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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Giesche, Alena; Hodell, David A; Petrie, Cameron A; Haug, Gerald H; +7 Authors

    A 25-cm long predominantly aragonite stalagmite was collected November 2, 2005 from Dharamjali Cave (29.5°N, 80.2°E) in the central Himalayas. This dataset contains stable isotope, trace element, XRF, U/Th dating, and dripwater data. The age model spans 4.2 to 2.3 ka BP, and the dataset records seasonal shifts in hydroclimate from 4.2 to 3.1 ka BP. Using the DHAR-1A half of the speleothem, 750 samples were milled at 100–300 µm resolution for stable isotope analysis (δ18O and δ13C) and analyzed at GFZ Potsdam. Further high-resolution stable isotope analysis at the University of Cambridge included 876 samples from the bottom 4 cm of the mirroring slab DHAR-1B, covering c. 4.2–3.6 ka BP. The δ44/40Ca measurements were made on 60 aragonite samples of aragonite and 1 calcite sample milled between 4.2 and 2.8 ka BP. The elemental composition of DHAR-1B was determined first with an Avaatech XRF scanner at the University of Cambridge, and later using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at the University of Waikato. U-series dating was performed at Caltech on 22 samples. Twelve U-series ages (between 2.55 and 4.14 ka BP) were used to construct the age models, using ensembles of 2000 Monte Carlo simulations for each proxy using the MATLAB-based COPRA script (Breitenbach et al., 2012, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-8-1765-2012).

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    Authors: Ehrmann, Werner; Wilson, Paul A; Arz, Helge Wolfgang; Schulz, Hartmut; +1 Authors

    We present a sedimentary record from a marine core, KL11, taken from the central Red Sea, spanning the last ca. 210 kyr. The core was recovered at 18°44.5' N and 39°20.6' E from a water depth of 825 m during RV Meteor expedition M5/2 in 1987. We combine high-resolution grain size, clay mineral and geochemical data, together with Nd and Sr isotope data to identify provenance and reconstruct changes in aridity/humidity through time.

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    Authors: McClymont, Erin L; Ho, Sze Ling; Ford, Heather L; Bailey, Ian; +27 Authors

    The Pliocene Epoch (~2.6–5.3 million years ago, Ma) was characterized by a warmer than present climate with smaller Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, and therefore offers an example of a climate system in long-term equilibrium with current or predicted near-future carbon dioxide concentrations. The end of the Pliocene (~2.6 Ma) is marked by further ice-sheet expansion and intensification of glacial (cold) stages, referred to as the "intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation" (iNHG). Here we present the data used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of ocean temperatures and ice-volume indicators through the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (from 3.3 to 2.4 Ma) to determine the character of this climate transition. The data come from the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Southern Ocean, as well as some marginal seas. Here we present the synthesized alkenone sea-surface temperature, Mg/Ca sea-surface temperature, planktonic foraminifera d18O and benthic foraminifera d18O data which were used in our synthesis. Although the original data sets are largely published, here we present the alkenone SST records calculated using the BAYSPLINE calibration where these were not part of the original publication; the Mg/Ca-SST records where we revised the absolute SSTs; any data sets where we revised the age model.

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    Authors: Hodell, David A; Crowhurst, Simon J; Lourens, Lucas Joost; Margari, Vasiliki; +7 Authors

    Data consist of a continuous millennially-resolved record of oxgyen and carbon stable isotope composition of planktonic and benthic foraminifera at IODP Site U1385 and piston core MD01-2444 from the southwestern Iberian margin for the last 1.5 million years. Elemental ratios (Ca/Ti and Zr/Sr) are also reported from the composite section of Site U1385 and core MD01-2444. Oxygen and carbon isotope measurements of planktic and benthic foraminifera were made at an average temporal resolution of ~200 years for the last 1.45 million years. For planktic foraminifera, the surface-dwelling species Globigerina bulloides from the 250 - 350 um size fraction was used. Benthic foraminifer data consists mostly of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and occasionally other species of Cibicidoides were measured from the >212 um size fraction. In samples where specimens of Cibicidoides spp. were absent, we used d18O of Uvigerina peregrina or Globobulimina affinis. All δ18O values for each species were corrected to Uvigerina using the offsets suggested by Shackleton et al. (2000) -- i.e., +0.64 for Cibicidoides and -0.3 for G. affinis. Stable isotope measurements were made in the Godwin Laboratory for Palaeoclimate research at the University of Cambridge. Foraminifer tests were crushed and soaked in a solution of 1% hydrogen per-oxide for 30 min in individual vials. Acetone was added and the samples placed in an ultra-sonic bath for 10 s, after which the liquid was carefully decanted to remove any contaminants. The samples were dried in an oven at 50 °C overnight. Isotopic analyses of the samples were per-formed using a VG SIRA mass spectrometer with a Multicarb system for samples with a mass exceeding 80 μg. Analytical precision is estimated to be ±0.08‰ for both δ18O and δ13C. For smaller samples (<80 μg), measurements were performed on a Thermo Finnigan MAT253 mass spectrometer fitted with a Kiel device. Analytical precision is estimated to be ±0.08‰ for δ18O and ±0.06‰ for δ13C, respectively. All results are reported relative to VPDB. Elemental ratios (Ca/Ti and Zr/Sr) were obtained using an Avaatech X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner at 1-cm spatial resolution. Cores from Holes U1385A and U1385B were measured at the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) and Holes U1385D and U1385E and MD01-2444 were measured at the Godwin Laboratory for Palaeoclimate Reseach at the University of Cambridge. The core surface was carefully scraped cleaned and covered with a 4-μm thin SPEXCertiPrep Ultralene foil to avoid contamination and reduce desiccation. All XRF scanners irradiated a surface of 10-mm high by 12-mm wide every 1 cm with identical instrument settings used at both NIOZ and Cambridge. Cores were scanned at 3 voltages: 10kv (750 μamps, 10 sec count time with no filter); 30 kv (500 μamps, 10 sec count time with Pd thin filter); and 50 kv (1000 μramps, 60 sec count time with Cu vilter). Element intensities were obtained by post-processing of the XRF spectra using the Canberra WinAxil software with standard soft-ware settings and spectrum-fit models. The purpose of the analyses were to produce records of millennial-scale climate variability (MCV) during the last 1.45 million years. Questions to be addressed with the data included: How common was MCV during older glacial periods of the Pleistocene? Did the nature (intensity, duration, pacing) of MCV change with orbital configuration or climate background state (ice volume, sea-level, ice sheet height)? What is the relationship between MCV and longer-term, orbitally-driven glacial-interglacial cycles – how do they interact? How did MCV change across the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) when ice sheets grew larger in size and the amplitude of glacial-interglacial cycles increased? Was the thermal bipolar seesaw mechanism active during older glacial periods of the Pleistocene? What role did millennial variability play in atmospheric CO2 variations or vice-versa?

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    Authors: Crotti, Ilaria; Quiquet, Aurélien; Landais, Amaëlle; Stenni, Barbara; +6 Authors

    The data here described are presented in the submitted paper Response of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin Ice Sheet to Southern Ocean Warming During Late Pleistocene Interglacials by Crotti et al. This data set includes new high resolution measurements of d-excess, d18O and ssNa+ for the Antarctic TALDICE ice core (Latitude: -72.783330, Longitude: 159.066670, Elevation: 2315.0 m). The new data set covers the interglacials periods of MIS 5.5, MIS 7.5 and MIS 9.3 (1486 m depth - 1548 m depth). The data are drawn on the TALDICE deep1 chronology (Crotti et al. 2021). The d-excess (d = δD − 8 × δ18O) (permill) record covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 5 cm resolution and spans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 5.5. Between 1378.5 and 1421.65 m depth, 110-135 ka • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.85 and 1524.5 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.80 and 1547.90 m depth, 320-343 ka The d18O record (permill) covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 5 cm resolution and spans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.85 and 1524.5 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.80 and 1547.90 m depth, 320-343 ka The ssNa+ fluxes record covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 8 cm resolution and pans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.81 and 1524.54 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.73 and 1547.96 m depth, 320-343 ka The d18O and dD (non presented here) to calculate the d-excess were analysed in Italy (University of Venice) and France (LSCE) using the Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. Analyses were performed using a Picarro isotope water analyser (L2130-i version for both laboratories). The data were calibrated using a three-point linear calibration with three lab-standards that were themselves calibrated versus Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW). The average precision for the δ18O and δD measurements is 0.1 and 0.7 ‰, respectively. The concentrations of ssNa+ were measured on TALDICE ice samples at 8 cm resolution by classical ion chromatography on discrete samples collected using a melting device connected to an auto-sampler for the MIS 7.5 and MIS 9.3 whereas Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) was applied for MIS 5.5 samples. The total deposition ssNa+ flux was calculated multiplying the measured ice concentration of ssNa+ by the reconstructed accumulation rate. The accumulation rates were derived from the accumulation rates were obtained from the TALDICE deep1 age scale (Crotti et al. 2021).

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    Authors: Ziveri, Patrizia; Gray, William Robert; Anglada-Ortiz, Griselda; Manno, Clara; +4 Authors

    The data collection consists of 3 datasets: - Zooplankton standing stocks: this dataset compiles the standing stocks (ind/m³), the integrated standing stocks (ind/m²) and the integrated CaCO3 standing stocks (mg/m²) for three groups of zooplanktonic calcifying organisms, pteropods, heteropods and foraminifers. The organisms were collected by oblique towing (Ø 0.5 m, 90 μm mesh size, SeaGear mechanical flowmeter) in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017. The sampling strategy was designed to capture an integrated sample of all foraminifers, pteropods and heteropods from juveniles to adults living throughout the upper water column. - Phytoplankton standing stocks: this dataset compiles the CaCO3 standing stocks of living coccolithophores (mg/m³), of detached coccoliths (mg/m³) and the integrated CaCO3 standing stocks of coccolithophores (mg/m²). The samples were collected in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017, with rosette Niskin bottles equiped with CTD (Sea-Bird SBE 9) at different depths throughout the photic zone including the deep chlorophyll maximum. - Integrated CaCO3 production: this dataset compiles the estimates of annual CaCO3 production, including the upper and lower limits of the estimates, for the 4 planktic calcifying groups considered in the study, the pteropods (mg/m²/yr), the heteropods (mg/m²/yr), the foraminifers (mg/m²/yr) and the coccolithophores (mg/m²/yr). The estimates derived from the living standing stocks of these 4 groups of organisms collected in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017.

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    Authors: Garcin, Yannick; Schefuß, Enno; Dargie, Greta C; Hawthorne, Donna; +25 Authors

    Palaeo-environmental and -climatic data from core CEN-17.4 from the central Congo peatlands, Likouala Department (1°11'0.49"N, 17°38'23.7"E) and data from supporting cores. Bulk organic (TOC, TN, C/N) data and Rock Eval data to assess peat occurrence and degradation status for the central core CEN-17.4 and supporting cores. Radiocarbon dates on fine fractions for all cores. Plant-wax derived n-alkane stable carbon (δ^13^C) and stable hydrogen (δD) isotope data to assess vegetation changes and rainfall changes for the central core CEN-17.4. Selected pollen data for the central core CEN-17.4 to assess palaeo-ecological changes.

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    Authors: You, Defang; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Williams, Maricel; +6 Authors

    The data originates from the gravity core MSM12/2-5-1 (57.538500, -48.738700, recovery 1494 cm, 3492 m water depth) taken during R/V Maria S. Merian cruise MSM12/2 in 2009 in the eastern Labrador Sea (Eirik Drift). The data should provide more precise information on the timing and duration of freshwater forcing, which may help to improve simulations for past and future changes in ocean circulation and climate. We have investigated the very well-dated and high-resolution sediment core from the Eirik Drift, representing an interval from the last deglaciation to Holocene, i.e., the last 19 ka. Four meltwater-related cold events have been identified by abrupt changes in sea surface characteristics, which are based on independent multiple biomarker proxies, including sea-ice proxy IP25 and phytoplankton biomarker IP25 index (PIP25) for sea ice cover, the alkenone unsaturation index for sea surface temperature (SST), and the percentage of tetra-unsaturated alkenones (%C37:4) for meltwater inflow, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning data. Furthermore, sortable silt mean size has been used to reflect changes in bottom current intensity. In conclusion, our study could improve our understanding of the impact of meltwater injection into subpolar regions on abrupt climate changes during the last glacial termination. Furthermore, the data support modelling results that higher frequency and amplitude of abrupt changes may occur during the transition states from background climates. We found that meltwater pulses following collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and/or Greenland Ice Sheet might have triggered millennial-scale abrupt changes in surface freshening and sea ice concentrations in the Labrador Sea, as well as cooling atmospheric temperatures.

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    Authors: de Carvalho Ferreira, Maria Luiza; Robinson, Laura F; Stewart, Joseph A; Li, Tao; +4 Authors

    The data consist of ~600 U-Th ages of scleractianian cold-water corals dated by laser ablation and isotope dilution methods covering the last 150,000 years. The corals are from three locations: Reykjanes Ridge (57°N to 61°N, 28°W to 33°W); Tropic Seamount (23°55'N, 20°45'W); and the East Equatorial Atlantic from Carter (9°N, 21°W) and Knipovich seamounts (5°N, 27°W). The samples were collected with ROV and dredges during the cruises: CE0806 in 2008 (Reykjanes Ridge); JC094 in 2013 (Equatorial Atlantic); and JC142 in 2016 (Tropic Seamount). Additionally, a compilation of ~750 U-Th and 14C ages of scleractianian cold-water corals from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean is presented. The complete dataset is used to investigate the temporal and spatial coral distribution at Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the relation with past climatic events.

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    Authors: Valente, André; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Brotas, Vanda; Groom, Steve; +73 Authors

    A global compilation of in situ data is vital to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here, we describe data compiled for the validation of ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2021. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectance, concentration of chlorophyll-a, spectral inherent optical properties, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient and total suspended matter. The data were obtained from multi-project archives acquired via open internet services, or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The result is a merged table available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were propagated throughout the work and made available in the final table. By making the metadata available, provenance is better documented, and it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. This paper also describes the changes that were made to the compilation in relation to the previous version.

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    Authors: Giesche, Alena; Hodell, David A; Petrie, Cameron A; Haug, Gerald H; +7 Authors

    A 25-cm long predominantly aragonite stalagmite was collected November 2, 2005 from Dharamjali Cave (29.5°N, 80.2°E) in the central Himalayas. This dataset contains stable isotope, trace element, XRF, U/Th dating, and dripwater data. The age model spans 4.2 to 2.3 ka BP, and the dataset records seasonal shifts in hydroclimate from 4.2 to 3.1 ka BP. Using the DHAR-1A half of the speleothem, 750 samples were milled at 100–300 µm resolution for stable isotope analysis (δ18O and δ13C) and analyzed at GFZ Potsdam. Further high-resolution stable isotope analysis at the University of Cambridge included 876 samples from the bottom 4 cm of the mirroring slab DHAR-1B, covering c. 4.2–3.6 ka BP. The δ44/40Ca measurements were made on 60 aragonite samples of aragonite and 1 calcite sample milled between 4.2 and 2.8 ka BP. The elemental composition of DHAR-1B was determined first with an Avaatech XRF scanner at the University of Cambridge, and later using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at the University of Waikato. U-series dating was performed at Caltech on 22 samples. Twelve U-series ages (between 2.55 and 4.14 ka BP) were used to construct the age models, using ensembles of 2000 Monte Carlo simulations for each proxy using the MATLAB-based COPRA script (Breitenbach et al., 2012, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-8-1765-2012).

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    Authors: Ehrmann, Werner; Wilson, Paul A; Arz, Helge Wolfgang; Schulz, Hartmut; +1 Authors

    We present a sedimentary record from a marine core, KL11, taken from the central Red Sea, spanning the last ca. 210 kyr. The core was recovered at 18°44.5' N and 39°20.6' E from a water depth of 825 m during RV Meteor expedition M5/2 in 1987. We combine high-resolution grain size, clay mineral and geochemical data, together with Nd and Sr isotope data to identify provenance and reconstruct changes in aridity/humidity through time.

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    Authors: McClymont, Erin L; Ho, Sze Ling; Ford, Heather L; Bailey, Ian; +27 Authors

    The Pliocene Epoch (~2.6–5.3 million years ago, Ma) was characterized by a warmer than present climate with smaller Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, and therefore offers an example of a climate system in long-term equilibrium with current or predicted near-future carbon dioxide concentrations. The end of the Pliocene (~2.6 Ma) is marked by further ice-sheet expansion and intensification of glacial (cold) stages, referred to as the "intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation" (iNHG). Here we present the data used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of ocean temperatures and ice-volume indicators through the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (from 3.3 to 2.4 Ma) to determine the character of this climate transition. The data come from the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Southern Ocean, as well as some marginal seas. Here we present the synthesized alkenone sea-surface temperature, Mg/Ca sea-surface temperature, planktonic foraminifera d18O and benthic foraminifera d18O data which were used in our synthesis. Although the original data sets are largely published, here we present the alkenone SST records calculated using the BAYSPLINE calibration where these were not part of the original publication; the Mg/Ca-SST records where we revised the absolute SSTs; any data sets where we revised the age model.

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    Authors: Hodell, David A; Crowhurst, Simon J; Lourens, Lucas Joost; Margari, Vasiliki; +7 Authors

    Data consist of a continuous millennially-resolved record of oxgyen and carbon stable isotope composition of planktonic and benthic foraminifera at IODP Site U1385 and piston core MD01-2444 from the southwestern Iberian margin for the last 1.5 million years. Elemental ratios (Ca/Ti and Zr/Sr) are also reported from the composite section of Site U1385 and core MD01-2444. Oxygen and carbon isotope measurements of planktic and benthic foraminifera were made at an average temporal resolution of ~200 years for the last 1.45 million years. For planktic foraminifera, the surface-dwelling species Globigerina bulloides from the 250 - 350 um size fraction was used. Benthic foraminifer data consists mostly of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and occasionally other species of Cibicidoides were measured from the >212 um size fraction. In samples where specimens of Cibicidoides spp. were absent, we used d18O of Uvigerina peregrina or Globobulimina affinis. All δ18O values for each species were corrected to Uvigerina using the offsets suggested by Shackleton et al. (2000) -- i.e., +0.64 for Cibicidoides and -0.3 for G. affinis. Stable isotope measurements were made in the Godwin Laboratory for Palaeoclimate research at the University of Cambridge. Foraminifer tests were crushed and soaked in a solution of 1% hydrogen per-oxide for 30 min in individual vials. Acetone was added and the samples placed in an ultra-sonic bath for 10 s, after which the liquid was carefully decanted to remove any contaminants. The samples were dried in an oven at 50 °C overnight. Isotopic analyses of the samples were per-formed using a VG SIRA mass spectrometer with a Multicarb system for samples with a mass exceeding 80 μg. Analytical precision is estimated to be ±0.08‰ for both δ18O and δ13C. For smaller samples (<80 μg), measurements were performed on a Thermo Finnigan MAT253 mass spectrometer fitted with a Kiel device. Analytical precision is estimated to be ±0.08‰ for δ18O and ±0.06‰ for δ13C, respectively. All results are reported relative to VPDB. Elemental ratios (Ca/Ti and Zr/Sr) were obtained using an Avaatech X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner at 1-cm spatial resolution. Cores from Holes U1385A and U1385B were measured at the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) and Holes U1385D and U1385E and MD01-2444 were measured at the Godwin Laboratory for Palaeoclimate Reseach at the University of Cambridge. The core surface was carefully scraped cleaned and covered with a 4-μm thin SPEXCertiPrep Ultralene foil to avoid contamination and reduce desiccation. All XRF scanners irradiated a surface of 10-mm high by 12-mm wide every 1 cm with identical instrument settings used at both NIOZ and Cambridge. Cores were scanned at 3 voltages: 10kv (750 μamps, 10 sec count time with no filter); 30 kv (500 μamps, 10 sec count time with Pd thin filter); and 50 kv (1000 μramps, 60 sec count time with Cu vilter). Element intensities were obtained by post-processing of the XRF spectra using the Canberra WinAxil software with standard soft-ware settings and spectrum-fit models. The purpose of the analyses were to produce records of millennial-scale climate variability (MCV) during the last 1.45 million years. Questions to be addressed with the data included: How common was MCV during older glacial periods of the Pleistocene? Did the nature (intensity, duration, pacing) of MCV change with orbital configuration or climate background state (ice volume, sea-level, ice sheet height)? What is the relationship between MCV and longer-term, orbitally-driven glacial-interglacial cycles – how do they interact? How did MCV change across the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT) when ice sheets grew larger in size and the amplitude of glacial-interglacial cycles increased? Was the thermal bipolar seesaw mechanism active during older glacial periods of the Pleistocene? What role did millennial variability play in atmospheric CO2 variations or vice-versa?

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    Authors: Crotti, Ilaria; Quiquet, Aurélien; Landais, Amaëlle; Stenni, Barbara; +6 Authors

    The data here described are presented in the submitted paper Response of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin Ice Sheet to Southern Ocean Warming During Late Pleistocene Interglacials by Crotti et al. This data set includes new high resolution measurements of d-excess, d18O and ssNa+ for the Antarctic TALDICE ice core (Latitude: -72.783330, Longitude: 159.066670, Elevation: 2315.0 m). The new data set covers the interglacials periods of MIS 5.5, MIS 7.5 and MIS 9.3 (1486 m depth - 1548 m depth). The data are drawn on the TALDICE deep1 chronology (Crotti et al. 2021). The d-excess (d = δD − 8 × δ18O) (permill) record covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 5 cm resolution and spans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 5.5. Between 1378.5 and 1421.65 m depth, 110-135 ka • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.85 and 1524.5 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.80 and 1547.90 m depth, 320-343 ka The d18O record (permill) covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 5 cm resolution and spans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.85 and 1524.5 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.80 and 1547.90 m depth, 320-343 ka The ssNa+ fluxes record covers the periods MIS 5.5 , MIS 7.5 and 9.3 MIS is at 8 cm resolution and pans the following age-depths intervals: • MIS 7.5. Between 1521.81 and 1524.54 m depth, 243-248 ka • MIS 9.3. Between 1541.73 and 1547.96 m depth, 320-343 ka The d18O and dD (non presented here) to calculate the d-excess were analysed in Italy (University of Venice) and France (LSCE) using the Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. Analyses were performed using a Picarro isotope water analyser (L2130-i version for both laboratories). The data were calibrated using a three-point linear calibration with three lab-standards that were themselves calibrated versus Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW). The average precision for the δ18O and δD measurements is 0.1 and 0.7 ‰, respectively. The concentrations of ssNa+ were measured on TALDICE ice samples at 8 cm resolution by classical ion chromatography on discrete samples collected using a melting device connected to an auto-sampler for the MIS 7.5 and MIS 9.3 whereas Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) was applied for MIS 5.5 samples. The total deposition ssNa+ flux was calculated multiplying the measured ice concentration of ssNa+ by the reconstructed accumulation rate. The accumulation rates were derived from the accumulation rates were obtained from the TALDICE deep1 age scale (Crotti et al. 2021).

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    Authors: Ziveri, Patrizia; Gray, William Robert; Anglada-Ortiz, Griselda; Manno, Clara; +4 Authors

    The data collection consists of 3 datasets: - Zooplankton standing stocks: this dataset compiles the standing stocks (ind/m³), the integrated standing stocks (ind/m²) and the integrated CaCO3 standing stocks (mg/m²) for three groups of zooplanktonic calcifying organisms, pteropods, heteropods and foraminifers. The organisms were collected by oblique towing (Ø 0.5 m, 90 μm mesh size, SeaGear mechanical flowmeter) in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017. The sampling strategy was designed to capture an integrated sample of all foraminifers, pteropods and heteropods from juveniles to adults living throughout the upper water column. - Phytoplankton standing stocks: this dataset compiles the CaCO3 standing stocks of living coccolithophores (mg/m³), of detached coccoliths (mg/m³) and the integrated CaCO3 standing stocks of coccolithophores (mg/m²). The samples were collected in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017, with rosette Niskin bottles equiped with CTD (Sea-Bird SBE 9) at different depths throughout the photic zone including the deep chlorophyll maximum. - Integrated CaCO3 production: this dataset compiles the estimates of annual CaCO3 production, including the upper and lower limits of the estimates, for the 4 planktic calcifying groups considered in the study, the pteropods (mg/m²/yr), the heteropods (mg/m²/yr), the foraminifers (mg/m²/yr) and the coccolithophores (mg/m²/yr). The estimates derived from the living standing stocks of these 4 groups of organisms collected in the North Pacific between Hawaii and the Gulf of Alaska during the R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1712 in August 2017.

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    Authors: Garcin, Yannick; Schefuß, Enno; Dargie, Greta C; Hawthorne, Donna; +25 Authors

    Palaeo-environmental and -climatic data from core CEN-17.4 from the central Congo peatlands, Likouala Department (1°11'0.49"N, 17°38'23.7"E) and data from supporting cores. Bulk organic (TOC, TN, C/N) data and Rock Eval data to assess peat occurrence and degradation status for the central core CEN-17.4 and supporting cores. Radiocarbon dates on fine fractions for all cores. Plant-wax derived n-alkane stable carbon (δ^13^C) and stable hydrogen (δD) isotope data to assess vegetation changes and rainfall changes for the central core CEN-17.4. Selected pollen data for the central core CEN-17.4 to assess palaeo-ecological changes.

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    Authors: You, Defang; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Williams, Maricel; +6 Authors

    The data originates from the gravity core MSM12/2-5-1 (57.538500, -48.738700, recovery 1494 cm, 3492 m water depth) taken during R/V Maria S. Merian cruise MSM12/2 in 2009 in the eastern Labrador Sea (Eirik Drift). The data should provide more precise information on the timing and duration of freshwater forcing, which may help to improve simulations for past and future changes in ocean circulation and climate. We have investigated the very well-dated and high-resolution sediment core from the Eirik Drift, representing an interval from the last deglaciation to Holocene, i.e., the last 19 ka. Four meltwater-related cold events have been identified by abrupt changes in sea surface characteristics, which are based on independent multiple biomarker proxies, including sea-ice proxy IP25 and phytoplankton biomarker IP25 index (PIP25) for sea ice cover, the alkenone unsaturation index for sea surface temperature (SST), and the percentage of tetra-unsaturated alkenones (%C37:4) for meltwater inflow, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning data. Furthermore, sortable silt mean size has been used to reflect changes in bottom current intensity. In conclusion, our study could improve our understanding of the impact of meltwater injection into subpolar regions on abrupt climate changes during the last glacial termination. Furthermore, the data support modelling results that higher frequency and amplitude of abrupt changes may occur during the transition states from background climates. We found that meltwater pulses following collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and/or Greenland Ice Sheet might have triggered millennial-scale abrupt changes in surface freshening and sea ice concentrations in the Labrador Sea, as well as cooling atmospheric temperatures.

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    Authors: de Carvalho Ferreira, Maria Luiza; Robinson, Laura F; Stewart, Joseph A; Li, Tao; +4 Authors

    The data consist of ~600 U-Th ages of scleractianian cold-water corals dated by laser ablation and isotope dilution methods covering the last 150,000 years. The corals are from three locations: Reykjanes Ridge (57°N to 61°N, 28°W to 33°W); Tropic Seamount (23°55'N, 20°45'W); and the East Equatorial Atlantic from Carter (9°N, 21°W) and Knipovich seamounts (5°N, 27°W). The samples were collected with ROV and dredges during the cruises: CE0806 in 2008 (Reykjanes Ridge); JC094 in 2013 (Equatorial Atlantic); and JC142 in 2016 (Tropic Seamount). Additionally, a compilation of ~750 U-Th and 14C ages of scleractianian cold-water corals from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean is presented. The complete dataset is used to investigate the temporal and spatial coral distribution at Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the relation with past climatic events.

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