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38 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2018-2022
  • Open Access
  • Other research products
  • European Commission
  • CH
  • FI
  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brandon, Margaux; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Michel, Elisabeth; Landais, Amaëlle; +6 Authors

    Micropaleontological (coccolith, planktonic foraminifera) and geochemical (CaCO3, CaXRF, δ18O N. pachyderma, δ13C N. pachyderma) analyses from sediment core MD04-2718 retrieved from the Subantarctic zone (SAZ) of the Indian Southern Ocean covering the time interval from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 to MIS 10 (440,000– 360,000 years). Coccolith abundances and masses were performed using SYRACO software at Geoscience Paris-Saclay Laboratory (GEOPS). CaCO3 percentages were also measured at GEOPS. Foraminifera abundances and masses and stable oxygen and carbon isotopes were performed at Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE). SST were calculated using two methods : the Modern Analogue Technique (Haddam et al., 2016) and the percentage of N. pachyderma s. (Govin et al., 2009). CaXRF measurements were performed at ETH, Zurich. These approaches allowed to decipher the variations in Carbonate Counter Pump and upwelling strength in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean between MIS 12 and MIS 10, including the Termination V and interglacial MIS 11.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PANGAEA - Data Publi...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Lundstad, Elin; Brugnara, Yuri; Brönnimann, Stefan;

    There is a growing need for past weather and climate data to support science and decision-making. This paper describes the compilation and the construction of a global multivariable (air temperature, pressure, precipitation sum, number of precipitation days) monthly instrumental climate database that encompasses a substantial body of the known early instrumental time series. The dataset contains series compiled from existing databases that start before 1890 (though continuing to the present) as well as a large amount of newly rescued data. All series underwent a quality control procedure and subdaily series were processed to monthly mean values. An inventory was compiled, and the collection was deduplicated based on coordinates and mutual correlations. The data are provided in a common format accompanied by the inventory. The collection totals 12452 meteorological records in 118 countries. The data has been merged from 18250 original data files. The data can be used for climate reconstructions and analyses. It is the most comprehensive global monthly climate data set for the preindustrial period.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Benedetti, Fabio;
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    Authors: Plach, Andreas; Vinther, Bo M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; +1 Authors

    This study presents simulations of Greenland surface melt for the Eemian interglacial period (∼130 000 to 115 000 years ago) derived from regional climate simulations with a coupled surface energy balance model. Surface melt is of high relevance due to its potential effect on ice core observations, e.g., lowering the preserved total air content (TAC) used to infer past surface elevation. An investigation of surface melt is particularly interesting for warm periods with high surface melt, such as the Eemian interglacial period. Furthermore, Eemian ice is the deepest and most compressed ice preserved on Greenland, resulting in our inability to identify melt layers visually. Therefore, simulating Eemian melt rates and associated melt layers is beneficial to improve the reconstruction of past surface elevation. Estimated TAC, based on simulated melt during the Eemian, could explain the lower TAC observations. The simulations show Eemian surface melt at all deep Greenland ice core locations and an average of up to ∼30 melt days per year at Dye-3, corresponding to more than 600 mm water equivalent (w.e.) of annual melt. For higher ice sheet locations, between 60 and 150 mmw.e.yr-1 on average are simulated. At the summit of Greenland, this yields a refreezing ratio of more than 25 % of the annual accumulation. As a consequence, high melt rates during warm periods should be considered when interpreting Greenland TAC fluctuations as surface elevation changes. In addition to estimating the influence of melt on past TAC in ice cores, the simulated surface melt could potentially be used to identify coring locations where Greenland ice is best preserved.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Climate of the Past ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Vogt, Meike; Benedetti, Fabio; Righetti, Damiano; O'Brien, Colleen; +3 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Erhardt, Tobias; Bigler, Matthias; Federer, Urs; Gfeller, Gideon; +20 Authors

    Records of chemical impurities from ice cores enable us to reconstruct the past deposition of aerosols onto polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Through this they allow us to gain insight into changes of the source, transport and deposition processes that ultimately determine the deposition flux at the coring location. However, the low concentrations of the aerosol species in the ice and the resulting high risk of contamination pose a formidable analytical challenge, especially if long, continuous and highly resolved records are needed. Continuous flow analysis, CFA, the continuous melting, decontamination and analysis of ice-core samples has mostly overcome this issue and has quickly become the de facto standard to obtain high-resolution aerosol records from ice cores after its inception at the University of Bern in the mid-1990s. Here, we present continuous records of calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-) and electrolytic conductivity at 1 mm depth resolution from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) and NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) ice cores produced by the Bern Continuous Flow Analysis group in the years 2000 to 2011 (Erhardt et al., 2021). Both of the records were previously used in a number of studies but were never published in full 1 mm resolution. Alongside the 1 mm datasets we provide decadal averages, a detailed description of the methods, relevant references, an assessment of the quality of the data and its usable resolution. Along the way we will also give some historical context on the development of the Bern CFA system. The data is available in full 1 mm and 10-year-averaged resolution on PANGAEA (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.935838, Erhardt et al., 2021)

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    Authors: Macfarlane, Amy R; Schneebeli, Martin; Dadic, Ruzica; Wagner, David N; +18 Authors

    This dataset captures the yearlong evolution of physical properties of the snow cover over Arctic sea ice during the MOSAiC expedition (October 2019-September 2020). It also includes the surface scattering layer that is typical of the melting summer sea ice surface. This dataset is specifically for measurements that were logged as “snowpit events” during MOSAiC. The snowpit events were either detailed point-measurements of vertical snow profiles or horizontally repeated transects, measured at selected locations in designated undisturbed areas. One snowpit event corresponds to one site visit. The snowpits are often co-located with measurements from other MOSAiC teams to improve our understanding of how snow cover affects and interacts with the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean-ecology system. Most snowpits were measured at least bi-weekly to capture the temporal evolution of physical properties of snow. Some snowpits were one-off events to capture interesting and unplanned-for surface conditions. This dataset includes 576 snowpit events, and describes the snow conditions during the entire expedition. Please direct inquiries to; David Wagner (PS122/1), Martin Schneebeli (PS122/2), Amy Macfarlane (PS122/3 and PS122/4), Ruzica Dadic (PS122/5).

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    Authors: Clyne, Margot; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Mills, Michael J.; Khodri, Myriam; +19 Authors

    As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP), several climate modeling centers performed a coordinated pre-study experiment with interactive stratospheric aerosol models simulating the volcanic aerosol cloud from an eruption resembling the 1815 Mt. Tambora eruption (VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble). The pre-study provided the ancillary ability to assess intermodel diversity in the radiative forcing for a large stratospheric-injecting equatorial eruption when the volcanic aerosol cloud is simulated interactively. An initial analysis of the VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble showed large disparities between models in the stratospheric global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study, we now show that stratospheric global mean AOD differences among the participating models are primarily due to differences in aerosol size, which we track here by effective radius. We identify specific physical and chemical processes that are missing in some models and/or parameterized differently between models, which are together causing the differences in effective radius. In particular, our analysis indicates that interactively tracking hydroxyl radical (OH) chemistry following a large volcanic injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important factor in allowing for the timescale for sulfate formation to be properly simulated. In addition, depending on the timescale of sulfate formation, there can be a large difference in effective radius and subsequently AOD that results from whether the SO2 is injected in a single model grid cell near the location of the volcanic eruption, or whether it is injected as a longitudinally averaged band around the Earth.

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    Authors: Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Robertson, Elizabeth K.; Conley, Daniel J.; Hermans, Martijn; +4 Authors

    Coastal systems can act as filters for anthropogenic nutrient input into marine environments. Here, we assess the processes controlling the removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) for four sites in the eutrophic Stockholm archipelago. Bottom water concentrations of oxygen (O2) and P are inversely correlated. This is attributed to the seasonal release of P from iron-oxide-bound (Fe-oxide-bound) P in surface sediments and from degrading organic matter. The abundant presence of sulfide in the pore water and its high upward flux towards the sediment surface (∼4 to 8 mmol m−2 d−1), linked to prior deposition of organic-rich sediments in a low-O2 setting (“legacy of hypoxia”), hinder the formation of a larger Fe-oxide-bound P pool in winter. This is most pronounced at sites where water column mixing is naturally relatively low and where low bottom water O2 concentrations prevail in summer. Burial rates of P are high at all sites (0.03–0.3 mol m−2 yr−1), a combined result of high sedimentation rates (0.5 to 3.5 cm yr−1) and high sedimentary P at depth (∼30 to 50 µmol g−1). Sedimentary P is dominated by Fe-bound P and organic P at the sediment surface and by organic P, authigenic Ca-P and detrital P at depth. Apart from one site in the inner archipelago, where a vivianite-type Fe(II)-P mineral is likely present at depth, there is little evidence for sink switching of organic or Fe-oxide-bound P to authigenic P minerals. Denitrification is the major benthic nitrate-reducing process at all sites (0.09 to 1.7 mmol m−2 d−1) with rates decreasing seaward from the inner to outer archipelago. Our results explain how sediments in this eutrophic coastal system can remove P through burial at a relatively high rate, regardless of whether the bottom waters are oxic or (frequently) hypoxic. Our results suggest that benthic N processes undergo annual cycles of removal and recycling in response to hypoxic conditions. Further nutrient load reductions are expected to contribute to the recovery of the eutrophic Stockholm archipelago from hypoxia. Based on the dominant pathways of P and N removal identified in this study, it is expected that the sediments will continue to remove part of the P and N loads.

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    Authors: Nehrbass-Ahles, Christoph; Shin, Jinhwa; Schmitt, Jochen; Bereiter, Bernhard; +10 Authors

    High-resolution atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) records derived from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C ice core covering Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9e - 12a (~330 - 450 ka BP). The majority of the CO2 data were measured at an average temporal resolution of ~300 years using a novel dry-extraction device called the Centrifugal Ice Microtome (CIM) employed at Climate and Environmental Physics (CEP), Physics Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland. Additional 33 data points were measured at the Institut des Géosciences de l'Environnement (IGE), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, France using the Ball Mill dry-extraction system. The CH4 data were measured at both CEP and IGE, improving the temporal resolution of existing data previously published by the same laboratories to ~350 years on average. These ice core records are complemented by high-resolution planktic and benthic stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) records from the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1385 located on the Iberian Margin off the coast of Portugal (Shackleton Site) covering MIS 9e - 11c (~330 - 410 ka BP). All marine sediment data were measured at an average temporal resolution of ~150 years at the Godwin Laboratory of Palaeoclimate Research, University of Cambridge, UK.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brandon, Margaux; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Michel, Elisabeth; Landais, Amaëlle; +6 Authors

    Micropaleontological (coccolith, planktonic foraminifera) and geochemical (CaCO3, CaXRF, δ18O N. pachyderma, δ13C N. pachyderma) analyses from sediment core MD04-2718 retrieved from the Subantarctic zone (SAZ) of the Indian Southern Ocean covering the time interval from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 to MIS 10 (440,000– 360,000 years). Coccolith abundances and masses were performed using SYRACO software at Geoscience Paris-Saclay Laboratory (GEOPS). CaCO3 percentages were also measured at GEOPS. Foraminifera abundances and masses and stable oxygen and carbon isotopes were performed at Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE). SST were calculated using two methods : the Modern Analogue Technique (Haddam et al., 2016) and the percentage of N. pachyderma s. (Govin et al., 2009). CaXRF measurements were performed at ETH, Zurich. These approaches allowed to decipher the variations in Carbonate Counter Pump and upwelling strength in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean between MIS 12 and MIS 10, including the Termination V and interglacial MIS 11.

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    Authors: Lundstad, Elin; Brugnara, Yuri; Brönnimann, Stefan;

    There is a growing need for past weather and climate data to support science and decision-making. This paper describes the compilation and the construction of a global multivariable (air temperature, pressure, precipitation sum, number of precipitation days) monthly instrumental climate database that encompasses a substantial body of the known early instrumental time series. The dataset contains series compiled from existing databases that start before 1890 (though continuing to the present) as well as a large amount of newly rescued data. All series underwent a quality control procedure and subdaily series were processed to monthly mean values. An inventory was compiled, and the collection was deduplicated based on coordinates and mutual correlations. The data are provided in a common format accompanied by the inventory. The collection totals 12452 meteorological records in 118 countries. The data has been merged from 18250 original data files. The data can be used for climate reconstructions and analyses. It is the most comprehensive global monthly climate data set for the preindustrial period.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Benedetti, Fabio;
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    Authors: Plach, Andreas; Vinther, Bo M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; +1 Authors

    This study presents simulations of Greenland surface melt for the Eemian interglacial period (∼130 000 to 115 000 years ago) derived from regional climate simulations with a coupled surface energy balance model. Surface melt is of high relevance due to its potential effect on ice core observations, e.g., lowering the preserved total air content (TAC) used to infer past surface elevation. An investigation of surface melt is particularly interesting for warm periods with high surface melt, such as the Eemian interglacial period. Furthermore, Eemian ice is the deepest and most compressed ice preserved on Greenland, resulting in our inability to identify melt layers visually. Therefore, simulating Eemian melt rates and associated melt layers is beneficial to improve the reconstruction of past surface elevation. Estimated TAC, based on simulated melt during the Eemian, could explain the lower TAC observations. The simulations show Eemian surface melt at all deep Greenland ice core locations and an average of up to ∼30 melt days per year at Dye-3, corresponding to more than 600 mm water equivalent (w.e.) of annual melt. For higher ice sheet locations, between 60 and 150 mmw.e.yr-1 on average are simulated. At the summit of Greenland, this yields a refreezing ratio of more than 25 % of the annual accumulation. As a consequence, high melt rates during warm periods should be considered when interpreting Greenland TAC fluctuations as surface elevation changes. In addition to estimating the influence of melt on past TAC in ice cores, the simulated surface melt could potentially be used to identify coring locations where Greenland ice is best preserved.

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    Authors: Vogt, Meike; Benedetti, Fabio; Righetti, Damiano; O'Brien, Colleen; +3 Authors
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    Authors: Erhardt, Tobias; Bigler, Matthias; Federer, Urs; Gfeller, Gideon; +20 Authors

    Records of chemical impurities from ice cores enable us to reconstruct the past deposition of aerosols onto polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Through this they allow us to gain insight into changes of the source, transport and deposition processes that ultimately determine the deposition flux at the coring location. However, the low concentrations of the aerosol species in the ice and the resulting high risk of contamination pose a formidable analytical challenge, especially if long, continuous and highly resolved records are needed. Continuous flow analysis, CFA, the continuous melting, decontamination and analysis of ice-core samples has mostly overcome this issue and has quickly become the de facto standard to obtain high-resolution aerosol records from ice cores after its inception at the University of Bern in the mid-1990s. Here, we present continuous records of calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-) and electrolytic conductivity at 1 mm depth resolution from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) and NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) ice cores produced by the Bern Continuous Flow Analysis group in the years 2000 to 2011 (Erhardt et al., 2021). Both of the records were previously used in a number of studies but were never published in full 1 mm resolution. Alongside the 1 mm datasets we provide decadal averages, a detailed description of the methods, relevant references, an assessment of the quality of the data and its usable resolution. Along the way we will also give some historical context on the development of the Bern CFA system. The data is available in full 1 mm and 10-year-averaged resolution on PANGAEA (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.935838, Erhardt et al., 2021)

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    Authors: Macfarlane, Amy R; Schneebeli, Martin; Dadic, Ruzica; Wagner, David N; +18 Authors

    This dataset captures the yearlong evolution of physical properties of the snow cover over Arctic sea ice during the MOSAiC expedition (October 2019-September 2020). It also includes the surface scattering layer that is typical of the melting summer sea ice surface. This dataset is specifically for measurements that were logged as “snowpit events” during MOSAiC. The snowpit events were either detailed point-measurements of vertical snow profiles or horizontally repeated transects, measured at selected locations in designated undisturbed areas. One snowpit event corresponds to one site visit. The snowpits are often co-located with measurements from other MOSAiC teams to improve our understanding of how snow cover affects and interacts with the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean-ecology system. Most snowpits were measured at least bi-weekly to capture the temporal evolution of physical properties of snow. Some snowpits were one-off events to capture interesting and unplanned-for surface conditions. This dataset includes 576 snowpit events, and describes the snow conditions during the entire expedition. Please direct inquiries to; David Wagner (PS122/1), Martin Schneebeli (PS122/2), Amy Macfarlane (PS122/3 and PS122/4), Ruzica Dadic (PS122/5).

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    Authors: Clyne, Margot; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Mills, Michael J.; Khodri, Myriam; +19 Authors

    As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP), several climate modeling centers performed a coordinated pre-study experiment with interactive stratospheric aerosol models simulating the volcanic aerosol cloud from an eruption resembling the 1815 Mt. Tambora eruption (VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble). The pre-study provided the ancillary ability to assess intermodel diversity in the radiative forcing for a large stratospheric-injecting equatorial eruption when the volcanic aerosol cloud is simulated interactively. An initial analysis of the VolMIP-Tambora ISA ensemble showed large disparities between models in the stratospheric global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study, we now show that stratospheric global mean AOD differences among the participating models are primarily due to differences in aerosol size, which we track here by effective radius. We identify specific physical and chemical processes that are missing in some models and/or parameterized differently between models, which are together causing the differences in effective radius. In particular, our analysis indicates that interactively tracking hydroxyl radical (OH) chemistry following a large volcanic injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important factor in allowing for the timescale for sulfate formation to be properly simulated. In addition, depending on the timescale of sulfate formation, there can be a large difference in effective radius and subsequently AOD that results from whether the SO2 is injected in a single model grid cell near the location of the volcanic eruption, or whether it is injected as a longitudinally averaged band around the Earth.

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