The Daily Egg Production Method (DEPM) to estimate the Anchovy Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) in the Gulf of Cádiz (ICES, Subdivision 9a South) is conducted by Spain (Centro Nacional Instituto Español de Oceanografía, CSIC) every three years, since 2005. BOCADEVA 0720 is the sixth survey of the historical DEPM series for anchovy in the Gulf of Cádiz and was delivered on board R/V Ramón Margalef (CNIEO) from the 9th to the 17th of July 2020. The surveyed area extended from Strait of Gibraltar to Cape San Vicente (Spanish and Portuguese waters in the Gulf of Cadiz). Plankton samples, along a grid of 21 transects perpendicular to the coast were obtained for the spawning area delimitation and density estimation of the daily egg production. The survey objectives also included the characterization of the oceanographic and meteorological conditions in the study area. The samples to estimate adult parameters (sex ratio, female mean weight, batch fecundity and spawning fraction) were obtained in the acoustic survey “ECOCADIZ 2020-07”, carried out during the same period. This working document provides a d escription of the survey, laboratory analysis and estimation procedures used to obtain the Gulf of Cadiz Anchovy SSB by DEPM for 2020 in the South-Atlantic Iberian Stock.
Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
Project: EC | TRIATLAS (817578)
The values of natural abundance of stable isotopes were measured in 13 micronekton fish species sampled during the MAFIA cruise (North Atlantic, April 2015). This dataset contains the values obtained for carbon and nitrogen in bulk tissues, and nitrogen values in amino acids. Length data and the number of individuals analysed for each species are also provided. Mesopelagic fishes were collected using a ''Mesopelagos” net (5x7 m mouth opening, 58 m total lenght) equipped with graded-mesh netting (starting with 30 mm and ending with 4 mm) and a multi-sampler for collecting samples from 5 different depth layers (Olivar et al., 2017). For C:N and stable isotope analyses, individual fish were eviscerated, freeze-dried and weighted. Aliquots of muscular tissue (or whole individuals for species of small size) were analyzed in an elemental analyzer (bulk tissues, Olivar et al., 2019) or a gas chromatograph (derivatized amino acids, Mompeán et al., 2016) coupled to isotope-ratio mass spectrometers. This research was funded by projects MAFIA (CTM2012-39587-C04), BATHYPELAGIC (CTM2016-78853-R), and QLOCKS (PID2020-115620RB-100) from the Plan Estatal de I+D+I (Spain), projects SUMMER (Grant Agreement 817806) and TRIATLAS (Grant Agreement 817578), from the European Union (Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme), and the support through the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S).
Hopwood, Mark J.; Sanchez, Nicolas; Polyviou, Despo; Leiknes, Øystein; Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto; Achterberg, Eric P.; Ardelan, Murat V.; Aristegui, Javier; Bach, Lennart; Besiktepe, Sengul; +6 more
Hopwood, Mark J.; Sanchez, Nicolas; Polyviou, Despo; Leiknes, Øystein; Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto; Achterberg, Eric P.; Ardelan, Murat V.; Aristegui, Javier; Bach, Lennart; Besiktepe, Sengul; Heriot, Yohann; Kalantzi, Ioanna; Terbıyık Kurt, Tuba; Santi, Ioulia; Tsagaraki, Tatiana M.; Turner, David;
Project: EC | OCEAN-CERTAIN (603773)
The extracellular concentration of H2O2 in surface aquatic environments is controlled by a balance between photochemical production and the microbial synthesis of catalase and peroxidase enzymes to remove H2O2 from solution. In any kind of incubation experiment, the formation rates and equilibrium concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) such as H2O2 may be sensitive to both the experiment design, particularly to the regulation of incident light, and the abundance of different microbial groups, as both cellular H2O2 production and catalase–peroxidase enzyme production rates differ between species. Whilst there are extensive measurements of photochemical H2O2 formation rates and the distribution of H2O2 in the marine environment, it is poorly constrained how different microbial groups affect extracellular H2O2 concentrations, how comparable extracellular H2O2 concentrations within large-scale incubation experiments are to those observed in the surface-mixed layer, and to what extent a mismatch with environmentally relevant concentrations of ROS in incubations could influence biological processes differently to what would be observed in nature. Here we show that both experiment design and bacterial abundance consistently exert control on extracellular H2O2 concentrations across a range of incubation experiments in diverse marine environments. During four large-scale (>1000 L) mesocosm experiments (in Gran Canaria, the Mediterranean, Patagonia and Svalbard) most experimental factors appeared to exert only minor, or no, direct effect on H2O2 concentrations. For example, in three of four experiments where pH was manipulated to 0.4–0.5 below ambient pH, no significant change was evident in extracellular H2O2 concentrations relative to controls. An influence was sometimes inferred from zooplankton density, but not consistently between different incubation experiments, and no change in H2O2 was evident in controlled experiments using different densities of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus grazing on the diatom Skeletonema costatum (<1 % change in [H2O2] comparing copepod densities from 1 to 10 L−1). Instead, the changes in H2O2 concentration contrasting high- and low-zooplankton incubations appeared to arise from the resulting changes in bacterial activity. The correlation between bacterial abundance and extracellular H2O2 was stronger in some incubations than others (R2 range 0.09 to 0.55), yet high bacterial densities were consistently associated with low H2O2. Nonetheless, the main control on H2O2 concentrations during incubation experiments relative to those in ambient, unenclosed waters was the regulation of incident light. In an open (lidless) mesocosm experiment in Gran Canaria, H2O2 was persistently elevated (2–6-fold) above ambient concentrations; whereas using closed high-density polyethylene mesocosms in Crete, Svalbard and Patagonia H2O2 within incubations was always reduced (median 10 %–90 %) relative to ambient waters.
The speciation of dissolved iron (DFe) in the ocean is widely assumed to consist almost exclusively of Fe(III)-ligand complexes. Yet in most aqueous environments a poorly defined fraction of DFe also exists as Fe(II), the speciation of which is uncertain. Here we deploy flow injection analysis to measure in situ Fe(II) concentrations during a series of mesocosm/microcosm/multistressor experiments in coastal environments in addition to the decay rate of this Fe(II) when moved into the dark. During five mesocosm/microcosm/multistressor experiments in Svalbard and Patagonia, where dissolved (0.2 µm) Fe and Fe(II) were quantified simultaneously, Fe(II) constituted 24 %–65 % of DFe, suggesting that Fe(II) was a large fraction of the DFe pool. When this Fe(II) was allowed to decay in the dark, the vast majority of measured oxidation rate constants were less than calculated constants derived from ambient temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved O2. The oxidation rates of Fe(II) spikes added to Atlantic seawater more closely matched calculated rate constants. The difference between observed and theoretical decay rates in Svalbard and Patagonia was most pronounced at Fe(II) concentrations <2 nM, suggesting that the effect may have arisen from organic Fe(II) ligands. This apparent enhancement of Fe(II) stability under post-bloom conditions and the existence of such a high fraction of DFe as Fe(II) challenge the assumption that DFe speciation in coastal seawater is dominated by ligand bound-Fe(III) species.
Glider vehicles are now perhaps some of the most prolific providers of real-time and near-real-time operational oceanographic data. However, the data from these vehicles can and should be considered to have a long-term legacy value capable of playing a critical role in understanding and separating inter-annual, inter-decadal, and longterm global change. To achieve this, we have to go further than simply assuming the manufacturer’s calibrations, and field correct glider data in a more traditional way, for example, by careful comparison to water bottle calibrated lowered CTD datasets and/or “gold” standard recent climatologies. In this manuscript, we bring into the 21st century a historical technique that has been used manually by oceanographers for many years/decades for field correction/inter-calibration, thermal lag correction, and adjustment for biological fouling. The technique has now been made semi-automatic for machine processing of oceanographic glider data, although its future and indeed its origins have far wider scope. The subject of this manuscript is drawn from the original Description of Work (DoW) for a key task in the recently completed JERICO-NEXT (Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatories) EU-funded program, but goes on to consider future application and the suitability for integration with machine learning. Refereed 14.A Sea surface salinity Subsurface salinity TRL 8 Actual system completed and "mission qualified" through test and demonstration in an operational environment (ground or space) Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) Standard Operating Procedure 2019-12-03