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15 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2018-2022
  • Open Access
  • Other research products
  • EU
  • Aurora Universities Network

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Romero-Alvarez, Johana; Lupaşcu, Aurelia; Lowe, Douglas; Badia, Alba; +4 Authors

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations depend on a combination of hemispheric, regional, and local-scale processes. Estimates of how much O3 is produced locally vs. transported from further afield are essential in air quality management and regulatory policies. Here, a tagged-ozone mechanism within the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the contributions to surface O3 in the UK from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from inside and outside the UK during May–August 2015. The contribution of the different source regions to three regulatory O3 metrics is also examined. It is shown that model simulations predict the concentration and spatial distribution of surface O3 with a domain-wide mean bias of −3.7 ppbv. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from the UK and Europe account for 13 % and 16 %, respectively, of the monthly mean surface O3 in the UK, as the majority (71 %) of O3 originates from the hemispheric background. Hemispheric O3 contributes the most to concentrations in the north and the west of the UK with peaks in May, whereas European and UK contributions are most significant in the east, south-east, and London, i.e. the UK's most populated areas, intensifying towards June and July. Moreover, O3 from European sources is generally transported to the UK rather than produced in situ. It is demonstrated that more stringent emission controls over continental Europe, particularly in western Europe, would be necessary to improve the health-related metric MDA8 O3 above 50 and 60 ppbv. Emission controls over larger areas, such as the Northern Hemisphere, are instead required to lessen the impacts on ecosystems as quantified by the AOT40 metric.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Chemistr...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Guerreiro, Catarina V; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; Valente, André; +4 Authors

    Data refer to export fluxes of carbonate produced by calcifying phytoplankton (coccolithophores), and coccolith-CaCO₃ percent contribution to total carbonate flux across the tropical North Atlantic, from upwelling affected NW Africa, via three ocean sites along 12°N to the Caribbean. Sampling was undertaken by means of a spatial array of four time-series sediment traps (i.e., CB at 21°N 20°W; M1U at 12°N 23°W; M2U at 14°N 37°W; M4U at 12°N 49°W; Guerreiro et al., 2021) collecting particle fluxes in two-week intervals, from October 2012 to February 2014, allowing to track temporal changes along the southern margin of the North Atlantic central gyre. Auxiliary PIC (Particulate Inorganic Carbon) data from NASA's Ocean Biology Processing Group (https://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov) are also provided for the sediment sampling period at all four trap sites. Particle flux data (mg/m²/d) of CaCO₃, organic matter, particulate organic carbon (POC), biogenic silica (bSiO₂) and unspecified residual fraction are provided for sediment trap site CB.

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    Authors: Lundstad, Elin; Brugnara, Yuri; Brönnimann, Stefan;

    There is a growing need for past weather and climate data to support science and decision-making. This paper describes the compilation and the construction of a global multivariable (air temperature, pressure, precipitation sum, number of precipitation days) monthly instrumental climate database that encompasses a substantial body of the known early instrumental time series. The dataset contains series compiled from existing databases that start before 1890 (though continuing to the present) as well as a large amount of newly rescued data. All series underwent a quality control procedure and subdaily series were processed to monthly mean values. An inventory was compiled, and the collection was deduplicated based on coordinates and mutual correlations. The data are provided in a common format accompanied by the inventory. The collection totals 12452 meteorological records in 118 countries. The data has been merged from 18250 original data files. The data can be used for climate reconstructions and analyses. It is the most comprehensive global monthly climate data set for the preindustrial period.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Guerreiro, Catarina V; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; Korte, Laura F; +2 Authors

    Data refer to export fluxes of calcifying phytoplankton (coccolithophores) across the tropical North Atlantic, from upwelling affected NW Africa, via three ocean sites along 12°N to the Caribbean. Sampling was undertaken by means of a spatial array of four time-series sediment traps (i.e., CB at 21°N 20°W; M1U at 12°N 23°W; M2U at 14°N 37°W; M4U at 12°N 49°W; Guerreiro et al., 2017) collecting particle fluxes in two-week intervals, from October 2012 to February 2014, allowing to track temporal changes along the southern margin of the North Atlantic central gyre. Auxiliary environmental data regarding the mixed layer depth (MLD) are provided for the sampling period at all four trap sites, while Sea Surface Temperature (SST), wind velocity, daily precipitation and sea surface Chl-a concentrations are only provided for sites M1 and CB. All data in supplement to Guerreiro et al. (2019), with links to Guerreiro et al. (2017) and Korte et al. (2017, 2020) (see https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.881457).

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    Authors: Tangunan, Deborah N; Berke, Melissa A; Cartagena-Sierra, Alejandra; Flores, José Abel; +11 Authors

    In the southern Indian Ocean, the position of the subtropical front – the boundary between colder, fresher waters to the south and warmer, saltier waters to the north – has a strong influence on the upper ocean hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry. Here we analyse a sedimentary record from the Agulhas Plateau, located close to the modern position of the subtropical front and use alkenones and coccolith assemblages to reconstruct oceanographic conditions over the past 300,000 years. We identify a strong glacial-interglacial variability in sea surface temperature and productivity associated with subtropical front migration over the Agulhas Plateau, as well as shorter-term high frequency variability aligned with variations in high latitude insolation. Alkenone and coccolith abundances, in combination with diatom and organic carbon records indicate high glacial export productivity. We conclude that the biological pump was more efficient and strengthened during glacial periods, which could partly account for the reported reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

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    Authors: Korte, Laura F; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; van der Does, Michèlle; Guerreiro, Catarina V; +5 Authors

    To assess the impacts of Amazon River discharge, Saharan dust deposition, N2‐fixation and mixed‐layer deepening on the biological carbon pump, sediment traps were moored from October 2012 to November 2013 at two sites in the western tropical North Atlantic (49°W,12°N/57°W,12°N). Particle exports interpreted along with satellite‐ and Argo‐float data show peak fluxes in biogenic silica (31 mg m**−2 d**−1) and organic carbon (25 mg m**−2 d**−1) during the fall of 2013 that were ten to five times higher than any time earlier during the year. These high export fluxes occurred in tandem with high surface chlorophyll a concentrations associated with the dispersal of the Amazon River plume, following retroflection into the North‐Atlantic‐Counter‐Current. High fucoxanthin fluxes (> 80 μ g m**−2 d**−1) and low δ15N‐values (−0.6‰) suggest a large contribution by marine diatom‐diazotrophic‐associations, possibly enhanced by wet Saharan dust deposition. During summer, the Amazon River plume resulted in high mass fluxes at 57°W that were enriched in biogenic silica but weakly influenced by diazotrophic‐associations compared to the fall event at 49°W. High carbonate‐carbon fluxes (17 mg m**−2 d**−1) dominated a second single event at 49°W during spring that was likely triggered by mixed‐layer deepening. Rain‐ratios of BSi/Ccarb amounted to 1.7 when associated with high export fluxes linked to the Amazon River plume. Compared to an annual average of 0.3, this indicates a more efficient uptake of CO2 via the biological pump compared to when the plume was absent, hence supporting earlier observations that the Amazon River plume is important for ocean CO2 sequestration.

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    Authors: Waelbroeck, Claire; Lougheed, Bryan C; Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Missiaen, Lise; +59 Authors

    Rapid changes in ocean circulation and climate have been observed in marine-sediment and ice cores over the last glacial period and deglaciation, highlighting the non-linear character of the climate system and underlining the possibility of rapid climate shifts in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. To date, these rapid changes in climate and ocean circulation are still not fully explained. One obstacle hindering progress in our understanding of the interactions between past ocean circulation and climate changes is the difficulty of accurately dating marine cores. Here, we present a set of 92 marine sediment cores from the Atlantic Ocean for which we have established age-depth models that are consistent with the Greenland GICC05 ice core chronology, and computed the associated dating uncertainties, using a new deposition modeling technique. This is the first set of consistently dated marine sediment cores enabling paleoclimate scientists to evaluate leads/lags between circulation and climate changes over vast regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, this data set is of direct use in paleoclimate modeling studies.

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    Authors: de Bar, Marijke W; Ullgren, Jenny; Thunell, Robert C; Wakeham, Stuart G; +4 Authors

    In this study we analyzed sediment trap time series from five tropical sites to assess seasonal variations in concentrations and fluxes of long-chain diols (LCDs) and associated proxies with emphasis on the long-chain diol index (LDI) temperature proxy. For the tropical Atlantic, we observe that generally less than 2 % of LCDs settling from the water column are preserved in the sediment. The Atlantic and Mozambique Channel traps reveal minimal seasonal variations in the LDI, similar to the two other lipid-based temperature proxies TEX86 and U37K′. In addition, annual mean LDI-derived temperatures are in good agreement with the annual mean satellite-derived sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In contrast, the LDI in the Cariaco Basin shows larger seasonal variation, as do the TEX86 and U37K′. Here, the LDI underestimates SST during the warmest months, which is possibly due to summer stratification and the habitat depth of the diol producers deepening to around 20–30 m. Surface sediment LDI temperatures in the Atlantic and Mozambique Channel compare well with the average LDI-derived temperatures from the overlying sediment traps, as well as with decadal annual mean SST. Lastly, we observed large seasonal variations in the diol index, as an indicator of upwelling conditions, at three sites: in the eastern Atlantic, potentially linked to Guinea Dome upwelling; in the Cariaco Basin, likely caused by seasonal upwelling; and in the Mozambique Channel, where diol index variations may be driven by upwelling from favorable winds and/or eddy migration.

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    Authors: Coll, Joan Ramon; van der Schrier, Gerard; Aguilar, Enric; Rasol, Dubravka; +2 Authors

    In the INDECIS project, around 610K meteorological station-based observations were rescued over the Balkans and Central Europe for the main climate variables (maximum and minimum temperature, rainfall, sunshine duration and snow depth) along the 20th century at daily scale. Digitizing was carried out by using a strict "key as you see" method, meaning that the digitizers type the values provided by data images, rather than using any coding system. Digitizers carefully cross-checked the typed values against original sources for the 10th, 20th and 30th day of each month to make sure that no days were skipped or repeated during the digitizing process. Monthly totals and statistical summaries were computed from transcribed data and were compared with monthly totals and summaries provided by data sources to check accuracy as preliminary quality control. This dataset is considered as raw data since any consistent quality control and homogenisation testing were applied to identify potential errors and data biases.

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    Authors: Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; Jansen, Eystein; Kuijpers, Antoon; +2 Authors

    Expansion of fresh and sea-ice loaded surface waters from the Arctic Ocean into the sub-polar North Atlantic is suggested to modulate the northward heat transport within the North Atlantic Current (NAC). The Reykjanes Ridge south of Iceland is a suitable area to reconstruct changes in the mid- to late Holocene fresh and sea-ice loaded surface water expansion, which is marked by the Subarctic Front (SAF). Here, shifts in the location of the SAF result from the interaction of freshwater expansion and inflow of warmer and saline (NAC) waters to the Ridge. Using planktic foraminiferal assemblage and concentration data from a marine sediment core on the eastern Reykjanes Ridge elucidates SAF location changes and thus, changes in the water-mass composition (upper ~200 m) during the last c. 5.8 ka BP. Our foraminifer data highlight a late Holocene shift (at c. 3.0 ka BP) in water-mass composition at the Reykjanes Ridge, which reflects the occurrence of cooler and fresher surface waters when compared to the mid-Holocene. We document two phases of SAF presence at the study site: from (i) c. 5.5 to 5.0 ka BP and (ii) c. 2.7 to 1.5 ka BP. Both phases are characterized by marked increases in the planktic foraminiferal concentration, which coincides with freshwater expansions and warm subsurface water conditions within the sub-polar North Atlantic. We link the SAF changes, from c. 2.7 to 1.5 ka BP, to a strengthening of the East Greenland Current and awarming in the NAC, as identified by various studies underlying these two currents. From c. 1.5 ka BP onwards, we record a prominent subsurface cooling and continued occurrence of fresh and sea-ice loaded surface waters at the study site. This implies that the SAF migrated to the southeast of our core site during the last millennium.

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    Authors: Romero-Alvarez, Johana; Lupaşcu, Aurelia; Lowe, Douglas; Badia, Alba; +4 Authors

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations depend on a combination of hemispheric, regional, and local-scale processes. Estimates of how much O3 is produced locally vs. transported from further afield are essential in air quality management and regulatory policies. Here, a tagged-ozone mechanism within the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the contributions to surface O3 in the UK from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from inside and outside the UK during May–August 2015. The contribution of the different source regions to three regulatory O3 metrics is also examined. It is shown that model simulations predict the concentration and spatial distribution of surface O3 with a domain-wide mean bias of −3.7 ppbv. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from the UK and Europe account for 13 % and 16 %, respectively, of the monthly mean surface O3 in the UK, as the majority (71 %) of O3 originates from the hemispheric background. Hemispheric O3 contributes the most to concentrations in the north and the west of the UK with peaks in May, whereas European and UK contributions are most significant in the east, south-east, and London, i.e. the UK's most populated areas, intensifying towards June and July. Moreover, O3 from European sources is generally transported to the UK rather than produced in situ. It is demonstrated that more stringent emission controls over continental Europe, particularly in western Europe, would be necessary to improve the health-related metric MDA8 O3 above 50 and 60 ppbv. Emission controls over larger areas, such as the Northern Hemisphere, are instead required to lessen the impacts on ecosystems as quantified by the AOT40 metric.

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    Authors: Guerreiro, Catarina V; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; Valente, André; +4 Authors

    Data refer to export fluxes of carbonate produced by calcifying phytoplankton (coccolithophores), and coccolith-CaCO₃ percent contribution to total carbonate flux across the tropical North Atlantic, from upwelling affected NW Africa, via three ocean sites along 12°N to the Caribbean. Sampling was undertaken by means of a spatial array of four time-series sediment traps (i.e., CB at 21°N 20°W; M1U at 12°N 23°W; M2U at 14°N 37°W; M4U at 12°N 49°W; Guerreiro et al., 2021) collecting particle fluxes in two-week intervals, from October 2012 to February 2014, allowing to track temporal changes along the southern margin of the North Atlantic central gyre. Auxiliary PIC (Particulate Inorganic Carbon) data from NASA's Ocean Biology Processing Group (https://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov) are also provided for the sediment sampling period at all four trap sites. Particle flux data (mg/m²/d) of CaCO₃, organic matter, particulate organic carbon (POC), biogenic silica (bSiO₂) and unspecified residual fraction are provided for sediment trap site CB.

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    Authors: Lundstad, Elin; Brugnara, Yuri; Brönnimann, Stefan;

    There is a growing need for past weather and climate data to support science and decision-making. This paper describes the compilation and the construction of a global multivariable (air temperature, pressure, precipitation sum, number of precipitation days) monthly instrumental climate database that encompasses a substantial body of the known early instrumental time series. The dataset contains series compiled from existing databases that start before 1890 (though continuing to the present) as well as a large amount of newly rescued data. All series underwent a quality control procedure and subdaily series were processed to monthly mean values. An inventory was compiled, and the collection was deduplicated based on coordinates and mutual correlations. The data are provided in a common format accompanied by the inventory. The collection totals 12452 meteorological records in 118 countries. The data has been merged from 18250 original data files. The data can be used for climate reconstructions and analyses. It is the most comprehensive global monthly climate data set for the preindustrial period.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Guerreiro, Catarina V; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; Korte, Laura F; +2 Authors

    Data refer to export fluxes of calcifying phytoplankton (coccolithophores) across the tropical North Atlantic, from upwelling affected NW Africa, via three ocean sites along 12°N to the Caribbean. Sampling was undertaken by means of a spatial array of four time-series sediment traps (i.e., CB at 21°N 20°W; M1U at 12°N 23°W; M2U at 14°N 37°W; M4U at 12°N 49°W; Guerreiro et al., 2017) collecting particle fluxes in two-week intervals, from October 2012 to February 2014, allowing to track temporal changes along the southern margin of the North Atlantic central gyre. Auxiliary environmental data regarding the mixed layer depth (MLD) are provided for the sampling period at all four trap sites, while Sea Surface Temperature (SST), wind velocity, daily precipitation and sea surface Chl-a concentrations are only provided for sites M1 and CB. All data in supplement to Guerreiro et al. (2019), with links to Guerreiro et al. (2017) and Korte et al. (2017, 2020) (see https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.881457).

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    Authors: Tangunan, Deborah N; Berke, Melissa A; Cartagena-Sierra, Alejandra; Flores, José Abel; +11 Authors

    In the southern Indian Ocean, the position of the subtropical front – the boundary between colder, fresher waters to the south and warmer, saltier waters to the north – has a strong influence on the upper ocean hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry. Here we analyse a sedimentary record from the Agulhas Plateau, located close to the modern position of the subtropical front and use alkenones and coccolith assemblages to reconstruct oceanographic conditions over the past 300,000 years. We identify a strong glacial-interglacial variability in sea surface temperature and productivity associated with subtropical front migration over the Agulhas Plateau, as well as shorter-term high frequency variability aligned with variations in high latitude insolation. Alkenone and coccolith abundances, in combination with diatom and organic carbon records indicate high glacial export productivity. We conclude that the biological pump was more efficient and strengthened during glacial periods, which could partly account for the reported reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

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    Authors: Korte, Laura F; Brummer, Geert-Jan A; van der Does, Michèlle; Guerreiro, Catarina V; +5 Authors

    To assess the impacts of Amazon River discharge, Saharan dust deposition, N2‐fixation and mixed‐layer deepening on the biological carbon pump, sediment traps were moored from October 2012 to November 2013 at two sites in the western tropical North Atlantic (49°W,12°N/57°W,12°N). Particle exports interpreted along with satellite‐ and Argo‐float data show peak fluxes in biogenic silica (31 mg m**−2 d**−1) and organic carbon (25 mg m**−2 d**−1) during the fall of 2013 that were ten to five times higher than any time earlier during the year. These high export fluxes occurred in tandem with high surface chlorophyll a concentrations associated with the dispersal of the Amazon River plume, following retroflection into the North‐Atlantic‐Counter‐Current. High fucoxanthin fluxes (> 80 μ g m**−2 d**−1) and low δ15N‐values (−0.6‰) suggest a large contribution by marine diatom‐diazotrophic‐associations, possibly enhanced by wet Saharan dust deposition. During summer, the Amazon River plume resulted in high mass fluxes at 57°W that were enriched in biogenic silica but weakly influenced by diazotrophic‐associations compared to the fall event at 49°W. High carbonate‐carbon fluxes (17 mg m**−2 d**−1) dominated a second single event at 49°W during spring that was likely triggered by mixed‐layer deepening. Rain‐ratios of BSi/Ccarb amounted to 1.7 when associated with high export fluxes linked to the Amazon River plume. Compared to an annual average of 0.3, this indicates a more efficient uptake of CO2 via the biological pump compared to when the plume was absent, hence supporting earlier observations that the Amazon River plume is important for ocean CO2 sequestration.

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    Authors: Waelbroeck, Claire; Lougheed, Bryan C; Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Missiaen, Lise; +59 Authors

    Rapid changes in ocean circulation and climate have been observed in marine-sediment and ice cores over the last glacial period and deglaciation, highlighting the non-linear character of the climate system and underlining the possibility of rapid climate shifts in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. To date, these rapid changes in climate and ocean circulation are still not fully explained. One obstacle hindering progress in our understanding of the interactions between past ocean circulation and climate changes is the difficulty of accurately dating marine cores. Here, we present a set of 92 marine sediment cores from the Atlantic Ocean for which we have established age-depth models that are consistent with the Greenland GICC05 ice core chronology, and computed the associated dating uncertainties, using a new deposition modeling technique. This is the first set of consistently dated marine sediment cores enabling paleoclimate scientists to evaluate leads/lags between circulation and climate changes over vast regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Moreover, this data set is of direct use in paleoclimate modeling studies.

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    Authors: de Bar, Marijke W; Ullgren, Jenny; Thunell, Robert C; Wakeham, Stuart G; +4 Authors

    In this study we analyzed sediment trap time series from five tropical sites to assess seasonal variations in concentrations and fluxes of long-chain diols (LCDs) and associated proxies with emphasis on the long-chain diol index (LDI) temperature proxy. For the tropical Atlantic, we observe that generally less than 2 % of LCDs settling from the water column are preserved in the sediment. The Atlantic and Mozambique Channel traps reveal minimal seasonal variations in the LDI, similar to the two other lipid-based temperature proxies TEX86 and U37K′. In addition, annual mean LDI-derived temperatures are in good agreement with the annual mean satellite-derived sea surface temperatures (SSTs). In contrast, the LDI in the Cariaco Basin shows larger seasonal variation, as do the TEX86 and U37K′. Here, the LDI underestimates SST during the warmest months, which is possibly due to summer stratification and the habitat depth of the diol producers deepening to around 20–30 m. Surface sediment LDI temperatures in the Atlantic and Mozambique Channel compare well with the average LDI-derived temperatures from the overlying sediment traps, as well as with decadal annual mean SST. Lastly, we observed large seasonal variations in the diol index, as an indicator of upwelling conditions, at three sites: in the eastern Atlantic, potentially linked to Guinea Dome upwelling; in the Cariaco Basin, likely caused by seasonal upwelling; and in the Mozambique Channel, where diol index variations may be driven by upwelling from favorable winds and/or eddy migration.

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    Authors: Coll, Joan Ramon; van der Schrier, Gerard; Aguilar, Enric; Rasol, Dubravka; +2 Authors

    In the INDECIS project, around 610K meteorological station-based observations were rescued over the Balkans and Central Europe for the main climate variables (maximum and minimum temperature, rainfall, sunshine duration and snow depth) along the 20th century at daily scale. Digitizing was carried out by using a strict "key as you see" method, meaning that the digitizers type the values provided by data images, rather than using any coding system. Digitizers carefully cross-checked the typed values against original sources for the 10th, 20th and 30th day of each month to make sure that no days were skipped or repeated during the digitizing process. Monthly totals and statistical summaries were computed from transcribed data and were compared with monthly totals and summaries provided by data sources to check accuracy as preliminary quality control. This dataset is considered as raw data since any consistent quality control and homogenisation testing were applied to identify potential errors and data biases.

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