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134 Research products

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Paul Myers;

    Animation of the thickness of Pacific Water throughout the upper 150 m of Baffin Bay, in metres, based upon a passive tracer included with a 1/12 degree NEMO model simulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic (ANHA12-EXH006).

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Education and Resear...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Burkard, Annika;

    This thesis analyzes the flight across the sea in the context of the refugee crisis in 2015/ 2016 in German film and literature. The works chosen are Wolfgang Fischer’s film Styx from 2018, Reinhard Kleist’s graphic novel Der Traum von Olympia (An Olympic Dream) from 2015, and Merle Kröger’s crime novel Havarie (Collision) from 2015. Common motives in the works are the depiction of Europe as a paradise from the refugee’s perspective and the contrast between vacationing and bare survival. However, each author/director based their unique narrative method not only on the medium and genre of delivery but also on choices of narrative perspective. This thesis examines the differences in the narrative methods and gives special attention to the emotional, cognitive, ethical, and political steerings of the recipients. In all works, the steering of the recipients is linked to political topics such as the concepts of agency, solidarity, human rights, and precarity. Furthermore, this thesis examines the depiction of Europe, its responsibilities, and the traces of colonialism as projected in film and literature. At the end of the thesis, I reflect on the representation of the sea, which becomes a political place, a dangerous border region or a resort for vacation in the works.

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    Authors: Vigneron, Adrien; Cruaud, Perrine; Lovejoy, Connie; Vincent, Warwick F.;

    Background: Cyanobacteria and eukaryotic phytoplankton produce long-chain alkanes and generate around 100 times greater quantities of hydrocarbons in the ocean compared to natural seeps and anthropogenic sources. Yet, these compounds do not accumulate in the water column, suggesting rapid biodegradation by co-localized microbial populations. Despite their ecological importance, the identities of microbes involved in this cryptic hydrocarbon cycle are mostly unknown. Here, we identifed genes encoding enzymes involved in the hydrocarbon cycle across the salinity gradient of a remote, vertically stratifed, seawater-containing High Arctic lake that is isolated from anthropogenic petroleum sources and natural seeps. Metagenomic analysis revealed diverse hydrocarbon cycling genes and populations, with patterns of variation along gradients of light, salinity, oxygen, and sulfur that are relevant to freshwater, oceanic, hadal, and anoxic deep sea ecosystems. Results Analyzing genes and metagenome-assembled genomes down the water column of Lake A in the Canadian High Arctic, we detected microbial hydrocarbon production and degradation pathways at all depths, from surface freshwaters to dark, saline, anoxic waters. In addition to Cyanobacteria, members of the phyla Flavobacteria, Nitrospina, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia had pathways for alkane and alkene production, providing additional sources of biogenic hydrocarbons. Known oil-degrading microorganisms were poorly represented in the system, while long-chain hydrocarbon degradation genes were identifed in various freshwater and marine lineages such as Actinobacteria, Schleiferiaceae, and Marinimicrobia. Genes involved in sulfur and nitrogen compound transformations were abundant in hydrocarbon producing and degrading lineages, suggesting strong interconnections with nitrogen and sulfur cycles and a potential for widespread distribution in the ocean. Conclusions Our detailed metagenomic analyses across water column gradients in a remote petroleum-free lake derived from the Arctic Ocean suggest that the current estimation of bacterial hydrocarbon production in the ocean could be substantially underestimated by neglecting non-phototrophic production and by not taking low oxygen zones into account. Our fndings also suggest that biogenic hydrocarbons may sustain a large fraction of freshwater and oceanic microbiomes, with global biogeochemical implications for carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles.

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    CorpusUL
    Other ORP type . 2023
    Data sources: CorpusUL
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Luostarinen, Tiia; Weckström, Kaarina; Ehn, Jens K; Kamula, Michelle; +6 Authors

    Datasets collected during a field campaign in the Belcher Islands Archipelago, Hudson Bay, Canada, during spring and summer 2019 including sea ice, water column, sediment trap and surface sediment samples that were analysed for diatoms, dinoflagellate cysts, highly branched isoprenoid lipids, pigments and geochemistry. The sea ice samples were collected using a Kovacs Mark II core barrel with an internal diameter of 9 cm, and the bottom 5 cm of the sea-ice cores were used for analysis on each sampling day. The water sampling was conducted using a plankton net (Ø 18 cm, 10 µm, 30-m net haul; diatoms) and a 2,5 L Kemmerer water sampler (pooled sample from 2.5-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25- and 30-metre depths; highly branched isoprenoid lipids). For sediment trap samples, an automated Gurney Instruments Baker-style, cylindrical sediment trap (aperture 0.032 m2) was deployed at 40-m depth, 30-m above the seafloor and the rotation for the trap was set to 8-day intervals. The surface sediment sample was collected using a Kajak-Brinkhurst gravity corer. The under-ice salinities and temperatures were measured by using with RBR Concerto® and CastAway-CTD® sensors.

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    Authors: Rodriguez-Cuicas, Maria-Emilia; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; St-Onge, Guillaume; Normandeau, Alexandre;

    Two composite sedimentary sequences (AMD2019-804-12CS and AMD1803-02CS) sampled in Coronation Fjord (Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada) were investigated. These sequences were collected onboard the Canadian Coast Guard Ship icebreaker Amundsen during the 2018 and 2019 ArcticNet expedition to reconstruct long-term changes in sediment transfers from the Penny Ice Cap (PIC) during the late Holocene. Grain size datasets comprising the complete data of sediment grain size analyses (2 mm fraction on the X-CT scan images of the core in contiguous 2 cm windows.

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    Authors: Rabe, Benjamin; Cox, Christopher J; Fang, Ying-Chih; Goessling, Helge; +46 Authors

    This bibliography unites the individual data collected by different types of autonomous platforms deployed during MOSAiC in 2019/2020.

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    Authors: Prijac, Antonin;

    The data set present high-frequency data (1h-step) collected at the outlet of a 3 km length stream which flows through a boreal headwater catchment of 2.22 kilometer square and covered at 76% by an ombrotrophic dome-shaped peatland. The data set covered a period from June 2018 to May 2020. The measured parameters included physico-chemical parameters measured by an EXO2 multiparameter probe (YSI, USA) installed in the stream, at the outlet of the catchment. This multiparameter probe measured among other parameters (e.g., water temperature, pH, specific conductivity and dissolved oxygen saturation) the fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) which was used as a proxy of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a calibration was performed in order to determined the relashionship f(fDOM) = DOC. A hidden markov model was applied to this data set to decompose times series into low flow and high flow conditions. This was used to calculate specific DOC exports during those periods. Specific flood periods were isolated and specific indices were calculated for those periods. In addition, the stream discharge was mesured at the same site using a ultrasonic distance sensor (SR50, Campbell, USA) [from June 2018 to May 2019] and a water-level logger (U201-04, Hobo, Onset, USA) [from June 2019 to May 2020]. In the peatland area, the water table depth and the porewater temperature were measured hourly using a U20-001-04 water level logger (Hobo, Onset, USA) [2018] and a a U20l-04 water level logger (Hobo, Onset, USA) [2019] and the precipitation and air temperature were measured using a a tilting bucket rain gauge (Onset, 0.2 mm).

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    Authors: Dearnley, Jamie;

    Knowledge gaps pertaining to the remediation of freshwater lakes impacted by oil spills have persisted despite recent record highs for oil production and transportation across vulnerable regions in North America. The multiyear Freshwater Oil Spill Remediation Study (FOReSt), conducted at the IISD-Experimental Lakes Area in Canada, is focusing on the efficacy of minimally invasive methods for remediating oil spills in freshwater boreal lakes. In this thesis, the impacts and remediation of diluted bitumen (dilbit) and conventional heavy crude oil (CHV) spills were investigated (year 1), as were a variety of different remediation methods for spills of dilbit on different shoreline substrates (year 2). Two common small-bodied fish, fathead minnows (Promephales promelas) and finescale dace (Chrosomus neogaeus), were used to assess exposure to petrogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in model enclosed shoreline ecosystems impacted by spills and remediated using minimally invasive techniques. Short-term exposure to PACs, the most toxicologically relevant compounds in oil, was assessed in fish using biliary metabolite concentrations. In year one, finescale dace and fathead minnows residing in oil treated enclosures each had biliary pyrene metabolite concentrations that were positively correlated with pyrene concentrations in the water of the enclosures. Three months after the initial spills, fish in the enclosure receiving dilbit were significantly more exposed to PACs than fish in reference enclosures that did not receive oil. In year two, both finescale dace and fathead minnows residing in oil-treated exposures, regardless of shoreline substrate, showed increased exposure to PACs compared to fish in reference enclosures and the pristine lake environment two and a half months after the spills. No significant differences in exposure were observed among the remediation treatments. Biliary PAC metabolite concentrations were positively predicted by parent PAC concentrations in periphyton. PACs in periphyton two and a half months after oil introduction were positively correlated with PACs in the enclosures one week after spills, suggesting fish also had increased exposure to periphyton-bound alkyl-PACs. This thesis validates the use of small-bodied fish in assessing PAC exposure following freshwater oil spills and demonstrates the difficulties in estimating exposure using environmental concentrations in natural systems.

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    Authors: Yoon, Gwangseok;

    The environment during early life history strongly impacts phenotypic development in all organisms, which further influences developmental trajectory and ecological fitness later in life. Depending on the developmental stage and magnitude of change in the environment, phenotypes may become irreversible and thus have a long-lasting effect later in life. This thesis was designed to better understand how changes in the environment may influence plasticity and variation of metabolic phenotypes of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the first year of life. Broadly speaking, the thesis tested two hypotheses that 1) all measured phenotypes would be plastic; and 2) durations of environmental effects on phenotypic development would be correlated with distinct developmental windows. Studies were developed to examine 1) short-term effects of temperature or diet on metabolic phenotypes such as metabolic rate, energy density, fatty acid profiles, and growth (Chapters 2 and 3) and 2) longer-term effects of temperature or diet during early life on these metabolic phenotypes (Chapters 4, 5 and 6). The first experimental chapter (Chapter 2) examined ontogenetic development of metabolic rate and demonstrated that dietary shifts between Artemia to bloodworm resulted in cessation of growth with elevated routine metabolic rate. Chapter 3 examined how fatty acid profiles and plasma cortisol concentration were influenced by environmental temperature and showed that decreasing temperature led to increases in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in both phospholipids and triglycerides, and food deprivation resulted in lack of difference between baseline and peak cortisol concentrations. Chapter 4 examined how temperature during early life influenced plasticity of growth and showed that temperature post-dietary transition resulted in a transient effect on growth and energy metabolism without long-term effects post-winter. Chapter 5 examined how temperature during early life could influence growth and fatty acid metabolism when fish were exposed to colder temperatures later in life and demonstrated that elevated temperatures resulted in a longer-term effect on growth but lack of transcriptional responses of desaturating fatty acids when exposed to a cold temperature (3.5°C) later in life. The final experimental chapter, Chapter 6 examined longer-term effects of diet at the onset of exogenous feeding on metabolism and growth and demonstrated that an enriched diet resulted in prolonged effects on growth, digestive enzyme activity and survival prior to a simulated overwintering. This doctoral thesis research revealed that all measured metabolic phenotypes were plastic, but subtle changes in temperature and diet during early life history resulted in transient or prolonged effects on growth and metabolism in age-0 lake sturgeon. Results will aid our understanding of cohort and population dynamics as well as contribute to the development of conservation strategies for lake sturgeon, a species at risk or endangered across its natural range.

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    Authors: Sandell, Linnea; Sharp, Nathaniel;

    Predicting fitness in natural populations is a major challenge in biology. It may be possible to leverage fast-accumulating genomic datasets to infer the fitness effects of mutant alleles, allowing evolutionary questions to be addressed in any organism. In this paper, we investigate the utility of one such tool, called PROVEAN. This program compares a query sequence with existing data to provide an alignment-based score for any protein variant, with scores categorized as neutral or deleterious based on a preset threshold. PROVEAN has been used widely in evolutionary studies, e.g., to estimate mutation load in natural populations, but has not been formally tested as a predictor of aggregate mutational effects on fitness. Using three large, published datasets on the genome sequences of laboratory mutation accumulation lines, we assessed how well PROVEAN predicted the actual fitness patterns observed, relative to other metrics. In most cases, we find that a simple count of the total number of mutant proteins is a better predictor of fitness than the number of variants scored as deleterious by PROVEAN. We also find that the sum of all mutant protein scores explains variation in fitness better than the number of mutant proteins in one of the datasets. We discuss the implications of these results for studies of populations in the wild.

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134 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Paul Myers;

    Animation of the thickness of Pacific Water throughout the upper 150 m of Baffin Bay, in metres, based upon a passive tracer included with a 1/12 degree NEMO model simulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic (ANHA12-EXH006).

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    Authors: Burkard, Annika;

    This thesis analyzes the flight across the sea in the context of the refugee crisis in 2015/ 2016 in German film and literature. The works chosen are Wolfgang Fischer’s film Styx from 2018, Reinhard Kleist’s graphic novel Der Traum von Olympia (An Olympic Dream) from 2015, and Merle Kröger’s crime novel Havarie (Collision) from 2015. Common motives in the works are the depiction of Europe as a paradise from the refugee’s perspective and the contrast between vacationing and bare survival. However, each author/director based their unique narrative method not only on the medium and genre of delivery but also on choices of narrative perspective. This thesis examines the differences in the narrative methods and gives special attention to the emotional, cognitive, ethical, and political steerings of the recipients. In all works, the steering of the recipients is linked to political topics such as the concepts of agency, solidarity, human rights, and precarity. Furthermore, this thesis examines the depiction of Europe, its responsibilities, and the traces of colonialism as projected in film and literature. At the end of the thesis, I reflect on the representation of the sea, which becomes a political place, a dangerous border region or a resort for vacation in the works.

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    Authors: Vigneron, Adrien; Cruaud, Perrine; Lovejoy, Connie; Vincent, Warwick F.;

    Background: Cyanobacteria and eukaryotic phytoplankton produce long-chain alkanes and generate around 100 times greater quantities of hydrocarbons in the ocean compared to natural seeps and anthropogenic sources. Yet, these compounds do not accumulate in the water column, suggesting rapid biodegradation by co-localized microbial populations. Despite their ecological importance, the identities of microbes involved in this cryptic hydrocarbon cycle are mostly unknown. Here, we identifed genes encoding enzymes involved in the hydrocarbon cycle across the salinity gradient of a remote, vertically stratifed, seawater-containing High Arctic lake that is isolated from anthropogenic petroleum sources and natural seeps. Metagenomic analysis revealed diverse hydrocarbon cycling genes and populations, with patterns of variation along gradients of light, salinity, oxygen, and sulfur that are relevant to freshwater, oceanic, hadal, and anoxic deep sea ecosystems. Results Analyzing genes and metagenome-assembled genomes down the water column of Lake A in the Canadian High Arctic, we detected microbial hydrocarbon production and degradation pathways at all depths, from surface freshwaters to dark, saline, anoxic waters. In addition to Cyanobacteria, members of the phyla Flavobacteria, Nitrospina, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia had pathways for alkane and alkene production, providing additional sources of biogenic hydrocarbons. Known oil-degrading microorganisms were poorly represented in the system, while long-chain hydrocarbon degradation genes were identifed in various freshwater and marine lineages such as Actinobacteria, Schleiferiaceae, and Marinimicrobia. Genes involved in sulfur and nitrogen compound transformations were abundant in hydrocarbon producing and degrading lineages, suggesting strong interconnections with nitrogen and sulfur cycles and a potential for widespread distribution in the ocean. Conclusions Our detailed metagenomic analyses across water column gradients in a remote petroleum-free lake derived from the Arctic Ocean suggest that the current estimation of bacterial hydrocarbon production in the ocean could be substantially underestimated by neglecting non-phototrophic production and by not taking low oxygen zones into account. Our fndings also suggest that biogenic hydrocarbons may sustain a large fraction of freshwater and oceanic microbiomes, with global biogeochemical implications for carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles.

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    Authors: Luostarinen, Tiia; Weckström, Kaarina; Ehn, Jens K; Kamula, Michelle; +6 Authors

    Datasets collected during a field campaign in the Belcher Islands Archipelago, Hudson Bay, Canada, during spring and summer 2019 including sea ice, water column, sediment trap and surface sediment samples that were analysed for diatoms, dinoflagellate cysts, highly branched isoprenoid lipids, pigments and geochemistry. The sea ice samples were collected using a Kovacs Mark II core barrel with an internal diameter of 9 cm, and the bottom 5 cm of the sea-ice cores were used for analysis on each sampling day. The water sampling was conducted using a plankton net (Ø 18 cm, 10 µm, 30-m net haul; diatoms) and a 2,5 L Kemmerer water sampler (pooled sample from 2.5-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25- and 30-metre depths; highly branched isoprenoid lipids). For sediment trap samples, an automated Gurney Instruments Baker-style, cylindrical sediment trap (aperture 0.032 m2) was deployed at 40-m depth, 30-m above the seafloor and the rotation for the trap was set to 8-day intervals. The surface sediment sample was collected using a Kajak-Brinkhurst gravity corer. The under-ice salinities and temperatures were measured by using with RBR Concerto® and CastAway-CTD® sensors.

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    Authors: Rodriguez-Cuicas, Maria-Emilia; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; St-Onge, Guillaume; Normandeau, Alexandre;

    Two composite sedimentary sequences (AMD2019-804-12CS and AMD1803-02CS) sampled in Coronation Fjord (Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada) were investigated. These sequences were collected onboard the Canadian Coast Guard Ship icebreaker Amundsen during the 2018 and 2019 ArcticNet expedition to reconstruct long-term changes in sediment transfers from the Penny Ice Cap (PIC) during the late Holocene. Grain size datasets comprising the complete data of sediment grain size analyses (2 mm fraction on the X-CT scan images of the core in contiguous 2 cm windows.

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    Authors: Rabe, Benjamin; Cox, Christopher J; Fang, Ying-Chih; Goessling, Helge; +46 Authors

    This bibliography unites the individual data collected by different types of autonomous platforms deployed during MOSAiC in 2019/2020.

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    Authors: Prijac, Antonin;

    The data set present high-frequency data (1h-step) collected at the outlet of a 3 km length stream which flows through a boreal headwater catchment of 2.22 kilometer square and covered at 76% by an ombrotrophic dome-shaped peatland. The data set covered a period from June 2018 to May 2020. The measured parameters included physico-chemical parameters measured by an EXO2 multiparameter probe (YSI, USA) installed in the stream, at the outlet of the catchment. This multiparameter probe measured among other parameters (e.g., water temperature, pH, specific conductivity and dissolved oxygen saturation) the fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) which was used as a proxy of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a calibration was performed in order to determined the relashionship f(fDOM) = DOC. A hidden markov model was applied to this data set to decompose times series into low flow and high flow conditions. This was used to calculate specific DOC exports during those periods. Specific flood periods were isolated and specific indices were calculated for those periods. In addition, the stream discharge was mesured at the same site using a ultrasonic distance sensor (SR50, Campbell, USA) [from June 2018 to May 2019] and a water-level logger (U201-04, Hobo, Onset, USA) [from June 2019 to May 2020]. In the peatland area, the water table depth and the porewater temperature were measured hourly using a U20-001-04 water level logger (Hobo, Onset, USA) [2018] and a a U20l-04 water level logger (Hobo, Onset, USA) [2019] and the precipitation and air temperature were measured using a a tilting bucket rain gauge (Onset, 0.2 mm).

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Dearnley, Jamie;

    Knowledge gaps pertaining to the remediation of freshwater lakes impacted by oil spills have persisted despite recent record highs for oil production and transportation across vulnerable regions in North America. The multiyear Freshwater Oil Spill Remediation Study (FOReSt), conducted at the IISD-Experimental Lakes Area in Canada, is focusing on the efficacy of minimally invasive methods for remediating oil spills in freshwater boreal lakes. In this thesis, the impacts and remediation of diluted bitumen (dilbit) and conventional heavy crude oil (CHV) spills were investigated (year 1), as were a variety of different remediation methods for spills of dilbit on different shoreline substrates (year 2). Two common small-bodied fish, fathead minnows (Promephales promelas) and finescale dace (Chrosomus neogaeus), were used to assess exposure to petrogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in model enclosed shoreline ecosystems impacted by spills and remediated using minimally invasive techniques. Short-term exposure to PACs, the most toxicologically relevant compounds in oil, was assessed in fish using biliary metabolite concentrations. In year one, finescale dace and fathead minnows residing in oil treated enclosures each had biliary pyrene metabolite concentrations that were positively correlated with pyrene concentrations in the water of the enclosures. Three months after the initial spills, fish in the enclosure receiving dilbit were significantly more exposed to PACs than fish in reference enclosures that did not receive oil. In year two, both finescale dace and fathead minnows residing in oil-treated exposures, regardless of shoreline substrate, showed increased exposure to PACs compared to fish in reference enclosures and the pristine lake environment two and a half months after the spills. No significant differences in exposure were observed among the remediation treatments. Biliary PAC metabolite concentrations were positively predicted by parent PAC concentrations in periphyton. PACs in periphyton two and a half months after oil introduction were positively correlated with PACs in the enclosures one week after spills, suggesting fish also had increased exposure to periphyton-bound alkyl-PACs. This thesis validates the use of small-bodied fish in assessing PAC exposure following freshwater oil spills and demonstrates the difficulties in estimating exposure using environmental concentrations in natural systems.

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