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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jong, Dirk; Bröder, Lisa; Tesi, Tommaso; Tanski, George; +6 Authors

    This study aims to give insight into the processes affecting permafrost organic carbon (OC) during transport from its source to its sink, through a study on three sediment fractions along a land-to-ocean transect. Material was followed from thawing permafrost, through a dynamic 'disturbed zone' and the nearshore zone, to an enclosed basin offshore Herschel Island - Qikiqtaruk, to assess sorting and degradation processes on specific fractions of sediment OC. Sediment, soil and permafrost samples were taken along a transect from the source (undisturbed active layer and permafrost), via two transitional zones (a terrestrial disturbed zone, i.e. the 'scar zone' of the RTS, and the marine nearshore zone up to a water depth of 5 m), to sink (basin sediment, water depth >20 m) at the coast of Herschel Island – Qikiqtaruk and the (semi-enclosed) Herschel Basin in Yukon, Canada, just west of the Mackenzie River delta. Samples were taken in May 2016 and July 2017. Sample material was fractionated with an aqueous (MilliQ) solution of sodium polytungstate (SPT; Na6[H2W12O40]), with a density of 1.8 g cm³, followed by wet-sieving over a 63 µm mesh, thus separating loose OC from mineral-associated OC. Each fraction was analysed for element content (TOC, TN), carbon isotopes (δ¹³C, Δ¹⁴C), molecular biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, lignin phenols, cutin acids), and mineral surface area. The relative abundance of specific biomarkers can also be used as indicator for degradation of organic carbon. Furthermore, the OC 'loading' (concentration of OC normalised to mineral surface area; in mgOC/m²) and terrestrial biomarker loading (µgOC/m²) can be used to assess loss of (permafrost) OC from mineral particles. The combination of these methods allows us to disentangle sorting processes from degradation of OC along the land-to-ocean continuum, and provides a detailed insight into the fate of thawed and eroded permafrost OC.

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    Authors: Jurányi, Zsófia; Herber, Andreas;

    During the HALO-(AC)³ aircraft campaign in 2022, onboard of Polar 6 aircraft, refractory black carbon (BC) mass and number concentration was measured by a single particle soot photometer (SP2) in the mass equivalent diameter range of 70-675 nm. The instrument was installed behind the counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet, and therefore measured the BC properties of cloud residuals when the aircraft flew through clouds and the counter flow was switched on. During out-of cloud measurements, the counter flow of the CVI was switched off and the instrument measured the total aerosol's BC properties. In the data files, the column CVI_flag indicates if total aerosol was sampled (value of 0), cloud residuals were sampled (value of 1). A CVI_flag value of 2 indicates that the inlet counter flow was currently switched on or off and therefore the measurement is not valid. The provided time resolution is 3 seconds.

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    Authors: Hoffmann-Abdi, Kirstin; Meyer, Hanno; Fernandoy, Francisco; Freitag, Johannes; +5 Authors

    Firn cores OH-7, OH-9 and OH-12 were retrieved from Plateau Laclavere, a small ice cap on the northernmost end of the Antarctic Peninsula. Firn core LP-01 was recovered from Plateau Louis Phillipe, which is located approximately 40 km south of Plateau Laclavere. OH-7 and OH-9 were drilled in January 2014 at an altitude of approximately 1130 m above sea level (a.s.l.) to a depth of 15.31 m and 11.65 m, respectively, using a mechanical 9 cm diameter drilling device (Rufli auger). OH-12 was drilled in January 2016 at about 1090 m a.s.l. to a depth of 19.93 m. LP-01 was also drilled in January 2016 at about 1390 m a.s.l. to a depth of 21.38 m. OH-12 and LP-01 were obtained using a portable solar-powered and electrically operated ice-core drill (Backpack Drill; icedrill.ch AG). Density measurements of the four firn cores were performed at the ice-core processing facilities of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany, in 2014/2015 (OH-9), 2016 (OH-7, OH-12) and 2018 (LP-01). X-ray microfocus computer tomography (ICE-CT; Freitag et al., 2013, DOI: 10.3189/2013JoG13J028) was used for the measurements, providing depth-density profiles with a resolution of better than 1 mm. The density data were used to analyse the firn core stratigraphy (e.g., determination of the snow-firn transition depth, identification of melt layers), to calculate diffusion lengths as well as to derive accumulation rates for the firn-core drill sites.

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    Authors: Hoffmann-Abdi, Kirstin; Fernandoy, Francisco; Meyer, Hanno; Thomas, Elizabeth R; +12 Authors

    Firn cores BAL-1 and PASO-1 were both retrieved in November 2015 from the Union Glacier region, located in the Ellsworth Mountains at the northern edge of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. BAL-1 was drilled in a U-shaped glacial valley (Balish Glacier) at an altitude of approximately 1520 m above sea level (a.s.l.) to a depth of 17.28 m. PASO-1 was drilled on a plateau west of the Gifford Peaks at an altitude of about 1920 m a.s.l. to a depth of 15.04 m. Both firn cores were obtained using a portable solar-powered and electrically operated ice-core drill (Backpack Drill; icedrill.ch AG). Density measurements of the two firn cores were performed at the ice-core processing facilities of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany, in spring and autumn 2016. X-ray microfocus computer tomography (ICE-CT; Freitag et al., 2013, doi:10.3189/2013JoG13J028) was used for the measurements, providing depth-density profiles with a resolution of better than 1 mm. The density data were used to analyse the firn core stratigraphy (e.g., determination of the snow-firn transition depth, identification of wind crusts), to calculate diffusion lengths as well as to derive accumulation rates for the firn-core drill sites.

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    Authors: Zeising, Ole; Steinhage, Daniel; Neckel, Niklas; Humbert, Angelika;

    Estimated time series of Lagrangian basal melt rates from an autonomous phase-sensitive radar (ApRES) measurement at 79°N Glacier (Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier) in northeast Greenland since 2016. Measurement intervals ranged from one to six hours. Basal melt rates are based on the quantification of the ablation, ice deformation due to strain, and the change in ice thickness. All quantities can be estimated from vertical displacements of internal and basal returns of the transmitted signal. We divided the first echogram into 6 m long segments with 5 m overlap starting at a depth of 20 m. For each segment, we derived displacements from complex cross-correlation of the phase of all pairwise time-consecutive measurements. Afterward, we calculated the daily mean values of the displacements. We used the time-mean vertical displacement of internal reflectors to calculate the vertical strain profile. Here only those segments between 20 m below the surface and 20 m above the basal return at the last measurement were considered. In addition, we only considered measurements between October and May to avoid the influence of ablation on the calculation of the strain. The vertical strain is the depth derivative of the vertical displacement which we derived from a linear fit that best matches the vertical displacements. We use the displacement time series of the segment centered at a range of 50 m to correct for ablation. Since the ice above is affected by ice deformation, we subtract this contribution from the displacement. To derive the basal melt rate in the vertical direction, we subtract the strain contribution and ablation from the displacement of a basal reflector. We analyzed the vertical displacement for all segments within a range of 50 m below the first basal return to obtain the nadir and off-nadir basal melt rates. To represent the variability within a time series, we calculated the median melt rate next to the 25 %, 75 %, and 95 % quantile for each time step. Afterward, a 7-day moving average filter was used to smooth the time series.

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    Authors: Burdanowitz, Nicole; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Gaye, Birgit; Munz, Philipp; +1 Authors

    The data sets contains the age model as well as bulk organic and n-alkane data of sediment core GeoTü SL167 to reconstruct changes of the oxygen minimum zone strength for the late Quaternary. The age model is based on 14C AMS measurements of planktonic foraminifera and is calibrated with the BACON v. 2.5.6 software for R (Blauuw & Christen, 2011) and a marine reservoir age of ΔR = 93 ± 61 years. The ΔR is based on the weighted mean of two regional marine reservoir corrections (Muscat) by Southon et al. (2002) using the marine calibration database (Reimer and Reimer, 2001, http://calib.org/marine/). Total organic carbon and nitrogen measurements were carried out with an Euro EA3000 elemental analyser and δ15N measurements with a Thermo Scientific Flash EA1112 coupled to a Finnigan MAT 252 IRMS. Total organic carbon mass accumulation rates (TOC MAR) based on calculation using the organic carbon content and total mass accumulation rates. A description of the calculation of the total mass accumulations rates is given in Burdanowitz et al 2021. The measurements of n-alkanes were carried out using Thermo Scientific Trace 1310 GC-FID and Thermo Scientific DSQ II (GC-MS). Gravity core GeoTü SL167, was retrieved at station no. 960 during R.V. METEOR cruise M74/1b in 2007 (Bohrmann et al., 2010) from the northwestern Arabian Sea off Oman, at 22°37.2'N, 59°41.5'E, 774 m water depth, core recovery 7.39 m. The sediment core was retrieved for the reconstruction of circulation and productivity changes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the late Quaternary with particular focus on changes in the Indian monsoon system.

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    Authors: Meyer, Vera D; Pätzold, Jürgen; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Castañeda, Isla S; +2 Authors

    The dataset comprises radiocarbon dates of planktic foraminifera and hydrogen and carbon stable isotopic compositions (δD and δ13C) of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (leaf-wax biomarkers) in a sediment core from the eastern Mediterranean (GeoB7702-3). The records cover the past 18 ka. In this dataset new radiocarbon dates of planktic foraminifera are combined with previously published radiocarbon dates of planktic foraminifera (Castañeda et al., 2010; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.736913) in order to produce a new age depth model. Next to a compilation of all radiocarbon dates used for the updated chronology the new age-depth model for the core are provided. The δD signature of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids is reported as measured values (corrected for methylation (δD)) and as ice-volume corrected values (δDwax). Moreover, δD is converted into δD of precipitation by correcting it for past changes in the relative contributions of C3 versus C4 plants and ice-volume changes (δDp-vc-ic). In addition to δDp-vc-ic values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids we include the δDp-vc-ic of high molecular weight n-alkanes (leaf-wax lipid). The latter is calculated based on original δD data from Castañeda et al. (2016) (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858559). The reported δ13C-values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids are corrected for methylation (δ13Cwax). Based on δ13Cwax the relative contribution of C4 plants to the pool of high molecular n-alkanoic acids is calculated (%C4). It is also provided for high molecular weight n-alkanes which is calculated using original δ13Cwax-data from Castañeda et al. (2016) (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858559). Next to the isotopic compositions we also report concentrations of n-akanoic acids and n-alkanes.

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    Authors: Enguehard, Léa; Heim, Birgit; Kruse, Stefan; Frandsen, Peter C; +2 Authors

    This dataset represents 103 labelled approx. 60x60 meters shapefiles representing different forest types. Seventy-nine sites were visited forest plots during AWI field expeditions in summer 2018 in Chukotka and Western Yakutia, and in summer 2021 in Central Yakutia, Siberia, Russia. Twenty-four additional sites were identified using photo-interpretation of Google Earth Imagery© and Sentinel-2 imagery with regional expert knowledge. Each plot corresponds to a single shapefile, with a single label. The labels are the following: Larix woodland, class name 'Sparse Larch' (Class 0), open Larix forest, class name 'Medium Larch' (Class 1), closed Larix forest, class name 'Dense Larch' (Class 2), needle-leaf evergreen forest (Pinus, Picea), class name 'Evergreen' (Class 3), mixed broad-leaf and needle-leaf Summergreen forest, class name 'Mixed Summergreen' (Class 4), mixed needle-leaf and broadleaf Summergreen and Evergreen forest, class name 'Mixed Summergreen-Evergreen' (Class 5), and 'Burnt or Barre' (Class 6). We defined the labels based on the percentage of tree species present at the site from field visits (Kruse et al. 2019, Morgenstern et al. 2023), and the percentage of crown cover covering the plot following this protocol: • When the forest plot consisted of one tree species, the label consists of this species only. E.g. 60% Larix crown cover→ Label = Larch (sparse, medium, or dense: classes 0,1,2) • When the plot consisted of two tree species with one of less than 10%, the label was assigned to the dominating species. E.g. 60% Larix & 5% Pinus → Label = Larch Larch (sparse, medium, or dense: classes 0,1,2) • When the plot consisted of multiple tree species with comparable coverage (relative difference 50%). To enrich and balance the training dataset, we added a total of 24 plots corresponding to 'Evergreen' and 'Mixed Summergreen-Evergreen' labels that are chosen with expert knowledge using Sentinel-2 late summer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Google Earth imagery©.

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    Authors: Gerdts, Gunnar;

    This data collection contains bacteria counts and water temperature measurements at Long-term Ecological Research at AWI (LTER) station Helgoland Roads, North Sea from 1962 until 2002.

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    Authors: Guillerm, Emmanuel; Gardien, Véronique; Waldmann, Nicolas D; Brall, Niels S; +5 Authors

    The rain regime in the Eastern Mediterranean is primarily controlled by Mediterranean winter cyclonic systems. The lake level of the Dead Sea responds sensitively to hydrological changes, and can be used to track the evolution of the Mediterranean hydroclimate during the late Quaternary. However, lake level reconstructions beyond 70 ka are limited by a lack of paleoshorelines and dating methodologies. Here, we reconstruct the Dead Sea lake level back to 237 ka using measurements of brine density from halite fluid inclusions of the deep ICDP core 5017-1-A. We combine our mass balance-based reconstruction with an age reevaluation of published sequence stratigraphy-based lake levels, by tying their chronology to the ICDP core. The lake levels obtained with the two different methods compare very well, within better than 10 m. Combined with a compilation of published paleoshorelines for the last 70 ka, our reconstruction covers three glacial-interglacial cycles.

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    Authors: Jong, Dirk; Bröder, Lisa; Tesi, Tommaso; Tanski, George; +6 Authors

    This study aims to give insight into the processes affecting permafrost organic carbon (OC) during transport from its source to its sink, through a study on three sediment fractions along a land-to-ocean transect. Material was followed from thawing permafrost, through a dynamic 'disturbed zone' and the nearshore zone, to an enclosed basin offshore Herschel Island - Qikiqtaruk, to assess sorting and degradation processes on specific fractions of sediment OC. Sediment, soil and permafrost samples were taken along a transect from the source (undisturbed active layer and permafrost), via two transitional zones (a terrestrial disturbed zone, i.e. the 'scar zone' of the RTS, and the marine nearshore zone up to a water depth of 5 m), to sink (basin sediment, water depth >20 m) at the coast of Herschel Island – Qikiqtaruk and the (semi-enclosed) Herschel Basin in Yukon, Canada, just west of the Mackenzie River delta. Samples were taken in May 2016 and July 2017. Sample material was fractionated with an aqueous (MilliQ) solution of sodium polytungstate (SPT; Na6[H2W12O40]), with a density of 1.8 g cm³, followed by wet-sieving over a 63 µm mesh, thus separating loose OC from mineral-associated OC. Each fraction was analysed for element content (TOC, TN), carbon isotopes (δ¹³C, Δ¹⁴C), molecular biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, lignin phenols, cutin acids), and mineral surface area. The relative abundance of specific biomarkers can also be used as indicator for degradation of organic carbon. Furthermore, the OC 'loading' (concentration of OC normalised to mineral surface area; in mgOC/m²) and terrestrial biomarker loading (µgOC/m²) can be used to assess loss of (permafrost) OC from mineral particles. The combination of these methods allows us to disentangle sorting processes from degradation of OC along the land-to-ocean continuum, and provides a detailed insight into the fate of thawed and eroded permafrost OC.

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    Authors: Jurányi, Zsófia; Herber, Andreas;

    During the HALO-(AC)³ aircraft campaign in 2022, onboard of Polar 6 aircraft, refractory black carbon (BC) mass and number concentration was measured by a single particle soot photometer (SP2) in the mass equivalent diameter range of 70-675 nm. The instrument was installed behind the counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet, and therefore measured the BC properties of cloud residuals when the aircraft flew through clouds and the counter flow was switched on. During out-of cloud measurements, the counter flow of the CVI was switched off and the instrument measured the total aerosol's BC properties. In the data files, the column CVI_flag indicates if total aerosol was sampled (value of 0), cloud residuals were sampled (value of 1). A CVI_flag value of 2 indicates that the inlet counter flow was currently switched on or off and therefore the measurement is not valid. The provided time resolution is 3 seconds.

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    Authors: Hoffmann-Abdi, Kirstin; Meyer, Hanno; Fernandoy, Francisco; Freitag, Johannes; +5 Authors

    Firn cores OH-7, OH-9 and OH-12 were retrieved from Plateau Laclavere, a small ice cap on the northernmost end of the Antarctic Peninsula. Firn core LP-01 was recovered from Plateau Louis Phillipe, which is located approximately 40 km south of Plateau Laclavere. OH-7 and OH-9 were drilled in January 2014 at an altitude of approximately 1130 m above sea level (a.s.l.) to a depth of 15.31 m and 11.65 m, respectively, using a mechanical 9 cm diameter drilling device (Rufli auger). OH-12 was drilled in January 2016 at about 1090 m a.s.l. to a depth of 19.93 m. LP-01 was also drilled in January 2016 at about 1390 m a.s.l. to a depth of 21.38 m. OH-12 and LP-01 were obtained using a portable solar-powered and electrically operated ice-core drill (Backpack Drill; icedrill.ch AG). Density measurements of the four firn cores were performed at the ice-core processing facilities of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany, in 2014/2015 (OH-9), 2016 (OH-7, OH-12) and 2018 (LP-01). X-ray microfocus computer tomography (ICE-CT; Freitag et al., 2013, DOI: 10.3189/2013JoG13J028) was used for the measurements, providing depth-density profiles with a resolution of better than 1 mm. The density data were used to analyse the firn core stratigraphy (e.g., determination of the snow-firn transition depth, identification of melt layers), to calculate diffusion lengths as well as to derive accumulation rates for the firn-core drill sites.

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    Authors: Hoffmann-Abdi, Kirstin; Fernandoy, Francisco; Meyer, Hanno; Thomas, Elizabeth R; +12 Authors

    Firn cores BAL-1 and PASO-1 were both retrieved in November 2015 from the Union Glacier region, located in the Ellsworth Mountains at the northern edge of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. BAL-1 was drilled in a U-shaped glacial valley (Balish Glacier) at an altitude of approximately 1520 m above sea level (a.s.l.) to a depth of 17.28 m. PASO-1 was drilled on a plateau west of the Gifford Peaks at an altitude of about 1920 m a.s.l. to a depth of 15.04 m. Both firn cores were obtained using a portable solar-powered and electrically operated ice-core drill (Backpack Drill; icedrill.ch AG). Density measurements of the two firn cores were performed at the ice-core processing facilities of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany, in spring and autumn 2016. X-ray microfocus computer tomography (ICE-CT; Freitag et al., 2013, doi:10.3189/2013JoG13J028) was used for the measurements, providing depth-density profiles with a resolution of better than 1 mm. The density data were used to analyse the firn core stratigraphy (e.g., determination of the snow-firn transition depth, identification of wind crusts), to calculate diffusion lengths as well as to derive accumulation rates for the firn-core drill sites.

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    Authors: Zeising, Ole; Steinhage, Daniel; Neckel, Niklas; Humbert, Angelika;

    Estimated time series of Lagrangian basal melt rates from an autonomous phase-sensitive radar (ApRES) measurement at 79°N Glacier (Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier) in northeast Greenland since 2016. Measurement intervals ranged from one to six hours. Basal melt rates are based on the quantification of the ablation, ice deformation due to strain, and the change in ice thickness. All quantities can be estimated from vertical displacements of internal and basal returns of the transmitted signal. We divided the first echogram into 6 m long segments with 5 m overlap starting at a depth of 20 m. For each segment, we derived displacements from complex cross-correlation of the phase of all pairwise time-consecutive measurements. Afterward, we calculated the daily mean values of the displacements. We used the time-mean vertical displacement of internal reflectors to calculate the vertical strain profile. Here only those segments between 20 m below the surface and 20 m above the basal return at the last measurement were considered. In addition, we only considered measurements between October and May to avoid the influence of ablation on the calculation of the strain. The vertical strain is the depth derivative of the vertical displacement which we derived from a linear fit that best matches the vertical displacements. We use the displacement time series of the segment centered at a range of 50 m to correct for ablation. Since the ice above is affected by ice deformation, we subtract this contribution from the displacement. To derive the basal melt rate in the vertical direction, we subtract the strain contribution and ablation from the displacement of a basal reflector. We analyzed the vertical displacement for all segments within a range of 50 m below the first basal return to obtain the nadir and off-nadir basal melt rates. To represent the variability within a time series, we calculated the median melt rate next to the 25 %, 75 %, and 95 % quantile for each time step. Afterward, a 7-day moving average filter was used to smooth the time series.

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    Authors: Burdanowitz, Nicole; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Gaye, Birgit; Munz, Philipp; +1 Authors

    The data sets contains the age model as well as bulk organic and n-alkane data of sediment core GeoTü SL167 to reconstruct changes of the oxygen minimum zone strength for the late Quaternary. The age model is based on 14C AMS measurements of planktonic foraminifera and is calibrated with the BACON v. 2.5.6 software for R (Blauuw & Christen, 2011) and a marine reservoir age of ΔR = 93 ± 61 years. The ΔR is based on the weighted mean of two regional marine reservoir corrections (Muscat) by Southon et al. (2002) using the marine calibration database (Reimer and Reimer, 2001, http://calib.org/marine/). Total organic carbon and nitrogen measurements were carried out with an Euro EA3000 elemental analyser and δ15N measurements with a Thermo Scientific Flash EA1112 coupled to a Finnigan MAT 252 IRMS. Total organic carbon mass accumulation rates (TOC MAR) based on calculation using the organic carbon content and total mass accumulation rates. A description of the calculation of the total mass accumulations rates is given in Burdanowitz et al 2021. The measurements of n-alkanes were carried out using Thermo Scientific Trace 1310 GC-FID and Thermo Scientific DSQ II (GC-MS). Gravity core GeoTü SL167, was retrieved at station no. 960 during R.V. METEOR cruise M74/1b in 2007 (Bohrmann et al., 2010) from the northwestern Arabian Sea off Oman, at 22°37.2'N, 59°41.5'E, 774 m water depth, core recovery 7.39 m. The sediment core was retrieved for the reconstruction of circulation and productivity changes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the late Quaternary with particular focus on changes in the Indian monsoon system.

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    Authors: Meyer, Vera D; Pätzold, Jürgen; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Castañeda, Isla S; +2 Authors

    The dataset comprises radiocarbon dates of planktic foraminifera and hydrogen and carbon stable isotopic compositions (δD and δ13C) of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (leaf-wax biomarkers) in a sediment core from the eastern Mediterranean (GeoB7702-3). The records cover the past 18 ka. In this dataset new radiocarbon dates of planktic foraminifera are combined with previously published radiocarbon dates of planktic foraminifera (Castañeda et al., 2010; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.736913) in order to produce a new age depth model. Next to a compilation of all radiocarbon dates used for the updated chronology the new age-depth model for the core are provided. The δD signature of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids is reported as measured values (corrected for methylation (δD)) and as ice-volume corrected values (δDwax). Moreover, δD is converted into δD of precipitation by correcting it for past changes in the relative contributions of C3 versus C4 plants and ice-volume changes (δDp-vc-ic). In addition to δDp-vc-ic values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids we include the δDp-vc-ic of high molecular weight n-alkanes (leaf-wax lipid). The latter is calculated based on original δD data from Castañeda et al. (2016) (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858559). The reported δ13C-values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids are corrected for methylation (δ13Cwax). Based on δ13Cwax the relative contribution of C4 plants to the pool of high molecular n-alkanoic acids is calculated (%C4). It is also provided for high molecular weight n-alkanes which is calculated using original δ13Cwax-data from Castañeda et al. (2016) (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858559). Next to the isotopic compositions we also report concentrations of n-akanoic acids and n-alkanes.

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    Authors: Enguehard, Léa; Heim, Birgit; Kruse, Stefan; Frandsen, Peter C; +2 Authors

    This dataset represents 103 labelled approx. 60x60 meters shapefiles representing different forest types. Seventy-nine sites were visited forest plots during AWI field expeditions in summer 2018 in Chukotka and Western Yakutia, and in summer 2021 in Central Yakutia, Siberia, Russia. Twenty-four additional sites were identified using photo-interpretation of Google Earth Imagery© and Sentinel-2 imagery with regional expert knowledge. Each plot corresponds to a single shapefile, with a single label. The labels are the following: Larix woodland, class name 'Sparse Larch' (Class 0), open Larix forest, class name 'Medium Larch' (Class 1), closed Larix forest, class name 'Dense Larch' (Class 2), needle-leaf evergreen forest (Pinus, Picea), class name 'Evergreen' (Class 3), mixed broad-leaf and needle-leaf Summergreen forest, class name 'Mixed Summergreen' (Class 4), mixed needle-leaf and broadleaf Summergreen and Evergreen forest, class name 'Mixed Summergreen-Evergreen' (Class 5), and 'Burnt or Barre' (Class 6). We defined the labels based on the percentage of tree species present at the site from field visits (Kruse et al. 2019, Morgenstern et al. 2023), and the percentage of crown cover covering the plot following this protocol: • When the forest plot consisted of one tree species, the label consists of this species only. E.g. 60% Larix crown cover→ Label = Larch (sparse, medium, or dense: classes 0,1,2) • When the plot consisted of two tree species with one of less than 10%, the label was assigned to the dominating species. E.g. 60% Larix & 5% Pinus → Label = Larch Larch (sparse, medium, or dense: classes 0,1,2) • When the plot consisted of multiple tree species with comparable coverage (relative difference 50%). To enrich and balance the training dataset, we added a total of 24 plots corresponding to 'Evergreen' and 'Mixed Summergreen-Evergreen' labels that are chosen with expert knowledge using Sentinel-2 late summer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Google Earth imagery©.

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    Authors: Gerdts, Gunnar;

    This data collection contains bacteria counts and water temperature measurements at Long-term Ecological Research at AWI (LTER) station Helgoland Roads, North Sea from 1962 until 2002.

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    Authors: Guillerm, Emmanuel; Gardien, Véronique; Waldmann, Nicolas D; Brall, Niels S; +5 Authors

    The rain regime in the Eastern Mediterranean is primarily controlled by Mediterranean winter cyclonic systems. The lake level of the Dead Sea responds sensitively to hydrological changes, and can be used to track the evolution of the Mediterranean hydroclimate during the late Quaternary. However, lake level reconstructions beyond 70 ka are limited by a lack of paleoshorelines and dating methodologies. Here, we reconstruct the Dead Sea lake level back to 237 ka using measurements of brine density from halite fluid inclusions of the deep ICDP core 5017-1-A. We combine our mass balance-based reconstruction with an age reevaluation of published sequence stratigraphy-based lake levels, by tying their chronology to the ICDP core. The lake levels obtained with the two different methods compare very well, within better than 10 m. Combined with a compilation of published paleoshorelines for the last 70 ka, our reconstruction covers three glacial-interglacial cycles.

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