene sedimentation with variations paced by eccentricity and obliquity. We supplement the high-resolution XRF data with low-resolution bulk carbon and oxygen isotopes, recording the long-term cooling trend from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM - ca. 56 Ma) into the middle Eocene (ca. 40 Ma). Our early Eocene astrochronology corroborates existing chronologies based on deep-sea sites and Italian land sections. For the middle Eocene, the sedimentological record at U1514 provides a single-site geochemical backbone and thus offers a further step towards a fully integrated Cenozoic geologic time scale at orbital resolution.

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    Authors: Crotti, Ilaria; Quiquet, Aurélien; Landais, Amaëlle; Stenni, Barbara; +6 Authors

    The data here described are presented in the submitted paper Response of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin Ice Sheet to Southern Ocean Warming During Late Pleistocene Interglacials by Crotti et al. This data set includes new high resolution measurements of d-excess, d18O and ssNa+ for the Antarctic TALDICE ice core (Latitude: -72.783330, Longitude: 159.066670, Elevation: 2315.0 m). The new data set covers the interglacials periods of MIS 5.5, MIS 7.5 and MIS 9.3 (1486 m depth - 1548 m depth). The data are drawn on the TALDICE deep1 chronology (Crotti et al. 2021). The d-excess (d = δD − 8 × δ18O) (permill) record covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 5 cm resolution and spans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 5.5. Between 1378.5 and 1421.65 m depth, 110-135 ka • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.85 and 1524.5 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.80 and 1547.90 m depth, 320-343 ka The d18O record (permill) covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 5 cm resolution and spans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.85 and 1524.5 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.80 and 1547.90 m depth, 320-343 ka The ssNa+ fluxes record covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 8 cm resolution and pans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.81 and 1524.54 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.73 and 1547.96 m depth, 320-343 ka The d18O and dD (non presented here) to calculate the d-excess were analysed in Italy (University of Venice) and France (LSCE) using the Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. Analyses were performed using a Picarro isotope water analyser (L2130-i version for both laboratories). The data were calibrated using a three-point linear calibration with three lab-standards that were themselves calibrated versus Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW). The average precision for the δ18O and δD measurements is 0.1 and 0.7 ‰, respectively. The concentrations of ssNa+ were measured on TALDICE ice samples at 8 cm resolution by classical ion chromatography on discrete samples collected using a melting device connected to an auto-sampler for the MIS 7.5 and MIS 9.3 whereas Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) was applied for MIS 5.5 samples. The total deposition ssNa+ flux was calculated multiplying the measured ice concentration of ssNa+ by the reconstructed accumulation rate. The accumulation rates were derived from the accumulation rates were obtained from the TALDICE deep1 age scale (Crotti et al. 2021).

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    Authors: Ziveri, Patrizia; Gray, William Robert; Anglada-Ortiz, Griselda; Manno, Clara; +4 Authors

    The data collection consists of 3 datasets: - Zooplankton standing stocks: this dataset compiles the standing stocks (ind/m³), the integrated standing stocks (ind/m²) and the integrated CaCO3 standing stocks (mg/m²) for three groups of zooplanktonic calcifying organisms, pteropods, heteropods and foraminifers. The organisms were collected by oblique towing (Ø 0.5 m, 90 μm mesh size, SeaGear mechanical flowmeter) in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017. The sampling strategy was designed to capture an integrated sample of all foraminifers, pteropods and heteropods from juveniles to adults living throughout the upper water column. - Phytoplankton standing stocks: this dataset compiles the CaCO3 standing stocks of living coccolithophores (mg/m³), of detached coccoliths (mg/m³) and the integrated CaCO3 standing stocks of coccolithophores (mg/m²). The samples were collected in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017, with rosette Niskin bottles equiped with CTD (Sea-Bird SBE 9) at different depths throughout the photic zone including the deep chlorophyll maximum. - Integrated CaCO3 production: this dataset compiles the estimates of annual CaCO3 production, including the upper and lower limits of the estimates, for the 4 planktic calcifying groups considered in the study, the pteropods (mg/m²/yr), the heteropods (mg/m²/yr), the foraminifers (mg/m²/yr) and the coccolithophores (mg/m²/yr). The estimates derived from the living standing stocks of these 4 groups of organisms collected in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017.

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    Authors: Valente, André; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Brotas, Vanda; Groom, Steve; +73 Authors

    A global compilation of in situ data is vital to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here, we describe data compiled for the validation of ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2021. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectance, concentration of chlorophyll-a, spectral inherent optical properties, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient and total suspended matter. The data were obtained from multi-project archives acquired via open internet services, or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The result is a merged table available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were propagated throughout the work and made available in the final table. By making the metadata available, provenance is better documented, and it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. This paper also describes the changes that were made to the compilation in relation to the previous version.

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    Authors: Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; +5 Authors

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.

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    Authors: Vollmar, Nele Manon; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Saavedra-Pellitero, Mariem; Hernández-Almeida, Iván;

    We studied the distribution of coccoliths in surface sediments across the Drake Passage and calcification of Emiliania huxleyi morphotypes in surface sediment samples retrieved during PS97. Dataset 1 (morphometrical measurements and mass estimations) is reporting the morphometrical measurements of E. huxleyi coccoliths measured with the Coccobiom2 macro (Coccobiom2 macros: http://ina.tmsoc.org/nannos/coccobiom/Usernotes.html, last access: 3 September 2016) based on 570 Scanning Electron Microscope images (showing E. huxleyi coccoliths of morphotypes A, Aovercalcified, B/C and O), and calcite mass estimations based on two different formulas 1) after Beuvier et al. 2019 (doi:10.1038/s41467-019-08635-x) and 2) after Young and Ziveri 2000 (doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00003-5). The morphometrical measurements (in µm) include coccolith distal shield length, distal shield width, Central Area length, Central Area width. The mass estimations (in pg) include the mass calculated after 1) and 2) and the respective shape factor used for 2). The coccoliths stem from surface sediments that were sampled with a Multicorer and are approximately of Mid to Late Holocene Age. Dataset 2 (morphotype counts) is reporting the relative number of E. huxleyi morphotypes per sample, based on an additional count with the SEM. Further details in the material and methods section in the corresponding paper.

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    Authors: Thompson, Nick; Salzmann, Ulrich; López-Quirós, Adrián; Bijl, Peter K; +7 Authors

    A total of 35 samples from the late-middle Eocene to earliest Oligocene (643.73-520.88 mbsf) were analysed for their pollen and spore content. Slides were analysed using a Leica DM500 and Leica DM2000 transmitted light microscopes at 200x and 1000x magnification. Where possible, counts of 300 (excluding reworked grains) sporomorphs were made. Only samples containing 50 or more in situ sporomorphs were used for further analysis and evaluation. Sporomorph diversity was measured using both the Shannon–Wiener index and the observed number of taxa. A rarefaction method for sums of ≥50 and ≥100 grains was applied, so that the effect caused by differences in the sample size may be removed allowing the estimation of the number of sporomorph species at a constant sample size. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was performed, with downweighting of rare species by removing pollen types whose representation is <5%. Estimates for terrestrial mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), warmest month mean temperature (WMMT) and coldest month mean temperature (CMMT) were obtained using the NLR approach in conjunction with the Probability Density Function (PDF) method.

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    Authors: Clyne, Margot; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Mills, Michael J.; Khodri, Myriam; +19 Authors

    As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP), several climate modeling centers performed a coordinated pre-study experiment with interactive stratospheric aerosol models simulating the volcanic aerosol cloud from an eruption resembling the 1815 Mt. Tambora eruption (VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble). The pre-study provided the ancillary ability to assess intermodel diversity in the radiative forcing for a large stratospheric-injecting equatorial eruption when the volcanic aerosol cloud is simulated interactively. An initial analysis of the VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble showed large disparities between models in the stratospheric global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study, we now show that stratospheric global mean AOD differences among the participating models are primarily due to differences in aerosol size, which we track here by effective radius. We identify specific physical and chemical processes that are missing in some models and/or parameterized differently between models, which are together causing the differences in effective radius. In particular, our analysis indicates that interactively tracking hydroxyl radical (OH) chemistry following a large volcanic injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important factor in allowing for the timescale for sulfate formation to be properly simulated. In addition, depending on the timescale of sulfate formation, there can be a large difference in effective radius and subsequently AOD that results from whether the SO2 is injected in a single model grid cell near the location of the volcanic eruption, or whether it is injected as a longitudinally averaged band around the Earth.

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    Authors: Nehrbass-Ahles, Christoph; Shin, Jinhwa; Schmitt, Jochen; Bereiter, Bernhard; +10 Authors

    High-resolution atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) records derived from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C ice core covering Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9e - 12a (~330 - 450 ka BP). The majority of the CO2 data were measured at an average temporal resolution of ~300 years using a novel dry-extraction device called the Centrifugal Ice Microtome (CIM) employed at Climate and Environmental Physics (CEP), Physics Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland. Additional 33 data points were measured at the Institut des Géosciences de l'Environnement (IGE), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, France using the Ball Mill dry-extraction system. The CH4 data were measured at both CEP and IGE, improving the temporal resolution of existing data previously published by the same laboratories to ~350 years on average. These ice core records are complemented by high-resolution planktic and benthic stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) records from the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1385 located on the Iberian Margin off the coast of Portugal (Shackleton Site) covering MIS 9e - 11c (~330 - 410 ka BP). All marine sediment data were measured at an average temporal resolution of ~150 years at the Godwin Laboratory of Palaeoclimate Research, University of Cambridge, UK.

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    Authors: Westerhold, Thomas;

    Much of our understanding of Earth's past climate states comes from the measurement of oxygen and carbon isotope variations in deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Yet, major intervals in those records that lack the temporal resolution and/or age control required to identify climate forcing and feedback mechanisms. Here we document 66 million years of global climate by a new high-fidelity Cenozoic global reference benthic carbon and oxygen isotope dataset (CENOGRID). Using recurrence analysis, we find that on timescales of millions of years Earth's climate can be grouped into Hothouse, Warmhouse, Coolhouse and Icehouse states separated by transitions related to changing greenhouse gas levels and the growth of polar ice sheets. Each Cenozoic climate state is paced by orbital cycles, but the response to radiative forcing is state dependent.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma