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4 Research products, page 1 of 1

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cervera, L. (Laura); Arizcun-Arizcun, M. (Marta); Cuesta, A. (Alberto); Chaves-Pozo, E. (Elena);
    Publisher: Centro Oceanográfico de Murcia

    Aquaculture is one of the most prosperous economic sectors. Nevertheless, the natural outbreaks of several infectious diseases make the sector to deal with important economic losses. One of the most important pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea is nodavirus (NNV). NNV is the agent causing viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in more than 170 fish species including some of the most impact in Spanish hatcheries as European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short aminoacidic sequences which constitute important mediators of the innate immune response in teleost fish. AMPs can kill directly a broad range of pathogens such as bacteria or viruses and modulate the host immune response leading to a more effective clearance of pathogens. These properties along with the world emergency in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) make AMPs good candidates to replace traditional antimicrobials. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the molecular regulation of European sea bass defensin beta genes upon NNV infection and after NNV vaccination. To achieve our objective, European sea bass were infected with NNV and samples of head-kidney (HK), brain and gonad were taken. In addition, gonadal cells from healthy males were in vitro stimulated with NNV. Then, ovary samples of control females or vaccinated against NNV (pBAD vaccine) were taken, as well as fertilized eggs and larvae from the same groups. To support our data, we also analyzed in silico the potential antiviral activity of the protein encoded by the studied genes. Our results show that defensin beta 1 gene is up-regulated upon in vivo NNV infection even if in the in silico study showed the lesser predicted activity. Interestingly, the in vitro NNV challenge resulted in no variation of the defensin beta 1 gene, while defensin beta 2.1 and 2.2 genes were blocked upon this stimulus. Strikingly, females vaccinated with pBAD greatly down-regulate defensin beta 2.2 expression. Moreover, larvae from vaccinated mother up-regulate all defensin beta genes. In conclusion, defensin beta 1 gene seems to be involved in the defense against viruses while defensin beta 2 genes appear to possess a more specific function in gonad.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Valero, Y. (Yulema); Djamal, M.; Chaves-Pozo, E. (Elena); Arizcun-Arizcun, M. (Marta); Meseguer, J. (José); Esteban, M.A. (María Ángeles); Oumouna, M. (Mustapha); Cuesta, A. (Alberto);
    Publisher: Centro Oceanográfico de Murcia
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gana, E.S.; Oyero, J.O.; Yisa, T.A.; Adeniji, A.A.;
    Publisher: FISON

    Bacteria has been implicated in food poisoning, and smoked fish is not an exception.Generally, fish is highly susceptible to spoilage; therefore this study evaluated the bacteria load in smoked fish from three major locations in Shiroro area of Niger State namely; Gwada, Kuta and Zumba.The smoked fish samples collected from these locations were smeared at both the gills and head regions of the fishes. The bacteria samples identified were Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Samonella typhi, which were common to all the three locations sampled, while only Streptococcus feacaliswas only was found to be present in both Kuta and Zumba location.The frequency of occurrence of these 68 bacteria samples isolated ranges from 8 - 20%, with Bacillius subtilis having the highest occurrence and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have the least occurrence. Out of the total 68 samples, 14 skin samples (20.6%) and 5 gills samples (7.4%) exceeded the acceptable limits of total mesophilic aerobic counts which were 106 - 107 cfu/g. In the case of total coliform counts, 12 skin samples (17.6%) and 7 gills samples (10.3%) exceeded the acceptable limit which is 4.0 x 102, while in the case of Staphylococcus aureus, 4 skin samples (5.9%) and 2 gills samples (2.9%) exceeded the acceptable limit which is 103 cfu/g. Similarly 3 skin samples (4.4%) and 1 gill sample (1.5%) exceeded the acceptable limit of Salmonella typhi which is 104 cfu/g. Includes: 4 tables.;Also includes: 21 references.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Jacques, Caroline;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    La consommation de poisson et de mammifères marins représente une source importante d’acides gras oméga-3 connus pour leurs effets bénéfiques sur le développement des fonctions cérébrales et notamment, sur le développement du système visuel. Afin de tester l’hypothèse selon laquelle l’exposition prénatale aux acides gras oméga-3 a des effets bénéfiques à long terme, nous avons examiné les fonctions visuelles chez des enfants Inuits d’âge scolaire exposés à de grandes quantités d’oméga-3 durant la période de gestation. Des enfants Inuits (n = 136; moyenne d’âge = 11.3 ans) du nord du Québec (Nunavik) ont participé à cette étude. Un protocole de potentiels évoqués visuels (PEVs) utilisant des stimuli en couleur et en mouvement a été employé afin d’appréhender les réponses parvo- et magnocellulaires respectivement. Les concentrations d’acide docosahexaénoïque (ADH) ont été mesurées à la naissance à partir du sang de cordon ombilical et au moment du testing, reflétant ainsi les expositions pré- et post-natales. Les relations entre les niveaux sanguins d’ADH et les PEVs ont été examinées à l’aide d’analyses de régression multiples, en tenant compte des contaminants environnementaux et d’autres variables potentiellement confondantes. Aucune association significative n’a été trouvée en ce qui concerne les stimuli de mouvement. Cependant, après ajustement pour les covariables, les concentrations d’ADH à la naissance étaient associées à une latence plus courte des composantes N1 et P1 des PEVs couleur. Notre étude démontre, pour la première fois, des effets bénéfiques de l’exposition prénatale à l’ADH sur le système parvocellulaire à l’âge scolaire. Fish and sea mammals consumption is an important source of omega-3 fatty acids, known for their beneficial effects on human brain development. Several lines of evidence indicate that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial especially for the development of the visual system. However, the long-term effect of prenatal exposure to omega-3 fatty acids on human visual development is unknown. This question was addressed using visual evoked potentials (PEVs) to study a cohort of school-age Inuit children (n = 136; mean age = 11.3 years old) from Arctic Quebec (Nunavik) who received high levels of omega-3 intake during gestation. PEV protocols using color and motion-onset stimuli were used to assess the parvocellular and magnocellular responses, respectively. Concentrations of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA were measured at birth in the umbilical cord and at the time of testing, reflecting pre- and post-natal exposure, respectively. Relations between omega-3 and VEPs were assessed by multivariate regression analyses, taking into account environmental contaminants and other potential confounding variables. No significant associations were found with motion-onset VEPs. However, after adjustment for covariables, cord blood concentrations of DHA were associated with a shorter latency of the N1 and P1 components of the color VEPs. Our study suggests beneficial effects of DHA on the visual parvocellular system at school age. This is the first study supporting the longlasting beneficial effects of prenatal exposure to DHA.

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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
4 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cervera, L. (Laura); Arizcun-Arizcun, M. (Marta); Cuesta, A. (Alberto); Chaves-Pozo, E. (Elena);
    Publisher: Centro Oceanográfico de Murcia

    Aquaculture is one of the most prosperous economic sectors. Nevertheless, the natural outbreaks of several infectious diseases make the sector to deal with important economic losses. One of the most important pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea is nodavirus (NNV). NNV is the agent causing viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in more than 170 fish species including some of the most impact in Spanish hatcheries as European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short aminoacidic sequences which constitute important mediators of the innate immune response in teleost fish. AMPs can kill directly a broad range of pathogens such as bacteria or viruses and modulate the host immune response leading to a more effective clearance of pathogens. These properties along with the world emergency in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) make AMPs good candidates to replace traditional antimicrobials. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the molecular regulation of European sea bass defensin beta genes upon NNV infection and after NNV vaccination. To achieve our objective, European sea bass were infected with NNV and samples of head-kidney (HK), brain and gonad were taken. In addition, gonadal cells from healthy males were in vitro stimulated with NNV. Then, ovary samples of control females or vaccinated against NNV (pBAD vaccine) were taken, as well as fertilized eggs and larvae from the same groups. To support our data, we also analyzed in silico the potential antiviral activity of the protein encoded by the studied genes. Our results show that defensin beta 1 gene is up-regulated upon in vivo NNV infection even if in the in silico study showed the lesser predicted activity. Interestingly, the in vitro NNV challenge resulted in no variation of the defensin beta 1 gene, while defensin beta 2.1 and 2.2 genes were blocked upon this stimulus. Strikingly, females vaccinated with pBAD greatly down-regulate defensin beta 2.2 expression. Moreover, larvae from vaccinated mother up-regulate all defensin beta genes. In conclusion, defensin beta 1 gene seems to be involved in the defense against viruses while defensin beta 2 genes appear to possess a more specific function in gonad.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Valero, Y. (Yulema); Djamal, M.; Chaves-Pozo, E. (Elena); Arizcun-Arizcun, M. (Marta); Meseguer, J. (José); Esteban, M.A. (María Ángeles); Oumouna, M. (Mustapha); Cuesta, A. (Alberto);
    Publisher: Centro Oceanográfico de Murcia
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gana, E.S.; Oyero, J.O.; Yisa, T.A.; Adeniji, A.A.;
    Publisher: FISON

    Bacteria has been implicated in food poisoning, and smoked fish is not an exception.Generally, fish is highly susceptible to spoilage; therefore this study evaluated the bacteria load in smoked fish from three major locations in Shiroro area of Niger State namely; Gwada, Kuta and Zumba.The smoked fish samples collected from these locations were smeared at both the gills and head regions of the fishes. The bacteria samples identified were Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Samonella typhi, which were common to all the three locations sampled, while only Streptococcus feacaliswas only was found to be present in both Kuta and Zumba location.The frequency of occurrence of these 68 bacteria samples isolated ranges from 8 - 20%, with Bacillius subtilis having the highest occurrence and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have the least occurrence. Out of the total 68 samples, 14 skin samples (20.6%) and 5 gills samples (7.4%) exceeded the acceptable limits of total mesophilic aerobic counts which were 106 - 107 cfu/g. In the case of total coliform counts, 12 skin samples (17.6%) and 7 gills samples (10.3%) exceeded the acceptable limit which is 4.0 x 102, while in the case of Staphylococcus aureus, 4 skin samples (5.9%) and 2 gills samples (2.9%) exceeded the acceptable limit which is 103 cfu/g. Similarly 3 skin samples (4.4%) and 1 gill sample (1.5%) exceeded the acceptable limit of Salmonella typhi which is 104 cfu/g. Includes: 4 tables.;Also includes: 21 references.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Jacques, Caroline;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    La consommation de poisson et de mammifères marins représente une source importante d’acides gras oméga-3 connus pour leurs effets bénéfiques sur le développement des fonctions cérébrales et notamment, sur le développement du système visuel. Afin de tester l’hypothèse selon laquelle l’exposition prénatale aux acides gras oméga-3 a des effets bénéfiques à long terme, nous avons examiné les fonctions visuelles chez des enfants Inuits d’âge scolaire exposés à de grandes quantités d’oméga-3 durant la période de gestation. Des enfants Inuits (n = 136; moyenne d’âge = 11.3 ans) du nord du Québec (Nunavik) ont participé à cette étude. Un protocole de potentiels évoqués visuels (PEVs) utilisant des stimuli en couleur et en mouvement a été employé afin d’appréhender les réponses parvo- et magnocellulaires respectivement. Les concentrations d’acide docosahexaénoïque (ADH) ont été mesurées à la naissance à partir du sang de cordon ombilical et au moment du testing, reflétant ainsi les expositions pré- et post-natales. Les relations entre les niveaux sanguins d’ADH et les PEVs ont été examinées à l’aide d’analyses de régression multiples, en tenant compte des contaminants environnementaux et d’autres variables potentiellement confondantes. Aucune association significative n’a été trouvée en ce qui concerne les stimuli de mouvement. Cependant, après ajustement pour les covariables, les concentrations d’ADH à la naissance étaient associées à une latence plus courte des composantes N1 et P1 des PEVs couleur. Notre étude démontre, pour la première fois, des effets bénéfiques de l’exposition prénatale à l’ADH sur le système parvocellulaire à l’âge scolaire. Fish and sea mammals consumption is an important source of omega-3 fatty acids, known for their beneficial effects on human brain development. Several lines of evidence indicate that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial especially for the development of the visual system. However, the long-term effect of prenatal exposure to omega-3 fatty acids on human visual development is unknown. This question was addressed using visual evoked potentials (PEVs) to study a cohort of school-age Inuit children (n = 136; mean age = 11.3 years old) from Arctic Quebec (Nunavik) who received high levels of omega-3 intake during gestation. PEV protocols using color and motion-onset stimuli were used to assess the parvocellular and magnocellular responses, respectively. Concentrations of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA were measured at birth in the umbilical cord and at the time of testing, reflecting pre- and post-natal exposure, respectively. Relations between omega-3 and VEPs were assessed by multivariate regression analyses, taking into account environmental contaminants and other potential confounding variables. No significant associations were found with motion-onset VEPs. However, after adjustment for covariables, cord blood concentrations of DHA were associated with a shorter latency of the N1 and P1 components of the color VEPs. Our study suggests beneficial effects of DHA on the visual parvocellular system at school age. This is the first study supporting the longlasting beneficial effects of prenatal exposure to DHA.