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  • European Marine Science
  • 2014-2023
  • Open Access
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martínez Moreno, Josué;

    This dataset includes the NEMO 4.0.2 configuration used and analysed in the paper titled "Eddy-driven heterogeneity in sea ice during the ice-growth season". The output data is approximately 4TB for the 3 idealised configuration used in the manuscript, thus we opted to distribute the configuration. Note: The initial conditions for each simulation are compressed into the file `init_cond.zip` The configuration for one of the simulations is compressed in the file `config.zip` In order to reproduce all the runs, it's only required to change the initial conditions in the file namelist_cfg and namelist_ice_cfg. Further information and scripts to reproduce the result of the manuscript can be found at: https://github.com/josuemtzmo/Ice_formation

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    ZENODO
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    Authors: Pagano, Pasquale; Pittonet, Sara; Drago, Federico; Giuffrida, Maria;

    There are several research infrastructures or other data services running in Europe that cover a multitude of marine-related sciences, providing specific datasets coming from observations collected with different methods. These infrastructures constitute a diverse world, each looking at a piece of the big picture, sometimes hindering collaboration and data sharing. Blue-Cloud aims to overcome fragmentation and build a bridge between thematic science clusters - such as marine, climate, food and agriculture sciences - and EOSC, creating a data federation and providing a common access to a so-called thematic EOSC for marine data. By connecting leading marine data management infrastructures with horizontal e-infrastructures, the project aims to maximise the exploitation of data resources available from different sources. The Blue-Cloud framework consists of two major technical components: (1) a Blue-Cloud Data Discovery and Access service, already presented in a previous EOSC in practice story, to serve federated discovery and access to blue data infrastructures, and (2) a Blue-Cloud Virtual Research Environment (VRE) to provide computing platforms and analytical services facilitating the collaboration between researchers, which is detailed hereafter. The Blue-Cloud VRE is powered by the D4Science Infrastructure. [M. Assante et al. (2019) Enacting open science by D4Science. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 101: 555-563 10.1016/j.future.2019.05.063 ] The full list of EOSC in practice stories is available here

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    Authors: Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Matabos, Marjolaine; Gautier, Laurent;

    Momarsat 2022 cruise report: summary of dives and operations, and position of moorings and observation infrastructures and sampling locations

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    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
    Other ORP type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Love, Connor;

    The creation, movement, and consumption of distinct biomolecules by marine organisms has far reaching implications regarding ecosystem material and energy flow and how we manage the marine environment. Lipids are ubiquitous, energy rich biomolecules that are essential for all life and are used for cell membrane structure, energy storage and serve as useful indicators for ecosystem and food web dynamics. In this dissertation, the flow of specific lipid biomolecules through multiple marine environments is measured, explored, and clarified to better understand biogeochemical cycles, marine food webs and ecosystem connectivity. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I measure, quantify, and close the loop of the open ocean microbial hydrocarbon cycle, with implications for priming effects of the ocean microbiome to oil spills. It is estimated that seeps, spills, and other oil pollution introduce ~ 1.3 million tons (1.3 Tg) of hydrocarbons into the ocean each year. Additionally, it is known that globally abundant marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus which account for ~25% of ocean net primary production also produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids. But little is known about the size, turnover and fate of these cyanobacterial hydrocarbons and the implications for the ocean’s microbiome response to future oil spills. From a research expedition in the North Atlantic, I report that cyanobacteria in an oligotrophic gyre mainly produce n-pentadecane which correlates tightly with fluorescence and Prochlorococcus abundance in oligotrophic waters. Using chemical and isotopic tracing I find that pentadecane production and diel dynamics mainly occurs in the lower euphotic zone at the deep chlorophyll maximum. I estimate the global flux of cyanobacteria-produced pentadecane exceeds total oil input in the ocean by 100 to 500-fold, with cyanobacteria producing ~ 130-650 million tons of pentadecane per year. Analysis of sinking particles at the base of the euphotic zone show that nearly all pentadecane (< 0.001 % remaining) is consumed within the euphotic zone, suggesting near complete consumption of these hydrocarbons by hydrocarbon degrading microbes. These findings characterize a wide-spread microbial hydrocarbon cycle that selectively primes the ocean’s microbiome with long-chain alkanes. In the second chapter of my dissertation, I conduct a large-scale feeding experiment on a symbiotic reef-building coral (Stylophora pistillata) in the Red Sea to clarify fatty acid and isotopic biomarker patterns of coral heterotrophy for use in the field. Coral heterotrophy is an often-overlooked facet of coral nutrition that provides essential nutrients that help corals resist and recover from thermally induced bleaching that is degrading reef ecosystems around the world due to rising global ocean temperatures. Yet, methods for measuring coral mixotrophy, the balance between organic matter contributions to the coral host from autotrophic photo endosymbionts and heterotrophy on particles and plankton have typically been too coarse to elucidate source contributions. Through my experiment I show that fatty acids and isotopic biomarkers reliably separate experimental and reef nutritional source groups (heterotrophic or autotrophic). I show that heterotrophic fatty acid biomarkers are reliably recorded into coral host and symbiont tissues, with a divergent metabolic pattern of autotrophic biomarkers as feeding increases due to positive feedback of heterotrophy on the in hospite photo symbiont population. Additionally, I show that nitrogen and essential fatty acids are preferentially recorded into coral tissue while most heterotrophic carbon is respired or exuded as mucous; this shows that the use of bulk carbon isotopes as a feeding proxy for the last ~ 40 years is largely underestimating the contribution of heterotrophy to the trophic ecology of reef building corals. Overall, this finding underscores a connectivity between oceanic phyto- and zooplankton and reef-building coral. In the third chapter of my dissertation, I explore the mixotrophic differences of divergent bleaching responses of Acropora hyacinthus colonies on the forereef of Mo’orea during the 2019 mass bleaching event. During this bleaching event, all colonies of A. hyacinthus on the deep forereef (14 m) bleached and recovered, while colonies on the shallow forereef (5 m) near the reef crest resisted bleaching entirely, despite the same temperature stress. Using fatty acid and isotopic biomarkers I show through several lines of evidence that bleaching resistant colonies near the reef crest were likely consuming more particulate organic matter than deep forereef colonies. This conclusion is supported by isotopic feeding proxies, less isotopic niche overlap of the host and symbiont of resistant colonies, and larger proportions of putative POM fatty acid biomarkers in the host of resistant colonies relative to recovered colonies. This interpretation is in line with observations that benthic communities on the reef crest are a net sink of oceanic POM and that increased reliance on heterotrophy is associated with bleaching resistance. These data show the vital importance of reef environment, coral heterotrophy, and planktonic subsidies in structuring bleaching response of corals in a warming ocean and ultimately show that the reef crest may serve as a potent zone for reseeding coral populations after marine heat waves.

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    Authors: Tsai, Brandon Te-hao;

    Understanding what factors shape the magnitude of divergence under rapid evolution is critical. Phenotypic divergence, specifically, can be influenced by selective forces such as the environment (climate, geographic distance) as well as non-selective forces (genetic composition of the founding population). Threespine sticklebacks provide a unique opportunity to study the magnitude of divergence under rapid evolution. Marine sticklebacks independently colonized freshwater habitats at the end of the last ice age (~12,000 years ago) generating multiple replicate pairs that represent a natural experiment. However, studies rely on untested assumptions that marine sticklebacks are not phenotypically varied and are unchanged from their ancestors. Here, we test how differential environmental conditions impact the estimated magnitude of phenotypic divergence and parallelism of independent freshwater stickleback populations. We find that marine variation is comparable to freshwater variation. Importantly, the inferred magnitude of phenotypic divergence of each freshwater population is dependent on marine sampling location. The geographic distance and environmental similarity between the marine and freshwater pairs explain a significant degree of variance. When estimating the degree of parallelism among freshwater pairs, marine reference also affects the inferred magnitude. The observed pattern suggests the choice of reference population and its geographic distance are important aspects to consider when estimating freshwater divergence and parallelism. Results also implicate a signature of local adaptation and/or isolation by distance. We provide recommendations for choosing ecologically relevant marine references in future studies on this important evolutionary model system.

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    Authors: Xue, Carolyn;

    Widespread overuse and large-scale production of antibiotics create antibiotic pollution, disrupting environmental microbiota and creating a public health risk. Highly urbanized coastal environments can be under high impact from antibiotic pollution from many trails of polluted effluents and runoff. The city of Long Beach is one such coastal area under high impact, since it is highly urban, industrialized, and experiences frequent sewage spills. We collected water samples from the LA River in a transect running southwest into the San Pedro Channel in order to investigate (1) how does strength of antibiotic resistance change as distance from shore increases, and (2) does antibiotic resistance correlate with composition of the bacterial community. There was no consistent relationship between strength of antibiotic resistance and distance from shore. Instead, we found that bacteria from the Pacific Ocean showed higher antibiotic resistance than bacteria from the LA River in five out of eleven antibiotic treatments. We also found that the alpha diversity of bacterial communities was lower in the LA River samples compared, and alpha diversity positively correlated with strength of antibiotic resistance in four antibiotic treatments. Our findings highlight how prevalence of antibiotic pollution does not always follow a distance dilution, as well as the need for understanding the strength behind antibiotic resistance in marine bacteria.

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    Authors: DiFiore, Bartholomew P;

    The strength of species interactions shapes the structure and function of ecological communities, with profound implications on the ecosystem services these communities provide, such as maintenance of biodiversity, carbon sequestration, cultural heritage, and viable food production. However, we, as humans, are altering the strength, direction, and variability in species interactions through global climate change, habitat loss, and harvest. By altering how species interact, these anthropogenic impacts are shifting both consumptive and non-consumptive ecosystem services. Therefore, understanding why species interaction are changing and what the consequences of these changes are on ecological communities is an important component of effectively managing ecosystems in a dynamic future. In this dissertation, I explore two different mechanics that underscore variation in species interactions across space and through time: variability in body size among individual predators and their prey and contingencies associated with historic population fluctuations in a marine foundation species. In Chapter 1, I combined mesocosm experiments and long-term ecological data to test to what extent individual variation in predator body size, prey body size, and prey density drove spatiotemporal variation in interaction strength. I then tested the efficacy of established body size-scaling relationships at predicting variation in interaction strength. My results demonstrate that the majority of variation in how strongly California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) interact with their purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) prey can be attributed to variation in body size. Furthermore, utilizing established size-scaling relationships from the literature failed to accurately predict our experimental estimates of interaction strength by more than an order of magnitude.In Chapter 2, I sought to uncover the physiological mechanisms driving the relation between a predator’s body size and its consumption rate. Specifically, I tested between alternative theoretical hypotheses for the relationship between an animal’s size, metabolism, and consumption rate to better understand the connection between a predator’s ecology and physiology. Contrary to prevailing theoretical expectations, I demonstrate that larger lobster can consume disproportionately more than smaller conspecifics, despite declining metabolic requirements, which could have implications on how body size is incorporating into models of community and ecosystem dynamics.Finally, in Chapter 3, I examine how historic variability in the foundation species, Macrocystis pyrifera, alters non-trophic interactions between functional groups on the seafloor. My results suggest that, while the current biomass of M. pyrifera has the strongest impact, metrics of historic variability in the foundation species have strong effects on benthic community structure that ameliorate with time. A pressing issue in managing ecosystems is understanding what causes variation in how strongly species interact, what the implications of this variation are for communities, and how to predict shift in species interactions in the future. My research suggests that incorporating historical contingencies and individual variation in body size could bolster management and restoration efforts that aim to increase the resilience of marine communities in a dynamic future.

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    Authors: Jainese, Conner James;

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been implemented worldwide as a tool for improving the overall health and function of fisheries and marine ecosystems impacted by fishing activity. Monitoring the performance of MPAs in a comprehensive way is crucial for the effective management and thoughtful implementation of new MPAs. In California, mesophotic (30-100m) rocky reef fish communities are a valuable commercial/recreational resource, though the effects of MPAs on this community remain relatively understudied. This is at least partially a result of depth restricted sampling tools that do not typically overlap; SCUBA surveys are generally limited to shallow depths (<30 m) and Remotely Operated Vehicle/Autonomous Underwater Vehicle surveys are often used for deep water (>100m). Additionally, traditional extractive techniques like trawl surveys are limited by their inability to effectively sample high relief rocky habitats, and are not commonly used in MPAs due to their destructive nature. With this study we tested the effects of two MPAs on demersal fish communities living on mesophotic rocky reefs utilizing Baited Remove Underwater Video (BRUV) surveys. We deployed BRUV landers annually from 2019 to 2021 at Anacapa State Marine Reserve/State Marine Conservation Area (SMR/SMCA) and Carrington Pt. SMR. We observed significant positive reserve effects on the total biomass of targeted (i.e., fished) species and on the size structure of individual focal species at both study sites. Relative abundance (MaxN) proved to be a less sensitive metric than biomass for detecting MPA effects, underscoring the utility of a stereo-video camera system that is capable of capturing highly accurate fish measurements. Dissimilar rocky habitat abundance for the deepest depth zones at Anacapa Island, where rockfish (Sebastes spp.) represent the largest proportion of the fish community, is likely one explanation for the negative reserve effect we observed for targeted rockfish abundance at this site. The results of this study provide useful information on how two California MPAs affect valuable fish communities that have historically been understudied and emphasize the importance of accurate fish measurement to detect these effects. This work also highlights the significance of habitat availability on the distribution of species with high habitat affinity. The continued monitoring of demersal fish communities on mesophotic rocky reefs would provide resource managers a more comprehensive understanding of MPA performance in California.

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    Authors: Beer, Emma;

    The surface temperature in the Arctic has warmed at twice the rate of the global mean temperature during recent decades. This Arctic amplification of global warming has been a striking feature of climate change, and many studies have investigated what processes contribute to this phenomenon. Many of these processes are often described in the context of climate feedbacks using analyses focused on top-of-the-atmosphere radiative changes. In this context, regional surface warming can then be partitioned into contributions from each feedback process. However, this partitioning can be complicated by interactions between feedbacks themselves and atmospheric heat transport. In the second chapter, we instead apply a feedback-locking approach and evaluate the resulting changes in surface temperature. These results are strikingly different from previous feedback analyses, highlighting the important role of interactions within the climate system. This chapter and many other previous studies focus only on the role of atmospheric and surface processes in Arctic amplification. However, substantial questions remain regarding the role of ocean heat transport. In the third chapter, we investigate changes in oceanic heat fluxes under global warming. We find a mechanism associated with the presence of sea ice that drives enhanced horizontal ocean heat transport into the Arctic region and can contribute substantially to Arctic amplification if this heat is allowed to reach the surface. Currently, only a small amount of the heat stored at depth in the Arctic Ocean can reach the surface, but recent observational studies have argued that sea ice retreat could result in enhanced vertical mixing. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the impacts of a positive feedback whereby increased vertical mixing due to sea ice retreat causes the previously isolated subsurface Arctic Ocean heat to melt more sea ice. We find that an abrupt “tipping point” can occur under global warming, with an associated hysteresis window, for a limited range of parameters. Throughout the thesis, we use idealized models to show how ocean and climate processes can impact Arctic warming, providing insights into possible physical mechanisms that could be at play now or in the future.

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    Authors: Nehasil, Stephanie;

    Predicting ecological responses to changing ocean conditions is particularly challenging in highly dynamic marine ecosystems subject to multiple anthropogenic stressors. My dissertation centers upon understanding fine- and broad-scale patterns that affect energy flow through the California Current Ecosystem (CCE), a dynamic coastal upwelling zone in the eastern Pacific Ocean. I focus on trophic relationships between top predators and their prey by using an iconic indicator species – the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus; sea lions) – and a complex of key forage species to elucidate food web dynamics in the ecosystem.In Chapter 1, I explore fine-scale temporal, spatial, and physiological patterns that drive the quality of prey species to top predators in the CCE and use bomb calorimetry to generate a novel dataset of energetics information on these forage species. I then integrate my findings with published data on the bioenergetics of sea lions to quantify how predator consumption rates can vary, given the differences in quality I observed within and among prey species. In Chapter 2, I argue that sea lions are an important ecosystem indicator of major food web shifts, which I determined by generating a ~55-year time series of sea lion trophic position using stable isotope analysis of archived tissues coupled with several environmental datasets. My findings demonstrate that regime shifts of two of the most important forage fishes to predators in the CCE can be observed through the trophic lens of sea lions. Sampling of archived tissues to create environmental chronologies is a process laden with error. Therefore, in Chapter 3, I constructed a Bayesian model to quantify the uncertainty in building ecological datasets from growth increment sampling of archived tissues (e.g., teeth, bones). This method can be applied to studies using these structures to create time series of importance for conservation and management questions.My research fills critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of marine food web dynamics on multiple timescales that will contribute to the literature on community structure and function, while also providing important baseline data that will be useful in assessing future ecosystem states in a time of unprecedented change.

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    Authors: Martínez Moreno, Josué;

    This dataset includes the NEMO 4.0.2 configuration used and analysed in the paper titled "Eddy-driven heterogeneity in sea ice during the ice-growth season". The output data is approximately 4TB for the 3 idealised configuration used in the manuscript, thus we opted to distribute the configuration. Note: The initial conditions for each simulation are compressed into the file `init_cond.zip` The configuration for one of the simulations is compressed in the file `config.zip` In order to reproduce all the runs, it's only required to change the initial conditions in the file namelist_cfg and namelist_ice_cfg. Further information and scripts to reproduce the result of the manuscript can be found at: https://github.com/josuemtzmo/Ice_formation

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    Authors: Pagano, Pasquale; Pittonet, Sara; Drago, Federico; Giuffrida, Maria;

    There are several research infrastructures or other data services running in Europe that cover a multitude of marine-related sciences, providing specific datasets coming from observations collected with different methods. These infrastructures constitute a diverse world, each looking at a piece of the big picture, sometimes hindering collaboration and data sharing. Blue-Cloud aims to overcome fragmentation and build a bridge between thematic science clusters - such as marine, climate, food and agriculture sciences - and EOSC, creating a data federation and providing a common access to a so-called thematic EOSC for marine data. By connecting leading marine data management infrastructures with horizontal e-infrastructures, the project aims to maximise the exploitation of data resources available from different sources. The Blue-Cloud framework consists of two major technical components: (1) a Blue-Cloud Data Discovery and Access service, already presented in a previous EOSC in practice story, to serve federated discovery and access to blue data infrastructures, and (2) a Blue-Cloud Virtual Research Environment (VRE) to provide computing platforms and analytical services facilitating the collaboration between researchers, which is detailed hereafter. The Blue-Cloud VRE is powered by the D4Science Infrastructure. [M. Assante et al. (2019) Enacting open science by D4Science. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 101: 555-563 10.1016/j.future.2019.05.063 ] The full list of EOSC in practice stories is available here

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    Authors: Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Matabos, Marjolaine; Gautier, Laurent;

    Momarsat 2022 cruise report: summary of dives and operations, and position of moorings and observation infrastructures and sampling locations

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    Authors: Love, Connor;

    The creation, movement, and consumption of distinct biomolecules by marine organisms has far reaching implications regarding ecosystem material and energy flow and how we manage the marine environment. Lipids are ubiquitous, energy rich biomolecules that are essential for all life and are used for cell membrane structure, energy storage and serve as useful indicators for ecosystem and food web dynamics. In this dissertation, the flow of specific lipid biomolecules through multiple marine environments is measured, explored, and clarified to better understand biogeochemical cycles, marine food webs and ecosystem connectivity. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I measure, quantify, and close the loop of the open ocean microbial hydrocarbon cycle, with implications for priming effects of the ocean microbiome to oil spills. It is estimated that seeps, spills, and other oil pollution introduce ~ 1.3 million tons (1.3 Tg) of hydrocarbons into the ocean each year. Additionally, it is known that globally abundant marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus which account for ~25% of ocean net primary production also produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids. But little is known about the size, turnover and fate of these cyanobacterial hydrocarbons and the implications for the ocean’s microbiome response to future oil spills. From a research expedition in the North Atlantic, I report that cyanobacteria in an oligotrophic gyre mainly produce n-pentadecane which correlates tightly with fluorescence and Prochlorococcus abundance in oligotrophic waters. Using chemical and isotopic tracing I find that pentadecane production and diel dynamics mainly occurs in the lower euphotic zone at the deep chlorophyll maximum. I estimate the global flux of cyanobacteria-produced pentadecane exceeds total oil input in the ocean by 100 to 500-fold, with cyanobacteria producing ~ 130-650 million tons of pentadecane per year. Analysis of sinking particles at the base of the euphotic zone show that nearly all pentadecane (< 0.001 % remaining) is consumed within the euphotic zone, suggesting near complete consumption of these hydrocarbons by hydrocarbon degrading microbes. These findings characterize a wide-spread microbial hydrocarbon cycle that selectively primes the ocean’s microbiome with long-chain alkanes. In the second chapter of my dissertation, I conduct a large-scale feeding experiment on a symbiotic reef-building coral (Stylophora pistillata) in the Red Sea to clarify fatty acid and isotopic biomarker patterns of coral heterotrophy for use in the field. Coral heterotrophy is an often-overlooked facet of coral nutrition that provides essential nutrients that help corals resist and recover from thermally induced bleaching that is degrading reef ecosystems around the world due to rising global ocean temperatures. Yet, methods for measuring coral mixotrophy, the balance between organic matter contributions to the coral host from autotrophic photo endosymbionts and heterotrophy on particles and plankton have typically been too coarse to elucidate source contributions. Through my experiment I show that fatty acids and isotopic biomarkers reliably separate experimental and reef nutritional source groups (heterotrophic or autotrophic). I show that heterotrophic fatty acid biomarkers are reliably recorded into coral host and symbiont tissues, with a divergent metabolic pattern of autotrophic biomarkers as feeding increases due to positive feedback of heterotrophy on the in hospite photo symbiont population. Additionally, I show that nitrogen and essential fatty acids are preferentially recorded into coral tissue while most heterotrophic carbon is respired or exuded as mucous; this shows that the use of bulk carbon isotopes as a feeding proxy for the last ~ 40 years is largely underestimating the contribution of heterotrophy to the trophic ecology of reef building corals. Overall, this finding underscores a connectivity between oceanic phyto- and zooplankton and reef-building coral. In the third chapter of my dissertation, I explore the mixotrophic differences of divergent bleaching responses of Acropora hyacinthus colonies on the forereef of Mo’orea during the 2019 mass bleaching event. During this bleaching event, all colonies of A. hyacinthus on the deep forereef (14 m) bleached and recovered, while colonies on the shallow forereef (5 m) near the reef crest resisted bleaching entirely, despite the same temperature stress. Using fatty acid and isotopic biomarkers I show through several lines of evidence that bleaching resistant colonies near the reef crest were likely consuming more particulate organic matter than deep forereef colonies. This conclusion is supported by isotopic feeding proxies, less isotopic niche overlap of the host and symbiont of resistant colonies, and larger proportions of putative POM fatty acid biomarkers in the host of resistant colonies relative to recovered colonies. This interpretation is in line with observations that benthic communities on the reef crest are a net sink of oceanic POM and that increased reliance on heterotrophy is associated with bleaching resistance. These data show the vital importance of reef environment, coral heterotrophy, and planktonic subsidies in structuring bleaching response of corals in a warming ocean and ultimately show that the reef crest may serve as a potent zone for reseeding coral populations after marine heat waves.

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    Authors: Tsai, Brandon Te-hao;

    Understanding what factors shape the magnitude of divergence under rapid evolution is critical. Phenotypic divergence, specifically, can be influenced by selective forces such as the environment (climate, geographic distance) as well as non-selective forces (genetic composition of the founding population). Threespine sticklebacks provide a unique opportunity to study the magnitude of divergence under rapid evolution. Marine sticklebacks independently colonized freshwater habitats at the end of the last ice age (~12,000 years ago) generating multiple replicate pairs that represent a natural experiment. However, studies rely on untested assumptions that marine sticklebacks are not phenotypically varied and are unchanged from their ancestors. Here, we test how differential environmental conditions impact the estimated magnitude of phenotypic divergence and parallelism of independent freshwater stickleback populations. We find that marine variation is comparable to freshwater variation. Importantly, the inferred magnitude of phenotypic divergence of each freshwater population is dependent on marine sampling location. The geographic distance and environmental similarity between the marine and freshwater pairs explain a significant degree of variance. When estimating the degree of parallelism among freshwater pairs, marine reference also affects the inferred magnitude. The observed pattern suggests the choice of reference population and its geographic distance are important aspects to consider when estimating freshwater divergence and parallelism. Results also implicate a signature of local adaptation and/or isolation by distance. We provide recommendations for choosing ecologically relevant marine references in future studies on this important evolutionary model system.

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    Authors: Xue, Carolyn;

    Widespread overuse and large-scale production of antibiotics create antibiotic pollution, disrupting environmental microbiota and creating a public health risk. Highly urbanized coastal environments can be under high impact from antibiotic pollution from many trails of polluted effluents and runoff. The city of Long Beach is one such coastal area under high impact, since it is highly urban, industrialized, and experiences frequent sewage spills. We collected water samples from the LA River in a transect running southwest into the San Pedro Channel in order to investigate (1) how does strength of antibiotic resistance change as distance from shore increases, and (2) does antibiotic resistance correlate with composition of the bacterial community. There was no consistent relationship between strength of antibiotic resistance and distance from shore. Instead, we found that bacteria from the Pacific Ocean showed higher antibiotic resistance than bacteria from the LA River in five out of eleven antibiotic treatments. We also found that the alpha diversity of bacterial communities was lower in the LA River samples compared, and alpha diversity positively correlated with strength of antibiotic resistance in four antibiotic treatments. Our findings highlight how prevalence of antibiotic pollution does not always follow a distance dilution, as well as the need for understanding the strength behind antibiotic resistance in marine bacteria.

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    Authors: DiFiore, Bartholomew P;

    The strength of species interactions shapes the structure and function of ecological communities, with profound implications on the ecosystem services these communities provide, such as maintenance of biodiversity, carbon sequestration, cultural heritage, and viable food production. However, we, as humans, are altering the strength, direction, and variability in species interactions through global climate change, habitat loss, and harvest. By altering how species interact, these anthropogenic impacts are shifting both consumptive and non-consumptive ecosystem services. Therefore, understanding why species interaction are changing and what the consequences of these changes are on ecological communities is an important component of effectively managing ecosystems in a dynamic future. In this dissertation, I explore two different mechanics that underscore variation in species interactions across space and through time: variability in body size among individual predators and their prey and contingencies associated with historic population fluctuations in a marine foundation species. In Chapter 1, I combined mesocosm experiments and long-term ecological data to test to what extent individual variation in predator body size, prey body size, and prey density drove spatiotemporal variation in interaction strength. I then tested the efficacy of established body size-scaling relationships at predicting variation in interaction strength. My results demonstrate that the majority of variation in how strongly California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) interact with their purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) prey can be attributed to variation in body size. Furthermore, utilizing established size-scaling relationships from the literature failed to accurately predict our experimental estimates of interaction strength by more than an order of magnitude.In Chapter 2, I sought to uncover the physiological mechanisms driving the relation between a predator’s body size and its consumption rate. Specifically, I tested between alternative theoretical hypotheses for the relationship between an animal’s size, metabolism, and consumption rate to better understand the connection between a predator’s ecology and physiology. Contrary to prevailing theoretical expectations, I demonstrate that larger lobster can consume disproportionately more than smaller conspecifics, despite declining metabolic requirements, which could have implications on how body size is incorporating into models of community and ecosystem dynamics.Finally, in Chapter 3, I examine how historic variability in the foundation species, Macrocystis pyrifera, alters non-trophic interactions between functional groups on the seafloor. My results suggest that, while the current biomass of M. pyrifera has the strongest impact, metrics of historic variability in the foundation species have strong effects on benthic community structure that ameliorate with time. A pressing issue in managing ecosystems is understanding what causes variation in how strongly species interact, what the implications of this variation are for communities, and how to predict shift in species interactions in the future. My research suggests that incorporating historical contingencies and individual variation in body size could bolster management and restoration efforts that aim to increase the resilience of marine communities in a dynamic future.

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    Authors: Jainese, Conner James;

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been implemented worldwide as a tool for improving the overall health and function of fisheries and marine ecosystems impacted by fishing activity. Monitoring the performance of MPAs in a comprehensive way is crucial for the effective management and thoughtful implementation of new MPAs. In California, mesophotic (30-100m) rocky reef fish communities are a valuable commercial/recreational resource, though the effects of MPAs on this community remain relatively understudied. This is at least partially a result of depth restricted sampling tools that do not typically overlap; SCUBA surveys are generally limited to shallow depths (<30 m) and Remotely Operated Vehicle/Autonomous Underwater Vehicle surveys are often used for deep water (>100m). Additionally, traditional extractive techniques like trawl surveys are limited by their inability to effectively sample high relief rocky habitats, and are not commonly used in MPAs due to their destructive nature. With this study we tested the effects of two MPAs on demersal fish communities living on mesophotic rocky reefs utilizing Baited Remove Underwater Video (BRUV) surveys. We deployed BRUV landers annually from 2019 to 2021 at Anacapa State Marine Reserve/State Marine Conservation Area (SMR/SMCA) and Carrington Pt. SMR. We observed significant positive reserve effects on the total biomass of targeted (i.e., fished) species and on the size structure of individual focal species at both study sites. Relative abundance (MaxN) proved to be a less sensitive metric than biomass for detecting MPA effects, underscoring the utility of a stereo-video camera system that is capable of capturing highly accurate fish measurements. Dissimilar rocky habitat abundance for the deepest depth zones at Anacapa Island, where rockfish (Sebastes spp.) represent the largest proportion of the fish community, is likely one explanation for the negative reserve effect we observed for targeted rockfish abundance at this site. The results of this study provide useful information on how two California MPAs affect valuable fish communities that have historically been understudied and emphasize the importance of accurate fish measurement to detect these effects. This work also highlights the significance of habitat availability on the distribution of species with high habitat affinity. The continued monitoring of demersal fish communities on mesophotic rocky reefs would provide resource managers a more comprehensive understanding of MPA performance in California.

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    Authors: Beer, Emma;

    The surface temperature in the Arctic has warmed at twice the rate of the global mean temperature during recent decades. This Arctic amplification of global warming has been a striking feature of climate change, and many studies have investigated what processes contribute to this phenomenon. Many of these processes are often described in the context of climate feedbacks using analyses focused on top-of-the-atmosphere radiative changes. In this context, regional surface warming can then be partitioned into contributions from each feedback process. However, this partitioning can be complicated by interactions between feedbacks themselves and atmospheric heat transport. In the second chapter, we instead apply a feedback-locking approach and evaluate the resulting changes in surface temperature. These results are strikingly different from previous feedback analyses, highlighting the important role of interactions within the climate system. This chapter and many other previous studies focus only on the role of atmospheric and surface processes in Arctic amplification. However, substantial questions remain regarding the role of ocean heat transport. In the third chapter, we investigate changes in oceanic heat fluxes under global warming. We find a mechanism associated with the presence of sea ice that drives enhanced horizontal ocean heat transport into the Arctic region and can contribute substantially to Arctic amplification if this heat is allowed to reach the surface. Currently, only a small amount of the heat stored at depth in the Arctic Ocean can reach the surface, but recent observational studies have argued that sea ice retreat could result in enhanced vertical mixing. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the impacts of a positive feedback whereby increased vertical mixing due to sea ice retreat causes the previously isolated subsurface Arctic Ocean heat to melt more sea ice. We find that an abrupt “tipping point” can occur under global warming, with an associated hysteresis window, for a limited range of parameters. Throughout the thesis, we use idealized models to show how ocean and climate processes can impact Arctic warming, providing insights into possible physical mechanisms that could be at play now or in the future.

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