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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jong, Dirk; Bröder, Lisa; Tesi, Tommaso; Tanski, George; +6 Authors

    This study aims to give insight into the processes affecting permafrost organic carbon (OC) during transport from its source to its sink, through a study on three sediment fractions along a land-to-ocean transect. Material was followed from thawing permafrost, through a dynamic 'disturbed zone' and the nearshore zone, to an enclosed basin offshore Herschel Island - Qikiqtaruk, to assess sorting and degradation processes on specific fractions of sediment OC. Sediment, soil and permafrost samples were taken along a transect from the source (undisturbed active layer and permafrost), via two transitional zones (a terrestrial disturbed zone, i.e. the 'scar zone' of the RTS, and the marine nearshore zone up to a water depth of 5 m), to sink (basin sediment, water depth >20 m) at the coast of Herschel Island – Qikiqtaruk and the (semi-enclosed) Herschel Basin in Yukon, Canada, just west of the Mackenzie River delta. Samples were taken in May 2016 and July 2017. Sample material was fractionated with an aqueous (MilliQ) solution of sodium polytungstate (SPT; Na6[H2W12O40]), with a density of 1.8 g cm³, followed by wet-sieving over a 63 µm mesh, thus separating loose OC from mineral-associated OC. Each fraction was analysed for element content (TOC, TN), carbon isotopes (δ¹³C, Δ¹⁴C), molecular biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, lignin phenols, cutin acids), and mineral surface area. The relative abundance of specific biomarkers can also be used as indicator for degradation of organic carbon. Furthermore, the OC 'loading' (concentration of OC normalised to mineral surface area; in mgOC/m²) and terrestrial biomarker loading (µgOC/m²) can be used to assess loss of (permafrost) OC from mineral particles. The combination of these methods allows us to disentangle sorting processes from degradation of OC along the land-to-ocean continuum, and provides a detailed insight into the fate of thawed and eroded permafrost OC.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Guillerm, Emmanuel; Gardien, Véronique; Waldmann, Nicolas D; Brall, Niels S; +5 Authors

    The rain regime in the Eastern Mediterranean is primarily controlled by Mediterranean winter cyclonic systems. The lake level of the Dead Sea responds sensitively to hydrological changes, and can be used to track the evolution of the Mediterranean hydroclimate during the late Quaternary. However, lake level reconstructions beyond 70 ka are limited by a lack of paleoshorelines and dating methodologies. Here, we reconstruct the Dead Sea lake level back to 237 ka using measurements of brine density from halite fluid inclusions of the deep ICDP core 5017-1-A. We combine our mass balance-based reconstruction with an age reevaluation of published sequence stratigraphy-based lake levels, by tying their chronology to the ICDP core. The lake levels obtained with the two different methods compare very well, within better than 10 m. Combined with a compilation of published paleoshorelines for the last 70 ka, our reconstruction covers three glacial-interglacial cycles.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pinho, Tainã Marcos Lima; Chiessi, Cristiano Mazur; Campos, Marília C; Portilho-Ramos, Rodrigo Costa; +9 Authors

    To comprehensively document the δ13C content of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), we used high-resolution thermocline-dwelling foraminiferal δ13C data obtained from three distinct marine sediment cores situated in the NW, SW, and SE regions of the South Atlantic. Our dataset enables a comprehensive examination of millennial-scale variations in SACW δ13C content across the entire basin. Notably, the thermocline δ13C records from the SE and NW sectors of the South Atlantic consistently exhibit concurrent negative excursions during most of the Heinrich Stadials (HS), a pattern that contrasts sharply with the absence of such negative excursions in the thermocline δ13C record from the SW sector of the South Atlantic

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pasquale Pagano; Sara Pittonet; Federico Drago; Maria Giuffrida;

    There are several research infrastructures or other data services running in Europe that cover a multitude of marine-related sciences, providing specific datasets coming from observations collected with different methods. These infrastructures constitute a diverse world, each looking at a piece of the big picture, sometimes hindering collaboration and data sharing. Blue-Cloud aims to overcome fragmentation and build a bridge between thematic science clusters - such as marine, climate, food and agriculture sciences - and EOSC, creating a data federation and providing a common access to a so-called thematic EOSC for marine data. By connecting leading marine data management infrastructures with horizontal e-infrastructures, the project aims to maximise the exploitation of data resources available from different sources. The Blue-Cloud framework consists of two major technical components: (1) a Blue-Cloud Data Discovery and Access service, already presented in a previous EOSC in practice story, to serve federated discovery and access to blue data infrastructures, and (2) a Blue-Cloud Virtual Research Environment (VRE) to provide computing platforms and analytical services facilitating the collaboration between researchers, which is detailed hereafter. The Blue-Cloud VRE is powered by the D4Science Infrastructure. [M. Assante et al. (2019) Enacting open science by D4Science. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 101: 555-563 10.1016/j.future.2019.05.063 ] The full list of EOSC in practice stories is available here

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Matabos, Marjolaine; Gautier, Laurent;

    Momarsat 2022 cruise report: summary of dives and operations, and position of moorings and observation infrastructures and sampling locations

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.5...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
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      https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
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    Authors: Thomas, Carrie L; Jansen, Boris; Czerwiński, Sambor; Gałka, Mariusz; +4 Authors

    The late Holocene development of a raised ombrotrophic peat bog in the Thuringian Forest in Central Germany was investigated using pollen, plant macrofossils, lipid biomarker, elemental, and radiocarbon analyses. In October 2019, a 3.4 m core was recovered from the Beerberg peatland located in the Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve. Radiocarbon dating and a resulting age-depth model indicated that the age of the peatland is ca. 2600 yr BP. The purpose of the study was twofold: establishing a paleovegetation record with a reliable chronology for the Thuringian Forest and comparing the results of the pollen and plant macrofossil analyses to that of the lipid biomarker analysis to determine what additional insight the biomarkers could provide. Along with the counting of pollen and plant macrofossils, the carbon and nitrogen concentrations and their stable isotope values were measured from the bulk samples via elemental analyzer, and the absolute concentrations of n-alkanes, n-alkanols, and n-fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography flame ionization detection. The radiocarbon dates were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Modern plant samples were also collected from the peatland during sampling, separated into leaf, stem, and root tissue as much as was possible, and the absolute concentrations of the n-alkanes, n-alkanols, and n-fatty acids were measured for each plant part.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Yang, Yang; Proud, Roland; Castellón, Arturo; Sabatés, Ana; +2 Authors

    These data consist of both underway and station echosounder observations collected during the 2020 SUMMER (Sustainable Management of Mesopelagic Resources) Mediterranean cruise (30 September 2020 to 18 October 2020) on the RV Sarmiento de Gamboa. Narrowband (18, 38, 70, 120, 200 kHz) underway acoustic data were collected continuously using hull-mounted Simrad EK80 echosounders. The recording depths for the 5 frequencies were 1000, 1000, 750, 500, and 200 m respectively. Calibrations were carried out on the 1st of October 2020 using a 33 mm tungsten sphere,and the calibration results were applied to the instruments. During the survey, a Simrad wideband autonomous receiver (WBAT) was deployed down to a depth of 500 m whilst on station. In total, 31 drops were carried out at 5 stations. Four transducers (central frequencies were 45, 120, 200, 333 kHz) were operated using the WBAT in frequency modulated (FM) mode (bandwidth ranging from 45 to 445 kHz). The WBAT calibration data were collected using a 33 mm tungsten sphere. During the deployment of the WBAT, the hull-mounted EK80 was switched to FM mode to record broadband measurements. Raw power (W), number of transducer segments and transceiver impedance (Ohm) were stored in raw proprietary Simrad format (.raw, .idx).

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    Authors: Bergner, Nora; Heutte, Benjamin; Angot, Hélène; Dada, Lubna; +5 Authors

    This dataset contains CCN concentrations at five supersaturation levels, averaged to 1 min time resolution, measured during the year-long Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition from October 2019 to September 2020. The measurements were performed in the Swiss container on the D-deck of Research Vessel Polarstern, using the model CCN-100 from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT, Boulder, USA). Detailed description of the measurement principle can be found in e.g. Roberts & Nenes (2005). The instrument was located behind an automated valve, which switched hourly between a total and an interstitial air inlet, with upper cutoff sizes of 40 and 1 µm respectively (Heutte et al., Submitted; Beck et al., 2022; Dada et al., 2022). The measurements were performed in 1-h cycles, with a 0.5 L/min sample flow and a 2 L/min make up flow, where the supersaturations 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 % were measured. The supersaturation of 0.15 % is measured for 20 min, as it takes longer to equilibrate, and the remaining supersaturations were measured for 10 min each. The instrument was calibrated in July 2019 before the campaign, and in March and April 2020 during the campaign. Based on the inter-variability of the calculated supersaturation levels during these calibrations, we can expect values ranging from 0.15-0.20, 0.20-0.25, 0.29-0.33, 0.43-0.5, 0.78-1.0 % for the nominal supersaturations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 %, respectively. The counting error for the CCNC is associated with the error in the optical counting of particles and is about 10 %. Data were removed during the cooling cycle (i.e., the time when the measurement cycle starts again and the temperature is cooled to set the lowest supersaturation), which corresponds roughly to the first 10 min of each hour (so 50 % of the 0.15 % supersaturation period). Additionally, the first minute of the transition between supersaturations was removed before averaging the data to 1 min time resolution. During some time periods, a difference pattern of mean and standard deviation of the measurements between even and odd hours was observed, most probably caused by a persistent pressure drop in the inlet lines, resulting in a proportional reduction of the concentration measurements. For correction, the 1-h arithmetic mean of interstitial inlet measurements and the mean of the two adjacent hours of total inlet measurements were subtracted, and the resulting difference was added as a constant to the data points of the interstitial inlet measurements. The dataset contains a pollution mask for local pollution (predominantly exhaust from the Research Vessel Polarstern) with 0 indicating clean, and 1 indicating polluted periods (Beck et al., 2022; Beck et al., 2022).

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    Authors: Giesche, Alena; Hodell, David A; Petrie, Cameron A; Haug, Gerald H; +7 Authors

    A 25-cm long predominantly aragonite stalagmite was collected November 2, 2005 from Dharamjali Cave (29.5°N, 80.2°E) in the central Himalayas. This dataset contains stable isotope, trace element, XRF, U/Th dating, and dripwater data. The age model spans 4.2 to 2.3 ka BP, and the dataset records seasonal shifts in hydroclimate from 4.2 to 3.1 ka BP. Using the DHAR-1A half of the speleothem, 750 samples were milled at 100–300 µm resolution for stable isotope analysis (δ18O and δ13C) and analyzed at GFZ Potsdam. Further high-resolution stable isotope analysis at the University of Cambridge included 876 samples from the bottom 4 cm of the mirroring slab DHAR-1B, covering c. 4.2–3.6 ka BP. The δ44/40Ca measurements were made on 60 aragonite samples of aragonite and 1 calcite sample milled between 4.2 and 2.8 ka BP. The elemental composition of DHAR-1B was determined first with an Avaatech XRF scanner at the University of Cambridge, and later using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at the University of Waikato. U-series dating was performed at Caltech on 22 samples. Twelve U-series ages (between 2.55 and 4.14 ka BP) were used to construct the age models, using ensembles of 2000 Monte Carlo simulations for each proxy using the MATLAB-based COPRA script (Breitenbach et al., 2012, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-8-1765-2012).

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    Authors: Brugnara, Yuri; Horn, Michael; Salvador, Isabella;

    We provide two instrumental records of air pressure and temperature for the Alpine cities of Rovereto and Bolzano/Bozen, covering the periods 1800-1839 and 1842-1849, respectively. They were measured by two physics teachers and digitized at the University of Bern from a handwritten weather diary and a local newspaper. In addition to the raw (sub-daily) data, we provide daily and monthly means together with a quantitative estimation of their uncertainty. The data were converted to modern units, quality controlled, and homogenized.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jong, Dirk; Bröder, Lisa; Tesi, Tommaso; Tanski, George; +6 Authors

    This study aims to give insight into the processes affecting permafrost organic carbon (OC) during transport from its source to its sink, through a study on three sediment fractions along a land-to-ocean transect. Material was followed from thawing permafrost, through a dynamic 'disturbed zone' and the nearshore zone, to an enclosed basin offshore Herschel Island - Qikiqtaruk, to assess sorting and degradation processes on specific fractions of sediment OC. Sediment, soil and permafrost samples were taken along a transect from the source (undisturbed active layer and permafrost), via two transitional zones (a terrestrial disturbed zone, i.e. the 'scar zone' of the RTS, and the marine nearshore zone up to a water depth of 5 m), to sink (basin sediment, water depth >20 m) at the coast of Herschel Island – Qikiqtaruk and the (semi-enclosed) Herschel Basin in Yukon, Canada, just west of the Mackenzie River delta. Samples were taken in May 2016 and July 2017. Sample material was fractionated with an aqueous (MilliQ) solution of sodium polytungstate (SPT; Na6[H2W12O40]), with a density of 1.8 g cm³, followed by wet-sieving over a 63 µm mesh, thus separating loose OC from mineral-associated OC. Each fraction was analysed for element content (TOC, TN), carbon isotopes (δ¹³C, Δ¹⁴C), molecular biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, lignin phenols, cutin acids), and mineral surface area. The relative abundance of specific biomarkers can also be used as indicator for degradation of organic carbon. Furthermore, the OC 'loading' (concentration of OC normalised to mineral surface area; in mgOC/m²) and terrestrial biomarker loading (µgOC/m²) can be used to assess loss of (permafrost) OC from mineral particles. The combination of these methods allows us to disentangle sorting processes from degradation of OC along the land-to-ocean continuum, and provides a detailed insight into the fate of thawed and eroded permafrost OC.

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    Authors: Guillerm, Emmanuel; Gardien, Véronique; Waldmann, Nicolas D; Brall, Niels S; +5 Authors

    The rain regime in the Eastern Mediterranean is primarily controlled by Mediterranean winter cyclonic systems. The lake level of the Dead Sea responds sensitively to hydrological changes, and can be used to track the evolution of the Mediterranean hydroclimate during the late Quaternary. However, lake level reconstructions beyond 70 ka are limited by a lack of paleoshorelines and dating methodologies. Here, we reconstruct the Dead Sea lake level back to 237 ka using measurements of brine density from halite fluid inclusions of the deep ICDP core 5017-1-A. We combine our mass balance-based reconstruction with an age reevaluation of published sequence stratigraphy-based lake levels, by tying their chronology to the ICDP core. The lake levels obtained with the two different methods compare very well, within better than 10 m. Combined with a compilation of published paleoshorelines for the last 70 ka, our reconstruction covers three glacial-interglacial cycles.

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    Authors: Pinho, Tainã Marcos Lima; Chiessi, Cristiano Mazur; Campos, Marília C; Portilho-Ramos, Rodrigo Costa; +9 Authors

    To comprehensively document the δ13C content of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), we used high-resolution thermocline-dwelling foraminiferal δ13C data obtained from three distinct marine sediment cores situated in the NW, SW, and SE regions of the South Atlantic. Our dataset enables a comprehensive examination of millennial-scale variations in SACW δ13C content across the entire basin. Notably, the thermocline δ13C records from the SE and NW sectors of the South Atlantic consistently exhibit concurrent negative excursions during most of the Heinrich Stadials (HS), a pattern that contrasts sharply with the absence of such negative excursions in the thermocline δ13C record from the SW sector of the South Atlantic

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    Authors: Pasquale Pagano; Sara Pittonet; Federico Drago; Maria Giuffrida;

    There are several research infrastructures or other data services running in Europe that cover a multitude of marine-related sciences, providing specific datasets coming from observations collected with different methods. These infrastructures constitute a diverse world, each looking at a piece of the big picture, sometimes hindering collaboration and data sharing. Blue-Cloud aims to overcome fragmentation and build a bridge between thematic science clusters - such as marine, climate, food and agriculture sciences - and EOSC, creating a data federation and providing a common access to a so-called thematic EOSC for marine data. By connecting leading marine data management infrastructures with horizontal e-infrastructures, the project aims to maximise the exploitation of data resources available from different sources. The Blue-Cloud framework consists of two major technical components: (1) a Blue-Cloud Data Discovery and Access service, already presented in a previous EOSC in practice story, to serve federated discovery and access to blue data infrastructures, and (2) a Blue-Cloud Virtual Research Environment (VRE) to provide computing platforms and analytical services facilitating the collaboration between researchers, which is detailed hereafter. The Blue-Cloud VRE is powered by the D4Science Infrastructure. [M. Assante et al. (2019) Enacting open science by D4Science. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 101: 555-563 10.1016/j.future.2019.05.063 ] The full list of EOSC in practice stories is available here

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Matabos, Marjolaine; Gautier, Laurent;

    Momarsat 2022 cruise report: summary of dives and operations, and position of moorings and observation infrastructures and sampling locations

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    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
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    Authors: Thomas, Carrie L; Jansen, Boris; Czerwiński, Sambor; Gałka, Mariusz; +4 Authors

    The late Holocene development of a raised ombrotrophic peat bog in the Thuringian Forest in Central Germany was investigated using pollen, plant macrofossils, lipid biomarker, elemental, and radiocarbon analyses. In October 2019, a 3.4 m core was recovered from the Beerberg peatland located in the Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve. Radiocarbon dating and a resulting age-depth model indicated that the age of the peatland is ca. 2600 yr BP. The purpose of the study was twofold: establishing a paleovegetation record with a reliable chronology for the Thuringian Forest and comparing the results of the pollen and plant macrofossil analyses to that of the lipid biomarker analysis to determine what additional insight the biomarkers could provide. Along with the counting of pollen and plant macrofossils, the carbon and nitrogen concentrations and their stable isotope values were measured from the bulk samples via elemental analyzer, and the absolute concentrations of n-alkanes, n-alkanols, and n-fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography flame ionization detection. The radiocarbon dates were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Modern plant samples were also collected from the peatland during sampling, separated into leaf, stem, and root tissue as much as was possible, and the absolute concentrations of the n-alkanes, n-alkanols, and n-fatty acids were measured for each plant part.

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    Authors: Yang, Yang; Proud, Roland; Castellón, Arturo; Sabatés, Ana; +2 Authors

    These data consist of both underway and station echosounder observations collected during the 2020 SUMMER (Sustainable Management of Mesopelagic Resources) Mediterranean cruise (30 September 2020 to 18 October 2020) on the RV Sarmiento de Gamboa. Narrowband (18, 38, 70, 120, 200 kHz) underway acoustic data were collected continuously using hull-mounted Simrad EK80 echosounders. The recording depths for the 5 frequencies were 1000, 1000, 750, 500, and 200 m respectively. Calibrations were carried out on the 1st of October 2020 using a 33 mm tungsten sphere,and the calibration results were applied to the instruments. During the survey, a Simrad wideband autonomous receiver (WBAT) was deployed down to a depth of 500 m whilst on station. In total, 31 drops were carried out at 5 stations. Four transducers (central frequencies were 45, 120, 200, 333 kHz) were operated using the WBAT in frequency modulated (FM) mode (bandwidth ranging from 45 to 445 kHz). The WBAT calibration data were collected using a 33 mm tungsten sphere. During the deployment of the WBAT, the hull-mounted EK80 was switched to FM mode to record broadband measurements. Raw power (W), number of transducer segments and transceiver impedance (Ohm) were stored in raw proprietary Simrad format (.raw, .idx).

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    Authors: Bergner, Nora; Heutte, Benjamin; Angot, Hélène; Dada, Lubna; +5 Authors

    This dataset contains CCN concentrations at five supersaturation levels, averaged to 1 min time resolution, measured during the year-long Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expedition from October 2019 to September 2020. The measurements were performed in the Swiss container on the D-deck of Research Vessel Polarstern, using the model CCN-100 from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT, Boulder, USA). Detailed description of the measurement principle can be found in e.g. Roberts & Nenes (2005). The instrument was located behind an automated valve, which switched hourly between a total and an interstitial air inlet, with upper cutoff sizes of 40 and 1 µm respectively (Heutte et al., Submitted; Beck et al., 2022; Dada et al., 2022). The measurements were performed in 1-h cycles, with a 0.5 L/min sample flow and a 2 L/min make up flow, where the supersaturations 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 % were measured. The supersaturation of 0.15 % is measured for 20 min, as it takes longer to equilibrate, and the remaining supersaturations were measured for 10 min each. The instrument was calibrated in July 2019 before the campaign, and in March and April 2020 during the campaign. Based on the inter-variability of the calculated supersaturation levels during these calibrations, we can expect values ranging from 0.15-0.20, 0.20-0.25, 0.29-0.33, 0.43-0.5, 0.78-1.0 % for the nominal supersaturations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 %, respectively. The counting error for the CCNC is associated with the error in the optical counting of particles and is about 10 %. Data were removed during the cooling cycle (i.e., the time when the measurement cycle starts again and the temperature is cooled to set the lowest supersaturation), which corresponds roughly to the first 10 min of each hour (so 50 % of the 0.15 % supersaturation period). Additionally, the first minute of the transition between supersaturations was removed before averaging the data to 1 min time resolution. During some time periods, a difference pattern of mean and standard deviation of the measurements between even and odd hours was observed, most probably caused by a persistent pressure drop in the inlet lines, resulting in a proportional reduction of the concentration measurements. For correction, the 1-h arithmetic mean of interstitial inlet measurements and the mean of the two adjacent hours of total inlet measurements were subtracted, and the resulting difference was added as a constant to the data points of the interstitial inlet measurements. The dataset contains a pollution mask for local pollution (predominantly exhaust from the Research Vessel Polarstern) with 0 indicating clean, and 1 indicating polluted periods (Beck et al., 2022; Beck et al., 2022).

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    Authors: Giesche, Alena; Hodell, David A; Petrie, Cameron A; Haug, Gerald H; +7 Authors

    A 25-cm long predominantly aragonite stalagmite was collected November 2, 2005 from Dharamjali Cave (29.5°N, 80.2°E) in the central Himalayas. This dataset contains stable isotope, trace element, XRF, U/Th dating, and dripwater data. The age model spans 4.2 to 2.3 ka BP, and the dataset records seasonal shifts in hydroclimate from 4.2 to 3.1 ka BP. Using the DHAR-1A half of the speleothem, 750 samples were milled at 100–300 µm resolution for stable isotope analysis (δ18O and δ13C) and analyzed at GFZ Potsdam. Further high-resolution stable isotope analysis at the University of Cambridge included 876 samples from the bottom 4 cm of the mirroring slab DHAR-1B, covering c. 4.2–3.6 ka BP. The δ44/40Ca measurements were made on 60 aragonite samples of aragonite and 1 calcite sample milled between 4.2 and 2.8 ka BP. The elemental composition of DHAR-1B was determined first with an Avaatech XRF scanner at the University of Cambridge, and later using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) at the University of Waikato. U-series dating was performed at Caltech on 22 samples. Twelve U-series ages (between 2.55 and 4.14 ka BP) were used to construct the age models, using ensembles of 2000 Monte Carlo simulations for each proxy using the MATLAB-based COPRA script (Breitenbach et al., 2012, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-8-1765-2012).

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