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  • European Marine Science
  • 2013-2022
  • Open Access
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  • European Marine Science

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    Authors: Waelbroeck, Claire; Tjiputra, Jerry; Guo, Chuncheng; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; +9 Authors

    We combine consistently dated benthic carbon isotopic records distributed over the entire Atlantic Ocean with numerical simulations performed by a glacial configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model with active ocean biogeochemistry, in order to interpret the observed Cibicides δ13C changes at the stadial-interstadial transition corresponding to the end of Heinrich Stadial 4 (HS4) in terms of ocean circulation and remineralization changes. We show that the marked increase in Cibicides δ13C observed at the end of HS4 between ~2000 and 4200 m in the Atlantic can be explained by changes in nutrient concentrations as simulated by the model in response to the halting of freshwater input in the high latitude glacial North Atlantic. Our model results show that this Cibicides δ13C signal is associated with changes in the ratio of southern-sourced (SSW) versus northern-sourced (NSW) water masses at the core sites, whereby SSW is replaced by NSW as a consequence of the resumption of deep water formation in the northern North Atlantic and Nordic Seas after the freshwater input is halted. Our results further suggest that the contribution of ocean circulation changes to this signal increases from ~40 % at 2000 m to ~80 % at 4000 m. Below ~4200 m, the model shows little ocean circulation change but an increase in remineralization across the transition marking the end of HS4. The simulated lower remineralization during stadials than interstadials is particularly pronounced in deep subantarctic sites, in agreement with the decrease in the export production of carbon to the deep Southern Ocean during stadials found in previous studies.

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    Authors: Jurado-Ruzafa, Alba;

    Regarding the research activities carried out by Oceanographic Centre of the Canary Islands (IEO-CSIC) during intersession, several studies on different topics were presented. Firstly, reproductive traits for the four main species have been analysed including all the data obtained since the monitoring system was launched in 2013. Although with some variations, the spawning season matched with winter and beginning spring for S. colias, T. picturatus and S. pilchardus. However, spawning individuals of S. aurita are present all year round. Sizes at first maturity (SFM) were also estimated, with slightly smaller sizes obtained for S. colias and T. picturatus (around 19 cm of total length) compared with the reference values (20 cm and 23 cm, respectively) (Jurado-Ruzafa and Santamaría, 2013; Lorenzo and Pajuelo, 1996). It seems that SFM remains stable for S. pilchardus (15 cm) (Méndez-Villamil et al., 1997). In the case of S. aurita, size at first maturity has been estimated for the first time in the Canary Islands, and has been recently published (Jurado-Ruzafa et al., 2022). Secondly, a first attempt to describe total catches of the Canary artisanal purse-seine fleet based on scientific observation shows that discards are more relevant than what was supposed, reaching the 25 percent of the total catches. The situation is even more concerning if only S. colias is considered, with discards around 40 percent of the total catches, mainly impacting on juveniles’ fraction, which is usually used as bait by commercial vessels but that are not officially reported. Finally, very preliminary results were shown to the working group about the potential adaptive plasticity in Scomber colias from the Canary Islands, based on otolith shape analyses. These results were obtained from analysing 748 otoliths extracted from August 2016 to December 2017. A DIvisive ANAlysis (DIANA) Clustering method using the fourth wavelet obtained from otolith contours resulted in the detection of five different morphotypes (or otolith phenotypes), with two of them representing 85 percent of the samples analysed, and whose individuals were slightly larger than for the other morphotypes. Further questions should be explored, addressing possible intraspecific variation in the growth rate among phenotypes; phenotypes proportions change in relation to seasonal variations; existence of different ecological strategies related to each phenotype and the presence of these otolith phenotypes in other geographical areas, as it has been described for T. picturatus (Tuset et al., 2019; Vasconcelos et al., 2021). References Jurado-Ruzafa, A. and M.T.G. Santamaría. 2013. Reproductive biology of the blue jack mackerel, Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich, 1825), off the Canary Islands. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 29(3): 526–531. Jurado-Ruzafa, A., B. Sotillo de Olano, Z. Santana Arocha, B. G. Mañé, C. Estil-las, E. Hernández, S. Jiménez, G. González-Lorenzo and C. Perales-Raya. 2022. Reproductive traits of the round sardinella in the Canary Islands (Spain, NW Africa). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, (early view) 1-7. Lorenzo, J. M. and J.G. Pajuelo. 1996. Growth and reproductive biology of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus off the Canary Islands. South African Journal of Marine Science, 17(1): 275-280. Méndez-Villamil, M., J.M. Lorenzo, J.M. González and R. Soto. 1997. Periodo reproductor y madurez sexual de la sardina Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792) en aguas de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias). Boletín del Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 13(1-2): 47-55. Tuset, V.M., A. Jurado-Ruzafa, J.L. Otero-Ferrer and M.T.G. Santamaría. 2019. Otolith phenotypic variability of the blue jack mackerel, Trachurus picturatus, from the Canary Islands (NE Atlantic): Implications in its population dynamic. Fisheries Research, 218: 48-58. Vasconcelos, J., A. Jurado-Ruzafa, J.L. Otero-Ferrer, A. Lombarte, R. Riera and V.M. Tuset. 2021. Thinking of Fish Population Discrimination: Population Average Phenotype vs. Population Phenotypes. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8(1489). BAses de Datos y Estadística de las pesquerías Artesanales de Canarias: Evaluación, Interacciones ambientales y Modelización de los Stocks Biología de recursos vivos de Canarias Estudio de las Pesquerías de AFRICa 2 PACA-BADE EPAFRIK-2 PACA-BIO

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    Authors: Wischhusen, P; Betancor, M.B.; Sprague, M.; Ortega-García, Aurelio; +3 Authors

    including iodothyronine deiodinases 1, 2 and 3 (dio1, dio2, dio3) was unaffected. Feeding Se enriched rotifers effectively increased Se in ABT larvae tissue. The improved growth observed in Se supplemented treatments might be related to an accelerated development as the flexion index was significantly higher in all Se enriched treatments compared to the non-supplemented control. A similar effect by Se supplementation has been previously described in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) in relation to an enhanced thyroid hormone activity by Se supplementation (Ribeiro et al., 2012). The Se level of 0.10 µg g-1 dw measured in non-supplemented rotifers is below known requirements in fish (Antony Jesu Prabhu et al. 2016). In contrast, rotifers supplemented with the lowest Se level (Se3) contained 4.42 µg Se g-1, which might be sufficient to cover requirements for this mineral as selenoproteins displayed maximum expression in ABT larvae fed this treatment. The increased seleno-enzyme production might have contributed towards an improved antioxidant status in ABT larvae, indicated by a transcriptional downregulation of redox sensitive antioxidant enzymes cat and sod. In conclusion, rotifers without Se enrichment are suboptimal for ABT larvae at first feeding. A dietary Se level of 4.42 µg g-1 dw is recommended as it boosted growth performance and improved the antioxidant status in ABT larvae.

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    Authors: Gilcoto, Miguel; Villacieros-Robineau, Nicolás; Piñeiro, Safo; Piedracoba, Silvia; +6 Authors
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    Authors: Martín-García, Laura; González-Porto, Marcos; Falcón, Jesús; González-Méndez, Érika; +5 Authors

    Algae blooms are becoming more frequent throughout the world, causing significant impacts on the environment and even on human health. Benthic cyanobacteria, such as the species of the genus Lyngbya C.Agardh ex Gomont, are one more component of the communities of intertidal and subtidal habitats of all the oceans. Nevertheless, these species present the ability to grow rapidly under certain conditions, even forming blooms that dominate the habitat, and eventually, may affect the rest of the species in the community harmfully. In this study, we present the results of an oceanographic survey carried out on the southern coasts of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote in November 2021, where the massive presence of Lyngbya sp. (species yet to be confirmed genetically) was detected on circalittoral bottoms and at depths greater than 100 m. Dense populations of this species were recognized visually, sampling with ROV-T Tasife, and were also identified by live samples collected with the Liropus ROV. Lyngbya populations presented different colors, mainly depending on the depth, being dark red in the shallowest waters at 80 m and whitish at around 150 m. The accumulations of filaments of this alga overgrown the bed and all the benthic species found there, especially some vulnerable habitat-forming species: cnidarian species such as the black corals Antipathes furcata, Antipathella wollastoni or Stichopathes gracilis, or sponges such as different species of the Axinellidae family. This is the first study assessing the impact of the algae bloom on the circalittoral benthic environment of The Canary Islands. The present study was funded by the project ESMARES2 from the IEO-CSIC, under the framework of the application of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), ordered by the Ministerio de Transición Ecológica y Reto Demográfico (MITERD) of Spain.

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    Authors: Lauretta, Matthew; Sampedro-Pastor, Paz;
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    Authors: Peliz, Alvaro; Piecha, Sandra; Sánchez-Leal, Ricardo Félix;
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    Authors: Sammartino, Simone; García-Lafuente, Jesús; Nadal, Irene; Sánchez-Leal, Ricardo Félix;
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    Authors: Cervera, Laura; Arizcun-Arizcun, Marta; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Cuesta, Alberto;

    Aquaculture is an economic sector which is continuously growing. However, natural outbreaks of pathogens constitute an important difficulty that this sector must face. Nodavirus (NNV) is one of the most prevalent pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea, causing viral encephalopathy and retinopathy to more than 170 fish species. One of the most affected species is European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), which is greatly important for the Spanish aquaculture sector. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short aminoacidic sequences, cationic and amphipathic with lytic activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens including viruses. Until now, scare studies have focused on AMPs antiviral activity in fish but with positive prospects. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the potential stimulatory effects of AMPs on the European sea bass immune system, as well as their potential as a prophylactic agent against NNV. Thus, Hepcidin (Hamp) and Dicentracin (Dic) antimicrobial peptides were chemically synthesized and intramuscularly administered to European sea bass juveniles. Head-kidney (HK) and muscle were removed after one day from the treatment to evaluate the immunomodulatory capability of the AMPs. In that moment, fish were infected with NNV and sampled two days after infection, where HK, muscle and brain were removed. In all samplings, serum samples were taken in order to perform functional analysis. Mortality and clinical signs of infection (ranked according to the severity) were recorded daily. Hamp and Dic administration resulted in a local recruitment of immune cells such as macrophages, neutrophils and T and B-cells to the site of injection. Moreover, the levels of AMPs were modulated both systemic and locally. Regarding the disease pattern upon NNV infection, AMPs administration reduced the transcription levels of proinflammatory gene markers in brain, leading to the prevention of neuronal damage and ameliorating the mortality rates. In addition, Hamp is also able to prevent, to a certain extent, NNV mortalities conferring partial protection against this disease. To conclude, the use of AMPs as European sea bass could be a valuable tool to prevent NNV disease in fish farms. Funded by MCIN/AEI 10.13039/501100011033 (grants RTI2018-096625-B-C33, PID2019-105522GB-100 and PRE2020-093771 to L.C) and “Fundación Séneca” (grant 19883/GERM/15). Evaluación de los efectos de las microalgas, incluidas en dietas de dorada, sobre el crecimiento, supervivencia y resistencia a infecciones. ALGAFISH

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    Authors: González, Gala; Cuesta, J.A.; Vilas, César; Baldó, Francisco; +2 Authors

    Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) has been present in Iberian waters since at least 2011, when it was first recorded in the Guadalquivir estuary. Little is known about the preferences and feeding strategies of weakfish outside of its native range; therefore, in this work, we carried out a comprehensive study between March 2021 and September 2021 to elucidate these matters. In total, the stomach contents of 300 fish were examined. The fish were collected in spring and summer in the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain), with individuals caught ranging from 185 to 590 mm in total length. Due to the sampling period and size range of individuals, ontogenic and seasonal (spring–summer) variations in the diet were also explored. Overall, fish and crustaceans were the dominant groups consumed by weakfish. The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and caramote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus) were the most abundant prey in each group. While no differences were found in the percentage of occurrence of fish in the non-empty stomachs analyzed in spring and summer (83%), a small increase was found in the percentage of occurrence of crustaceans from spring (20%) to summer (29%). In addition, the analysis of the results also suggested that weakfish of smaller sizes feed more on crustaceans, while bigger individuals feed mainly on fish. Our findings indicate that weakfish is a fully carnivorous species with a preference for fish. All this is in line with the diet and strategy that weakfish exhibits in its native area and with the first assessment made with the existing population in the Sado Estuary (Portugal). In recent years, due to the appearance of non-native species, there is increasing concern among local fishermen and the local authorities about the reduction in captures of certain species such as Penaeus kerathurus; therefore, this study could help researchers to understand the role of weakfish concerning this matter. The present study contributes to the ecological knowledge about this species in the Iberian Peninsula and the Gulf of Cadiz, helping the local authorities to establish, if needed, an appropriate management program to cope with this recently introduced species.

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    Authors: Waelbroeck, Claire; Tjiputra, Jerry; Guo, Chuncheng; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; +9 Authors

    We combine consistently dated benthic carbon isotopic records distributed over the entire Atlantic Ocean with numerical simulations performed by a glacial configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model with active ocean biogeochemistry, in order to interpret the observed Cibicides δ13C changes at the stadial-interstadial transition corresponding to the end of Heinrich Stadial 4 (HS4) in terms of ocean circulation and remineralization changes. We show that the marked increase in Cibicides δ13C observed at the end of HS4 between ~2000 and 4200 m in the Atlantic can be explained by changes in nutrient concentrations as simulated by the model in response to the halting of freshwater input in the high latitude glacial North Atlantic. Our model results show that this Cibicides δ13C signal is associated with changes in the ratio of southern-sourced (SSW) versus northern-sourced (NSW) water masses at the core sites, whereby SSW is replaced by NSW as a consequence of the resumption of deep water formation in the northern North Atlantic and Nordic Seas after the freshwater input is halted. Our results further suggest that the contribution of ocean circulation changes to this signal increases from ~40 % at 2000 m to ~80 % at 4000 m. Below ~4200 m, the model shows little ocean circulation change but an increase in remineralization across the transition marking the end of HS4. The simulated lower remineralization during stadials than interstadials is particularly pronounced in deep subantarctic sites, in agreement with the decrease in the export production of carbon to the deep Southern Ocean during stadials found in previous studies.

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    Authors: Jurado-Ruzafa, Alba;

    Regarding the research activities carried out by Oceanographic Centre of the Canary Islands (IEO-CSIC) during intersession, several studies on different topics were presented. Firstly, reproductive traits for the four main species have been analysed including all the data obtained since the monitoring system was launched in 2013. Although with some variations, the spawning season matched with winter and beginning spring for S. colias, T. picturatus and S. pilchardus. However, spawning individuals of S. aurita are present all year round. Sizes at first maturity (SFM) were also estimated, with slightly smaller sizes obtained for S. colias and T. picturatus (around 19 cm of total length) compared with the reference values (20 cm and 23 cm, respectively) (Jurado-Ruzafa and Santamaría, 2013; Lorenzo and Pajuelo, 1996). It seems that SFM remains stable for S. pilchardus (15 cm) (Méndez-Villamil et al., 1997). In the case of S. aurita, size at first maturity has been estimated for the first time in the Canary Islands, and has been recently published (Jurado-Ruzafa et al., 2022). Secondly, a first attempt to describe total catches of the Canary artisanal purse-seine fleet based on scientific observation shows that discards are more relevant than what was supposed, reaching the 25 percent of the total catches. The situation is even more concerning if only S. colias is considered, with discards around 40 percent of the total catches, mainly impacting on juveniles’ fraction, which is usually used as bait by commercial vessels but that are not officially reported. Finally, very preliminary results were shown to the working group about the potential adaptive plasticity in Scomber colias from the Canary Islands, based on otolith shape analyses. These results were obtained from analysing 748 otoliths extracted from August 2016 to December 2017. A DIvisive ANAlysis (DIANA) Clustering method using the fourth wavelet obtained from otolith contours resulted in the detection of five different morphotypes (or otolith phenotypes), with two of them representing 85 percent of the samples analysed, and whose individuals were slightly larger than for the other morphotypes. Further questions should be explored, addressing possible intraspecific variation in the growth rate among phenotypes; phenotypes proportions change in relation to seasonal variations; existence of different ecological strategies related to each phenotype and the presence of these otolith phenotypes in other geographical areas, as it has been described for T. picturatus (Tuset et al., 2019; Vasconcelos et al., 2021). References Jurado-Ruzafa, A. and M.T.G. Santamaría. 2013. Reproductive biology of the blue jack mackerel, Trachurus picturatus (Bowdich, 1825), off the Canary Islands. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 29(3): 526–531. Jurado-Ruzafa, A., B. Sotillo de Olano, Z. Santana Arocha, B. G. Mañé, C. Estil-las, E. Hernández, S. Jiménez, G. González-Lorenzo and C. Perales-Raya. 2022. Reproductive traits of the round sardinella in the Canary Islands (Spain, NW Africa). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, (early view) 1-7. Lorenzo, J. M. and J.G. Pajuelo. 1996. Growth and reproductive biology of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus off the Canary Islands. South African Journal of Marine Science, 17(1): 275-280. Méndez-Villamil, M., J.M. Lorenzo, J.M. González and R. Soto. 1997. Periodo reproductor y madurez sexual de la sardina Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792) en aguas de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias). Boletín del Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 13(1-2): 47-55. Tuset, V.M., A. Jurado-Ruzafa, J.L. Otero-Ferrer and M.T.G. Santamaría. 2019. Otolith phenotypic variability of the blue jack mackerel, Trachurus picturatus, from the Canary Islands (NE Atlantic): Implications in its population dynamic. Fisheries Research, 218: 48-58. Vasconcelos, J., A. Jurado-Ruzafa, J.L. Otero-Ferrer, A. Lombarte, R. Riera and V.M. Tuset. 2021. Thinking of Fish Population Discrimination: Population Average Phenotype vs. Population Phenotypes. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8(1489). BAses de Datos y Estadística de las pesquerías Artesanales de Canarias: Evaluación, Interacciones ambientales y Modelización de los Stocks Biología de recursos vivos de Canarias Estudio de las Pesquerías de AFRICa 2 PACA-BADE EPAFRIK-2 PACA-BIO

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    Authors: Wischhusen, P; Betancor, M.B.; Sprague, M.; Ortega-García, Aurelio; +3 Authors

    including iodothyronine deiodinases 1, 2 and 3 (dio1, dio2, dio3) was unaffected. Feeding Se enriched rotifers effectively increased Se in ABT larvae tissue. The improved growth observed in Se supplemented treatments might be related to an accelerated development as the flexion index was significantly higher in all Se enriched treatments compared to the non-supplemented control. A similar effect by Se supplementation has been previously described in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) in relation to an enhanced thyroid hormone activity by Se supplementation (Ribeiro et al., 2012). The Se level of 0.10 µg g-1 dw measured in non-supplemented rotifers is below known requirements in fish (Antony Jesu Prabhu et al. 2016). In contrast, rotifers supplemented with the lowest Se level (Se3) contained 4.42 µg Se g-1, which might be sufficient to cover requirements for this mineral as selenoproteins displayed maximum expression in ABT larvae fed this treatment. The increased seleno-enzyme production might have contributed towards an improved antioxidant status in ABT larvae, indicated by a transcriptional downregulation of redox sensitive antioxidant enzymes cat and sod. In conclusion, rotifers without Se enrichment are suboptimal for ABT larvae at first feeding. A dietary Se level of 4.42 µg g-1 dw is recommended as it boosted growth performance and improved the antioxidant status in ABT larvae.

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    Authors: Gilcoto, Miguel; Villacieros-Robineau, Nicolás; Piñeiro, Safo; Piedracoba, Silvia; +6 Authors
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    Authors: Martín-García, Laura; González-Porto, Marcos; Falcón, Jesús; González-Méndez, Érika; +5 Authors

    Algae blooms are becoming more frequent throughout the world, causing significant impacts on the environment and even on human health. Benthic cyanobacteria, such as the species of the genus Lyngbya C.Agardh ex Gomont, are one more component of the communities of intertidal and subtidal habitats of all the oceans. Nevertheless, these species present the ability to grow rapidly under certain conditions, even forming blooms that dominate the habitat, and eventually, may affect the rest of the species in the community harmfully. In this study, we present the results of an oceanographic survey carried out on the southern coasts of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote in November 2021, where the massive presence of Lyngbya sp. (species yet to be confirmed genetically) was detected on circalittoral bottoms and at depths greater than 100 m. Dense populations of this species were recognized visually, sampling with ROV-T Tasife, and were also identified by live samples collected with the Liropus ROV. Lyngbya populations presented different colors, mainly depending on the depth, being dark red in the shallowest waters at 80 m and whitish at around 150 m. The accumulations of filaments of this alga overgrown the bed and all the benthic species found there, especially some vulnerable habitat-forming species: cnidarian species such as the black corals Antipathes furcata, Antipathella wollastoni or Stichopathes gracilis, or sponges such as different species of the Axinellidae family. This is the first study assessing the impact of the algae bloom on the circalittoral benthic environment of The Canary Islands. The present study was funded by the project ESMARES2 from the IEO-CSIC, under the framework of the application of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), ordered by the Ministerio de Transición Ecológica y Reto Demográfico (MITERD) of Spain.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lauretta, Matthew; Sampedro-Pastor, Paz;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Recolector de Cienci...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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