The documents in these folders represent part of the qualitative data collection documentation. Research has been performed in Flanders (Belgium) in 2016 and 2017. Involved stakehodlers were flemish sugar beet farmers, processors as well as other value chain members. Though, the main stakeholders involved were farmers. The raw data cannot be published. Anonymized interview transcripts and focus group transcripts exist. However, as indicated in the informed consent, farmers did not agree to the raw data being published. The codes that resulted from data analysis are in this folder. Interview questions differed slightly from farmer to farmer as follow up questions may have been posed if needed. First interviews were performed, then focus groups were conducted and finally a workshop was organized. The qualitative reserach followed the research strategy and plan determined by the SUFISA project. On the project webpage (https://www.sufisa.eu/) more information can be found.
Ten innovative EU projects to build ocean observation systems that provide input for evidence-based management of the ocean and the Blue Economy, have joined forces in the strong cluster ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge’. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group published a joint policy brief listing recommendations for sustainable ocean observation and management. The cooperation is supported by the EU Horizon Results Booster and enables the group to achieve a higher societal impact. The policy brief will be presented to the European Commission on 15 October 2021. The ocean covers 70% of the Earth’s surface and provides us with a diverse set of ecosystem services that we cannot live without or that significantly improve our quality of life. It is the primary controller of our climate, plays a critical role in providing the air we breathe and the fresh water we drink, supplies us with a large range of exploitable resources (from inorganic resources such as sand and minerals to biotic resources such as seafood), allows us to generate renewable energy, is an important pathway for world transport, an important source of income for tourism, etc. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) evaluates the Blue Economy to currently represent 2.5% of the world economic value of goods and services produced, with the potential to further double in size by 2030 (seabed mining, shipping, fishing, tourism, renewable energy systems and aquaculture will intensify). However, the overall consequences of the intensification of human activities on marine ecosystems and their services (such as ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, sea level rise, changing distribution and abundance of fish etc.) are still poorly quantified. In addition, on larger geographic and temporal scales, marine data currently appear fragmented, are inhomogeneous, contain data gaps and are difficult to access. This limits our capacity to understand the ocean variability and sustainably manage the ocean and its resources. Consequently, there is a need to develop a framework for more in-depth understanding of marine ecosystems, that links reliable, timely and fit-for-purpose ocean observations to the design and implementation of evidence-based decisions on the management of the ocean. To adequately serve governments, societies, the sustainable Blue Economy and citizens, ocean data need to be collected and delivered in line with the Value Chain of Ocean Information: 1) identification of required data; 2) deployment and maintenance of instruments that collect the data; 3) delivery of data and derived information products; and 4) impact assessment of services to end users. To provide input to the possible future establishment of such a framework, ten innovative EU projects to build user-focused, interdisciplinary, responsive and sustained ocean information systems and increase the sustainability of the Blue Economy, joined forces in a strong cluster to better address key global marine challenges. Under the lead of the EuroSea project, the group translated its common concerns to recommendations and listed these in the joint policy brief ‘Nourishing Blue Economy and Sharing Ocean Knowledge. Ocean Information for Sustainable Management.’. Following up on these recommendations will strengthen the entire Value Chain of Ocean Information and ensure sound sustainable ocean management. In this way, the 10 projects jointly strive to achieve goals set out in the EU Green Deal, the Paris Agreement (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and the United Nations 2021-2030 Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Ocean Development. Toste Tanhua (GEOMAR), EuroSea coordinator: “It was great to collaborate with these other innovative projects and make joint recommendations based on different perspectives and expertise.”
Project: EC | MEDSEA (265103), UKRI | NSFGEO-NERC An unexpected... (NE/N011708/1), MZOS | Mechanism of long-term ch... (098-0982705-2731), EC | SEACELLS (670390), UKRI | GW4+ - a consortium of ex... (NE/L002434/1)
Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.
Memoria de tesis doctoral presentada por Daniel Gómez Gras para obtener el título de Doctor en Ecología, Ciencias Ambientales y Fisiología Vegetal por la Universitat de Barcelona (UB), realizada bajo la dirección del Dr. Joaquim Garrabou Vancells del Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC) y de la Dra. Cristina Linares Prats de la Universitat de Barcelona (UB).-- 316 pages, appendix [EN] Climate change has emerged as one of the greatest and most pervasive threats that our natural heritage will have to face in the coming decades. Together with other anthropogenic pressures such as pollution, overfishing or habitat degradation, climate change is causing enormous impacts on oceans, affecting all kind of marine communities and driving major losses to biodiversity. In this framework of global change, the Mediterranean Sea, which has been identified as one of the major hotspots of marine biodiversity, has also become a hotspot of climate change. Consequently, some of its most emblematic and ecologically important communities are now under threat. This is the case of the coralligenous assemblages, which are temperate benthic communities which stand out for their great structural complexity and exceptional biodiversity (they harbour approximately 10% of Mediterranean species). Most of the constituent species of these communities exhibit high longevity and slow population dynamics. Consequently, they are especially vulnerable to disturbances that increase adults mortality. In fact, thermal anomalies linked to ocean warming have impacted the coralligenous assemblages in several ways during last decades, triggering changes that go from the observed mass mortalities of benthic organisms to potential changes at the community and ecosystem levels. However, despite the increasing interest of the scientific community to conserve the coralligenous, how these benthic communities are responding to climate change at the community level is poorly understood. [...] [ES] El cambio climático es uno de los principales problemas que la conservación de nuestro valioso patrimonio natural deberá afrontar en los próximos años. Junto con otras presiones antropogénicas tales como la contaminación, la sobrepesca y la degradación de hábitats, el cambio climático está causando un gran impacto en los océanos de todo el mundo, afectando a las comunidades marinas que los habitan y conduciendo a pérdidas en términos de biodiversidad. En este marco de cambio global, el mar Mediterráneo, identificado como uno de los principales puntos calientes de biodiversidad marina de nuestro planeta, se ha convertido también en un punto caliente de cambio climático. Como consecuencia, algunas de sus comunidades más emblemáticas e importantes desde un punto de vista ecológico se están viendo gravemente amenazadas. Éste es el caso del coralígeno, un hábitat de gran belleza del paisaje submarino mediterráneo que destaca por su gran complejidad estructural y su riqueza en especies (alberga aproximadamente un 10% de las especies mediterráneas). La mayoría de especies que integran el coralígeno presentan un carácter longevo y una dinámica poblacional lenta. Como consecuencia, se trata de un hábitat especialmente sensible a las perturbaciones que incrementan la mortalidad en adultos. De hecho, en las últimas décadas, las anomalías térmicas relacionadas con el calentamiento del mar están dando lugar a alteraciones en el coralígeno que podrían ir desde las ya observadas mortalidades en masa de organismos bentónicos o los cambios poblacionales, hasta posibles alteraciones a nivel de comunidad o de ecosistema. Sin embargo, pese al creciente interés por parte de la comunidad científica en la conservación del coralígenoen las últimas décadas, sigue siendo muy poca la información disponible acerca de cómo las alteraciones observadas a niveles inferiores de organización biológica podrían desencadenar cambios a niveles de organización superior. Esto es, a niveles de comunidad o ecosistema. [...] For the completion of this PhD thesis, I have been supported by a postgraduate scholarship (FPU) from the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (FPU/ FPU15/05457). Moreover, the work presented in this thesis has been funded by the HEATMED (RTI2018-095346-B-I00, MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE), FutureMARES and MERCES (European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreements 689518 and SEP-210597628 respectively) projects. Finally, the work presented in this thesis has also been partially funded by other additional research projects which are listed in the acknowledgement section of each specific Chapter. In addition, I have been awarded two grants for short-term internships in two international research institutions (EEBB-FPU-2018) and EEBB-FPU-2019) Peer reviewed
2 pages.-- Reply to: Ecological variables for deep-ocean monitoring must include microbiota and meiofauna for effective conservation, J. Ingels et al. Nature Ecology & Evolution 5: 27-29 (2021), doi: 10.1038/s41559-020-01335-6 Meiofauna and microbes are key components of deep-sea ecosystem assessments and were included among the list of essential variables in our recent comprehensive assessment and prioritization of a global deep-ocean monitoring and conservation strategy1. Meiofauna ranked in the top three variables, whereas microbes (bacteria, and archaea) were reported as key variables for some aspects of monitoring the deep sea. However, larger components of the deep-sea fauna (such as macro- and megafauna) received the highest priority. In their Matters Arising, Ingels and co-workers2 criticized the ranking because, in their opinion, macro- and megafaunal components cannot be considered higher-priority variables than microbes and meiofauna. They concluded that this result reflects an unequal distribution of the competence of the authors and of the respondents to the elicitation survey. However, their criticisms are unjustified for conceptual, methodological and operational reasons. On semantic and theoretical grounds, Ingels et al. confused the concept of priority with that of relevance/importance. Ingels et al. seem also to confound the concept of monitoring and protecting with the importance of research for advancing scientific knowledge; these are two partly related, but distinct, objectives. Indeed, recognizing the ecological importance of one biological component is one thing, but identifying the monitoring variables where capacity to deliver for conservation management globally is well established, is quite another. We cannot apply the same monitoring and conservation approach to all biological components because small organisms, such as prokaryotes, protists and meiofauna encompass massive numbers of undescribed species with largely unknown ecologies3,4 and shorter turnover times, which may make them more resilient to disturbance than larger biota. Even an ocean completely depleted of large fauna, for example, sharks and all predators, would remain flush with meiofauna and microbes. Yet, a deep-sea system with abundant meiofauna and prokaryotes would almost certainly function poorly without higher trophic levels. This well-known ecological principle is certainly one of the reasons there was a wide consensus among the 112 experts (including the microbiologists and meiofauna experts who participated in the expert elicitation) on censusing larger species to protect vulnerable habitats they inhabit or create. The much more limited evidence for microbial and meiofaunal endemicity, the great proportion of unidentified species and the lack of life-history information, greatly compromise any proposal to use these components as proxies for monitoring and mapping conservation areas. Thus, the results of the expert elicitation, on the one hand, reflect the maturity of the disciplines and the capability to deliver indicator information and, on the other hand, recognize the role of larger organisms in current conservation priorities, while acknowledging fundamental roles of all groups. Another important aspect overlooked by Ingels et al. is that deep-sea biodiversity was only one of the five main research areas addressed by the study. In the second research area we considered, which was dedicated to ecosystem functions, benthic faunal biomass and benthic faunal production were ranked as top variables (see table 1 in Danovaro et al.1). Because meiofauna and microbes typically dominate benthic faunal biomass at abyssal depths5,6, we took care to emphasize the functional role of microbial components: “microbes (primarily bacteria followed by archaea) largely dominate overall biomass and production. These microscopic components, essential for deep-sea ecosystem functions … we stress microbial heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic C production as two essential ecological variables needed for understanding the key processes sustaining the functioning of deep-sea food webs and biogeochemical cycles”. We also strongly disagree with the methodological criticisms of Ingels et al. As scientists, we endeavour to remove all potential sources of bias in the framework of standard good practices for data evaluation. Our study is based on expert elicitation, which is a procedure to find consensus on priorities, not an experiment with treatments and controls; thus, standard deviations cannot be treated as in ecological experimental designs. Our Perspective describes how we endeavoured to achieve an objective methodology (that is, coverage of different research fields and knowledge for each of the five main themes, scientists covered a broad range of geographic regions, different taxonomic expertise, academic qualifications and years of experience). These aspects, including statistical treatment, were discussed in detail using multiple rounds of enquiries, following rigorous procedures7, and were presented transparently in the supplementary information of our paper1. To our knowledge, the 112 scientists participating in this elicitation make this study the widest deep-sea community ever to participate in defining priorities based on standardized questions. Ingels et al. assumed that microbial and meiofaunal components were not prioritized because most of the respondents were macrofaunal or megafaunal experts. However, this is not evident in our data, because a large fraction of respondents covered multiple fields of expertise (note that the supplementary information1 reported only one main topic per scientist). Their criticism suggests that deep-sea scientists are divided into two groups: micro- meiofaunal experts competing against macro- megafaunal experts, fighting to prioritize their own work, rather than a community working together towards a common objective. Obtaining expert opinions for comprehensive deep-sea management, as we did, requires the involvement of scientists working in different sectors (such as deep-sea technologies, conservation biology, biological oceanography, biogeochemistry, policy and management), thus participants cannot simply be classified as experts by faunal size category. The fact that many scientists, in responding to the questionnaire, did not automatically prioritize their own research specialty for deep-ocean monitoring, conservation and impact assessment suggests that this is a false and non-productive dichotomy. Accordingly, we reaffirm that the expert elicitation reported in Danovaro et al.1 is robust, accurate and balanced, and simply reflects the prioritization of the groups of organisms/habitats and associated variables to monitor in light of anthropogenic impacts, conservation needs and currently available technology, feasibility and knowledge. In operational terms, environmental monitoring, especially in the deep sea, requires ready-to-use technologies and methods that are employable, which greatly influences the choice of monitoring priorities and rankings of the consulted experts. Our paper innovatively coupled this need with the readiness levels of the described technologies. We agree that the scientific community should do more to document the importance of small organisms, to establish and disseminate the best standardized practices for collecting such observations and to increase our knowledge of undescribed species and their ecological roles to use them more effectively in future monitoring plans, particularly in light of the ongoing effects of global change8,9,10. At the same time, no marine protected area (in both shallow waters and in the open ocean) or other conservation initiative anywhere targets the loss of meiofaunal or microbial diversity. The reference to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD 2008/56/EC), designed to address the Good Environmental Status of marine ecosystems (including the deep sea), does not support the position of Ingels et al.2 as the analysis of deep-sea biodiversity in the MSFD is, at present, limited to species of commercial interest and deep-water corals. None of the European directives prioritize meiofauna or microbes. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, there is no single ongoing, nor planned, monitoring strategy of a national agency based on or prioritizing microbial or meiofaunal diversity in their standard protocols. Given the current limitation in the use of high-throughput sequencing (for example, for the identification of meiofauna3), further efforts are thus necessary to better integrate microbes and meiofauna in future monitoring and conservation programmes. To do this, the global deep-sea community must encourage joint efforts, share common goals and use standardized tools This work was supported by the H2020 projects MERCES (Grant agreement no. 689518), and IDEM (Grant agreement no. 11.0661/2017/750680/SUB/EN V.C2.), by the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, by the NSERC Canadian Healthy Oceans Network and CFREF Ocean Frontier Institute, by JPI Oceans2 and ONC, by ARIM (MartTERA ERA-Net Cofound), by NSF grant OCE 1634172, by DOOS from the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, by the EMSO-Link EU project (Grant agreement ID: 731036) and by the Faculty of Science RAE Improvement Fund of The University of Hong Kong With the funding support of the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S), of the Spanish Research Agency (AEI)
Other research product . Collection . Other ORP type . 2021
Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Project: EC | MEDSEA (265103)
Three high resolution multicore records from two western Mediterranean Sea regions (Alboran and Balearic basins) have been analyzed for sea surface temperature (SST), coccolithophore and planktic foraminiferal abundance changes. Age-depth models at both sites were developed by a combination of 210Pb and 14C dating techniques, describing high sedimentation rates at both study sites, covering the time interval from the Medieval climate anomaly to present. Alkenone derived SST of core MedSeA-S3-c1 and MedSeA-S23-c3 are in good agreement with other results, tracing temperature changes through the Common Era (CE) and show a clear warming emergence at about 1850 CE. Analysis of relative abundance of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages (coccolithophores) was done on core MedSeA-S3-c1 (150 µm. Both cores show opposite abundance fluctuations of planktic foraminiferal species (Globigerina bulloides, Globorotalia inflata and Globorotalia truncatulinoides). The relative abundance changes of Globorotalia truncatulinoides plus Globorotalia inflata describe the intensity of deep winter mixing in the Balearic basin. In the Alboran Sea, Globigerina bulloides and Globorotalia inflata instead respond to local upwelling dynamics. Our data suggests that planktic foraminiferal abundance and species changes in the western Mediterranean Sea is already affected by accelerated anthropogenic warming, overprinting natural cycles in this region.
Other research product . Collection . Other ORP type . 2021
This dataset presents the fire proxies levoglucosan, black carbon and ammonium measured in the RECAP ice core, in coastal East Greenland. The datasets cover a period of 5000 years and are averaged in 20 years bins. Raw concentrations of levoglucosan, black carbon and ammonium are also provided. Levoglucosan has been determined using high performance liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray ionization – tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS). Black carbon has been measured using a BC analyzer connected to the Continuous Flow Analysis system. Ammonium (NH4+) has been measured by fluorescence within the Continuous Flow Analysis setup.
The common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) is an epipelagic thermophilic species with a worldwide distribution in tropical and subtropical regions that is characterized by its migratory behavior and fast growth rates. This species is targeted by artisanal small-scale and recreational fisheries in most regions where it is found. This paper updates and analyzes the global scientific knowledge on the biology and ecology of this species, which was last revised at a regional level 20 years ago. This review showed an increase in knowledge about the population structure and regional differences in biological traits, in parallel with a notable lack of mechanistic and even empirical knowledge about the ecology of this species, which hampers a good understanding of the population dynamics and the potential impacts of environmental change. This paper also updates the information about the Mediterranean dolphinfish fishery, where the main four countries that exploit this species deploy 30% of fish aggregation devices (FAD) worldwide. The results suggest, among other effects, some temporal synchronicity in landings across countries, potential interannual stock movement affecting inter-country catches, diverging trends in prices and insufficient quality in the estimates of fishing effort. The authors propose a suite of specific measures to ameliorate this lack of knowledge and to better manage this complex living resource. Vicenç Moltó acknowledges a predoctoral grant funded by the Regional Government of the Balearic Islands and the European Social Fund. This work was partially funded by two FAO Projects: CopeMed phase II “Coordination to Support Fisheries Management in the Western and Central Mediterranean” and MedSudMed “Assessment and Monitoring of the Fishery Resources and the Ecosystems in the Straits of Sicily”, both co-funded by the Spanish and the Italian Ministries of Agriculture, Fishery and Food, and by the Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of the European Commission (DG-MARE). The work was partially supported by project CERES (H2020, EU 678193).
Memoria de tesis doctoral presentada por Sarah Paradis Vilar para obtener el título de Doctora en Ciencia y Tecnología Ambientales por la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), realizada bajo la dirección del Dr.Pere Masqué Barri de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) y del Dr. Pere Puir Alenyà del Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC).-- 185 pages, figures, tables, appendixex Bottom trawling fisheries have existed for centuries, mainly occurring on coastal shelf environments. However, the introduction of the steam engine followed by the diesel engine allowed the expansion of bottom trawling grounds to farther and deeper areas. This expansion, together with the general increase in fishing efforts, amplified the impacts associated to this activity at a global scale. Bottom trawling is now considered one of the most harmful anthropogenic activities in the marine environment given its widespread occurrence, high frequency, and intensity. Since bottom trawling gear are in continuous contact with the seafloor, it can modify seabed morphology by erasing natural sedimentary structures and by leaving behind trawl marks. Bottom trawling gear can also resuspend large volumes of sediment, which can be advected from trawling grounds, eroding the seafloor and altering sediment properties. With the global expansion of bottom trawling to deeper fishing grounds since the mid-XXst century, it is expected that the impacts caused by this activity will be intensified, but studies assessing them are still scarce. This dissertation aims to investigate the combined physical and biogeochemical impacts that deep bottom trawling exerts in different areas of the western Mediterranean basin. This PhD thesis was initially inspired by the results of precedent studies conducted in Palamós (also known as La Fonera) Canyon in the NW Mediterranean, where it was observed that bottom trawling erodes the seafloor and mobilizes large amounts of sediment down-canyon, increasing sedimentation rates in its axis. Prior to this thesis, studies were limited to that specific submarine canyon, but whether these impacts were also present in other trawled submarine canyons, and to which degree their fishing grounds were affected, was still unknown. Moreover, the effects of these alterations in sediment biogeochemistry had not been addressed in detail This PhD thesis was funded by the fellowship Formación de Personal Universitario (FPU, ref. 5600237) granted by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte from October 2015 to November 2019. The results included in this thesis were collected within the framework of the following projects: - Formas de fondo y su dinámica actual en el margen continental mediterráneo español (FORMED). 2013-2015. Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (CGL2012-33989). - Hotspot Ecosystem Research and Man's Impact on European seas (HERMIONE). 2009-2012. European Commission FP7(GA 226354). - Exploring Sicilian Canyon Dynamics (ISLAND). 2016. European Commission (EUROFLEETS2 grant no. 312762). - Assessment of Bottom-trawling Impacts in Deep-sea Sediments (ABIDES). 2016-2018. Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (CTM 2015-65142-R). - Assessment of Bottom-trawling Resuspension Impacts in deep benthic Communities (ABRIC). 2019-2021. Ministerio de Ciencia, Investigación y Universidades (RTI2018-096434-B-100). Funding was also provided by the Consolidated Research groups Marine and environmental biogeosciences research group (2017 SGR-1588) and Grup de Processos Litorals i Oceànics (2017 SGR-863), awarded by Generalitat de Catalunya