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47 Research products

  • European Marine Science
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  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Arosio, Tito; Ziehmer, Malin; Nicolussi, Kurt; Schluechter, Christian; +4 Authors

    Stable isotope ratios from tree rings are important proxies of past climate variations. We have access to a calendar-dated wood material from wood collected at glacier forefields and peat bog sites located in the Alps. They are of two species, larch (Larix decidua) and cembran pine (Pinus cembra). All the wood samples were collected at high altitudes in the Swiss and Tyrol Alps, they cover the whole Holocene period and belong to the Eastern Alpine Conifer Chronology Dataset (Nicolussi et al., 2009; doi:10.1177/0959683609336565). We analysed the δ13C, δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios of alpha cellulose obtained from blocks of 5 annual rings from 203 trees. Cellulose was extracted following the modified Jayme-Wise method (Boettger et al., 2007; doi:10.1021/ac0700023). The isotopes values were determined using conventional Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Isoprime 100) coupled to a pyrolysis unit (HEKAtech GmbH, Germany), which is similar to the previously used TC/EA (for technical details see (Leuenberger 2007). This approach was extended to measurements of non-exchangeable hydrogen of alpha-cellulose using the on-line equilibration method (Filot et al., 2006 (doi:10.1002/rcm.2743); Loader et al., 2015(doi:10.1021/ac502557x)). The results are reported in per mil (‰) relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) for carbon and to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) for hydrogen and oxygen (Coplen 1994; doi:10.1351/pac199466020273). For all the δ13C values after 1000 CE we applied the factor described in Leuenberger (2007; doi:10.1016/S1936-7961(07)01014-7) to correct for the δ13C depletion of CO2 caused by the Industrial Revolution from about 1850 onwards (Leuenberger, 2007).

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    Authors: Brandon, Margaux; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Michel, Elisabeth; Landais, Amaëlle; +6 Authors

    Micropaleontological (coccolith, planktonic foraminifera) and geochemical (CaCO3, CaXRF, δ18O N. pachyderma, δ13C N. pachyderma) analyses from sediment core MD04-2718 retrieved from the Subantarctic zone (SAZ) of the Indian Southern Ocean covering the time interval from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 to MIS 10 (440,000– 360,000 years). Coccolith abundances and masses were performed using SYRACO software at Geoscience Paris-Saclay Laboratory (GEOPS). CaCO3 percentages were also measured at GEOPS. Foraminifera abundances and masses and stable oxygen and carbon isotopes were performed at Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE). SST were calculated using two methods : the Modern Analogue Technique (Haddam et al., 2016) and the percentage of N. pachyderma s. (Govin et al., 2009). CaXRF measurements were performed at ETH, Zurich. These approaches allowed to decipher the variations in Carbonate Counter Pump and upwelling strength in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean between MIS 12 and MIS 10, including the Termination V and interglacial MIS 11.

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    Authors: Friesenhagen, Thore;

    This archive contains raw data, intermediate and final results for the morphometric investigation of menardiform globorotallids (planktonic foraminifera) from ODP Hole 667A (Sierra Leone Rise in the eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean; Lat: 4.569167°N, Lon: -21.911333°E ) from 33 stratigraphic levels during the past 8 million years. Complementary to previous investigations about the evolution in the Neogene Globorotalia menardii-G. limbata-G. multicamerata lineage from DSDP Holes 502 and 503, ODP Hole 925B and Hole 806C by Knappertsbusch, these data were collected to investigate the tempo and mode of evolution of the shell (=test) morphology and speciation. This dataset comprises digital images and morphometric measurements, as well as software (codes) needed to process the data according to the processing given in Friesenhagen (2022). Unpacked, the dataset has a size of 6.4 Gb (~66.500 files). The measured morphometric parameter of 6719 specimens incorporate, amongst others, the spiral height, axial length, the test area, the spiral and umbilical convexity, and the radii of the osculating circles of the upper and the lower keel region of the test in keel view. A subset of the data used in the study, their statistical treatment and illustrations of these are given alongside the publication as an electronic supplementary. The measured specimens, samples and their residuals are deposited in the micropalaeontological reference collection at the Natural History Museum Basel.

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    Authors: Fentimen, Robin; Feenstra, Eline; Rueggeberg, Andres; Hall, Efraim; +9 Authors

    These sedimentological and geochemical analyses were carried out on three on-mound cold-water coral mound cores (MD13-3455G, MD13-3459G and MD13-3462G) recovered in the East Melilla Coral Province (Southeast Alboran Sea, Mediterranean Sea) during the EUROFLEETS cruise MD194 “Gateway” on board the RV Marion Dufresne II in June 2013. The time period of the studied core sections covers the last 15 ky and offers a high-resolution temporal record of the Bølling–Allerød interstadial. The core sites are situated approximately 1 km apart on the crest of Brittlestar Ridge I (35°26.087'N, 2°30.100'W). More precisely, the three datasets presented here correspond to: (1) particle size analysis results determined on the siliciclastic fraction using the Malvern Mastersizer 3000 at the Department of Geology at Ghent University. These analyses were carried out in order to quantify important changes in sediment flux and bottom current velocity. (2) Scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was carried out using the Itrax high-resolution XRF core scanner at the Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, to measure relative element concentration changes in the sediments of the cold-water coral mounds; whereas (3) RockEval6 pyrolysis was carried out at the Laboratory of Sediment Geochemistry at the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) to characterize the organic carbon content of the mound sediments

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    Authors: Lundstad, Elin; Brugnara, Yuri; Brönnimann, Stefan;

    There is a growing need for past weather and climate data to support science and decision-making. This paper describes the compilation and the construction of a global multivariable (air temperature, pressure, precipitation sum, number of precipitation days) monthly instrumental climate database that encompasses a substantial body of the known early instrumental time series. The dataset contains series compiled from existing databases that start before 1890 (though continuing to the present) as well as a large amount of newly rescued data. All series underwent a quality control procedure and subdaily series were processed to monthly mean values. An inventory was compiled, and the collection was deduplicated based on coordinates and mutual correlations. The data are provided in a common format accompanied by the inventory. The collection totals 12452 meteorological records in 118 countries. The data has been merged from 18250 original data files. The data can be used for climate reconstructions and analyses. It is the most comprehensive global monthly climate data set for the preindustrial period.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma
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    Authors: Auderset, Alexandra; Moretti, Simone; Taphorn, Björn; Ebner, Pia-Rebecca; +6 Authors

    Over recent decades, the oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs) of the ocean have expanded, affecting marine ecosystems. However, their response to future global warming is poorly understood. In this study, we investigate Cenozoic ODZs dynamics extending back to 60 million years ago (60 Ma) with a special focus on two periods of sustained global warming: the Middle Miocene and Early Eocene climate optima (MMCO, ca. 16 Ma and EECO, ca 52 Ma). The data series include new species-specific, genus-specific and mixed-taxa foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotope (FB-δ15N) and N content data from sediment cores in the Pacific (ODP 872) and Atlantic (DSDP 516). The new FB-δ15N data combined with existing data from Kast et al., 2019 (doi: 10.1126/science.aau5784) are used to reconstruct the history of ODZ hosted water column denitrification across the Cenozoic. To better understand the connection between denitrification change and climate, we compare the nitrogen isotope data with new TEX86-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data from high latitudes (ODP 704), middle latitudes (DSDP/ODP 516, 588, 754, 1146, 1263) and low latitudes (ODP 667,730) in combination with a global Cenozoic TEX86-derived SST compilation of published records. The data series include all GDGT measurements, calculated indices, SSTs and SST gradients, as well as the age models for the discussed core sites (DSDP/ODP 516, 588, 667, 690, 704, 730, 738, 754, 1146, 1211, 1263) updated to the Geologic Time Scale 2012 (GTS-12, Gradstein et al., 2012, doi: 10.1016/C2011-1-08249-8).

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    Authors: Döring, Michael;

    Holocene temperature anomalies (0.07...11.5 kyr b2k) of Greenland Summit were reconstructed from firn model inversions of GISP2 d15N, d40Ar and d15Nexcess data. Three different accumulation rate datasets for the GISP2 site and two different firn densification and heat and gas diffusion models (Schwander et al., 1997; Goujon et al., 2003) were used for uncertainty estimation. The GISP2 accumulation data used (0.02...35 kyr b2k, original data from: Cuffey and Clow, 1997), based on the GICC05 chronology (Rasmussen et al., 2014; Seierstad et al., 2014), are published together with the temperature anomalies. The file contains the most robust temperature estimate (T(d15N)) together with modelled firn parameters (delta age, lock-in depth, firn temperature gradient), modelled isotopes (d15N, d40Ar and d15Nexcess) on gas and glacial scales for all isotopic inversions (d15N, d40Ar, d15Nexcess) together with the respective reconstructed temperature anomalies. All data are synchronised with the GICC05 chronology. For details see: Döring and Leuenberger, 2022. Comparison of Holocene temperature reconstructions based on GISP2 multiple-gas-isotope measurements. Quat. Sci. Rev.

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    Authors: Ausín, Blanca; Haghipour, Negar; Bruni, Elena T; Eglinton, Timothy Ian;

    Alkenone concentration and radiocarbon age in 7 gobally-distributed surface sediment samples and their associated grain-size fractions. Total organic carbon (TOC) and fractional abundance of grain-size fractions from bulk sediments (Bulk%) are taken from Ausín et al. (2021). Analytical precision of Uk'37 is 0.003 units. Uk'37-SST propagated error is ±0.51℃. These parameters were measured to explore the influence of alkenone-mineral associations and hydrodynamic mineral sorting processes on alkenone proxy signals. Bulk sediment samples were fractionated into four grain-size fractions (sand (>300-63 µm); coarse silt (63-10 µm); fine silt (10-2 µm); and clay (< 2 µm) prior to lipid extraction and manual column chromatography to obtain a ketone fraction containing the alkenones. The concentration and distribution of C37 alkenones was analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) at the Biogeoscience Group Laboratories, ETH Zürich in 2018. The ketone fractions used for determination of alkenone concentration and unsaturation were further purified for compound specific radiocarbon analysis following Ohkouchi et al. (2005). Samples, were measured as CO2 using an Elemental-Analyzer system interface coupled to a gas ion source (GIS)-equipped Minicarbon Dating System (MICADAS) at the Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zürich in 2018. References Ausín, B., Bruni, E., Haghipour, N., Welte, C., Bernasconi, S. M., & Eglinton, T. I. Controls on the abundance, provenance and age of organic carbon buried in continental margin sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 558, 116759, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2021.116759, 2021. Ohkouchi, N., Xu, L., Reddy, C. M., Montluon, D., & linton, T. I. Radiocarbon dating of alkenones from marine sediments: I. Isolation Protocol Radiocarbon, 47, 401-412, doi:10.1017/S0033822200035189, 2005.

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    Authors: Benedetti, Fabio;
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    Authors: Plach, Andreas; Vinther, Bo M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; +1 Authors

    This study presents simulations of Greenland surface melt for the Eemian interglacial period (∼130 000 to 115 000 years ago) derived from regional climate simulations with a coupled surface energy balance model. Surface melt is of high relevance due to its potential effect on ice core observations, e.g., lowering the preserved total air content (TAC) used to infer past surface elevation. An investigation of surface melt is particularly interesting for warm periods with high surface melt, such as the Eemian interglacial period. Furthermore, Eemian ice is the deepest and most compressed ice preserved on Greenland, resulting in our inability to identify melt layers visually. Therefore, simulating Eemian melt rates and associated melt layers is beneficial to improve the reconstruction of past surface elevation. Estimated TAC, based on simulated melt during the Eemian, could explain the lower TAC observations. The simulations show Eemian surface melt at all deep Greenland ice core locations and an average of up to ∼30 melt days per year at Dye-3, corresponding to more than 600 mm water equivalent (w.e.) of annual melt. For higher ice sheet locations, between 60 and 150 mmw.e.yr-1 on average are simulated. At the summit of Greenland, this yields a refreezing ratio of more than 25 % of the annual accumulation. As a consequence, high melt rates during warm periods should be considered when interpreting Greenland TAC fluctuations as surface elevation changes. In addition to estimating the influence of melt on past TAC in ice cores, the simulated surface melt could potentially be used to identify coring locations where Greenland ice is best preserved.

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    Authors: Arosio, Tito; Ziehmer, Malin; Nicolussi, Kurt; Schluechter, Christian; +4 Authors

    Stable isotope ratios from tree rings are important proxies of past climate variations. We have access to a calendar-dated wood material from wood collected at glacier forefields and peat bog sites located in the Alps. They are of two species, larch (Larix decidua) and cembran pine (Pinus cembra). All the wood samples were collected at high altitudes in the Swiss and Tyrol Alps, they cover the whole Holocene period and belong to the Eastern Alpine Conifer Chronology Dataset (Nicolussi et al., 2009; doi:10.1177/0959683609336565). We analysed the δ13C, δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios of alpha cellulose obtained from blocks of 5 annual rings from 203 trees. Cellulose was extracted following the modified Jayme-Wise method (Boettger et al., 2007; doi:10.1021/ac0700023). The isotopes values were determined using conventional Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Isoprime 100) coupled to a pyrolysis unit (HEKAtech GmbH, Germany), which is similar to the previously used TC/EA (for technical details see (Leuenberger 2007). This approach was extended to measurements of non-exchangeable hydrogen of alpha-cellulose using the on-line equilibration method (Filot et al., 2006 (doi:10.1002/rcm.2743); Loader et al., 2015(doi:10.1021/ac502557x)). The results are reported in per mil (‰) relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) for carbon and to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) for hydrogen and oxygen (Coplen 1994; doi:10.1351/pac199466020273). For all the δ13C values after 1000 CE we applied the factor described in Leuenberger (2007; doi:10.1016/S1936-7961(07)01014-7) to correct for the δ13C depletion of CO2 caused by the Industrial Revolution from about 1850 onwards (Leuenberger, 2007).

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    Authors: Brandon, Margaux; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Michel, Elisabeth; Landais, Amaëlle; +6 Authors

    Micropaleontological (coccolith, planktonic foraminifera) and geochemical (CaCO3, CaXRF, δ18O N. pachyderma, δ13C N. pachyderma) analyses from sediment core MD04-2718 retrieved from the Subantarctic zone (SAZ) of the Indian Southern Ocean covering the time interval from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 to MIS 10 (440,000– 360,000 years). Coccolith abundances and masses were performed using SYRACO software at Geoscience Paris-Saclay Laboratory (GEOPS). CaCO3 percentages were also measured at GEOPS. Foraminifera abundances and masses and stable oxygen and carbon isotopes were performed at Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE). SST were calculated using two methods : the Modern Analogue Technique (Haddam et al., 2016) and the percentage of N. pachyderma s. (Govin et al., 2009). CaXRF measurements were performed at ETH, Zurich. These approaches allowed to decipher the variations in Carbonate Counter Pump and upwelling strength in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean between MIS 12 and MIS 10, including the Termination V and interglacial MIS 11.

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    Authors: Friesenhagen, Thore;

    This archive contains raw data, intermediate and final results for the morphometric investigation of menardiform globorotallids (planktonic foraminifera) from ODP Hole 667A (Sierra Leone Rise in the eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean; Lat: 4.569167°N, Lon: -21.911333°E ) from 33 stratigraphic levels during the past 8 million years. Complementary to previous investigations about the evolution in the Neogene Globorotalia menardii-G. limbata-G. multicamerata lineage from DSDP Holes 502 and 503, ODP Hole 925B and Hole 806C by Knappertsbusch, these data were collected to investigate the tempo and mode of evolution of the shell (=test) morphology and speciation. This dataset comprises digital images and morphometric measurements, as well as software (codes) needed to process the data according to the processing given in Friesenhagen (2022). Unpacked, the dataset has a size of 6.4 Gb (~66.500 files). The measured morphometric parameter of 6719 specimens incorporate, amongst others, the spiral height, axial length, the test area, the spiral and umbilical convexity, and the radii of the osculating circles of the upper and the lower keel region of the test in keel view. A subset of the data used in the study, their statistical treatment and illustrations of these are given alongside the publication as an electronic supplementary. The measured specimens, samples and their residuals are deposited in the micropalaeontological reference collection at the Natural History Museum Basel.

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    Authors: Fentimen, Robin; Feenstra, Eline; Rueggeberg, Andres; Hall, Efraim; +9 Authors

    These sedimentological and geochemical analyses were carried out on three on-mound cold-water coral mound cores (MD13-3455G, MD13-3459G and MD13-3462G) recovered in the East Melilla Coral Province (Southeast Alboran Sea, Mediterranean Sea) during the EUROFLEETS cruise MD194 “Gateway” on board the RV Marion Dufresne II in June 2013. The time period of the studied core sections covers the last 15 ky and offers a high-resolution temporal record of the Bølling–Allerød interstadial. The core sites are situated approximately 1 km apart on the crest of Brittlestar Ridge I (35°26.087'N, 2°30.100'W). More precisely, the three datasets presented here correspond to: (1) particle size analysis results determined on the siliciclastic fraction using the Malvern Mastersizer 3000 at the Department of Geology at Ghent University. These analyses were carried out in order to quantify important changes in sediment flux and bottom current velocity. (2) Scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was carried out using the Itrax high-resolution XRF core scanner at the Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, to measure relative element concentration changes in the sediments of the cold-water coral mounds; whereas (3) RockEval6 pyrolysis was carried out at the Laboratory of Sediment Geochemistry at the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) to characterize the organic carbon content of the mound sediments

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    Authors: Lundstad, Elin; Brugnara, Yuri; Brönnimann, Stefan;

    There is a growing need for past weather and climate data to support science and decision-making. This paper describes the compilation and the construction of a global multivariable (air temperature, pressure, precipitation sum, number of precipitation days) monthly instrumental climate database that encompasses a substantial body of the known early instrumental time series. The dataset contains series compiled from existing databases that start before 1890 (though continuing to the present) as well as a large amount of newly rescued data. All series underwent a quality control procedure and subdaily series were processed to monthly mean values. An inventory was compiled, and the collection was deduplicated based on coordinates and mutual correlations. The data are provided in a common format accompanied by the inventory. The collection totals 12452 meteorological records in 118 countries. The data has been merged from 18250 original data files. The data can be used for climate reconstructions and analyses. It is the most comprehensive global monthly climate data set for the preindustrial period.

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
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    Authors: Auderset, Alexandra; Moretti, Simone; Taphorn, Björn; Ebner, Pia-Rebecca; +6 Authors

    Over recent decades, the oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs) of the ocean have expanded, affecting marine ecosystems. However, their response to future global warming is poorly understood. In this study, we investigate Cenozoic ODZs dynamics extending back to 60 million years ago (60 Ma) with a special focus on two periods of sustained global warming: the Middle Miocene and Early Eocene climate optima (MMCO, ca. 16 Ma and EECO, ca 52 Ma). The data series include new species-specific, genus-specific and mixed-taxa foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotope (FB-δ15N) and N content data from sediment cores in the Pacific (ODP 872) and Atlantic (DSDP 516). The new FB-δ15N data combined with existing data from Kast et al., 2019 (doi: 10.1126/science.aau5784) are used to reconstruct the history of ODZ hosted water column denitrification across the Cenozoic. To better understand the connection between denitrification change and climate, we compare the nitrogen isotope data with new TEX86-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data from high latitudes (ODP 704), middle latitudes (DSDP/ODP 516, 588, 754, 1146, 1263) and low latitudes (ODP 667,730) in combination with a global Cenozoic TEX86-derived SST compilation of published records. The data series include all GDGT measurements, calculated indices, SSTs and SST gradients, as well as the age models for the discussed core sites (DSDP/ODP 516, 588, 667, 690, 704, 730, 738, 754, 1146, 1211, 1263) updated to the Geologic Time Scale 2012 (GTS-12, Gradstein et al., 2012, doi: 10.1016/C2011-1-08249-8).

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    Authors: Döring, Michael;

    Holocene temperature anomalies (0.07...11.5 kyr b2k) of Greenland Summit were reconstructed from firn model inversions of GISP2 d15N, d40Ar and d15Nexcess data. Three different accumulation rate datasets for the GISP2 site and two different firn densification and heat and gas diffusion models (Schwander et al., 1997; Goujon et al., 2003) were used for uncertainty estimation. The GISP2 accumulation data used (0.02...35 kyr b2k, original data from: Cuffey and Clow, 1997), based on the GICC05 chronology (Rasmussen et al., 2014; Seierstad et al., 2014), are published together with the temperature anomalies. The file contains the most robust temperature estimate (T(d15N)) together with modelled firn parameters (delta age, lock-in depth, firn temperature gradient), modelled isotopes (d15N, d40Ar and d15Nexcess) on gas and glacial scales for all isotopic inversions (d15N, d40Ar, d15Nexcess) together with the respective reconstructed temperature anomalies. All data are synchronised with the GICC05 chronology. For details see: Döring and Leuenberger, 2022. Comparison of Holocene temperature reconstructions based on GISP2 multiple-gas-isotope measurements. Quat. Sci. Rev.

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    Authors: Ausín, Blanca; Haghipour, Negar; Bruni, Elena T; Eglinton, Timothy Ian;

    Alkenone concentration and radiocarbon age in 7 gobally-distributed surface sediment samples and their associated grain-size fractions. Total organic carbon (TOC) and fractional abundance of grain-size fractions from bulk sediments (Bulk%) are taken from Ausín et al. (2021). Analytical precision of Uk'37 is 0.003 units. Uk'37-SST propagated error is ±0.51℃. These parameters were measured to explore the influence of alkenone-mineral associations and hydrodynamic mineral sorting processes on alkenone proxy signals. Bulk sediment samples were fractionated into four grain-size fractions (sand (>300-63 µm); coarse silt (63-10 µm); fine silt (10-2 µm); and clay (< 2 µm) prior to lipid extraction and manual column chromatography to obtain a ketone fraction containing the alkenones. The concentration and distribution of C37 alkenones was analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) at the Biogeoscience Group Laboratories, ETH Zürich in 2018. The ketone fractions used for determination of alkenone concentration and unsaturation were further purified for compound specific radiocarbon analysis following Ohkouchi et al. (2005). Samples, were measured as CO2 using an Elemental-Analyzer system interface coupled to a gas ion source (GIS)-equipped Minicarbon Dating System (MICADAS) at the Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zürich in 2018. References Ausín, B., Bruni, E., Haghipour, N., Welte, C., Bernasconi, S. M., & Eglinton, T. I. Controls on the abundance, provenance and age of organic carbon buried in continental margin sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 558, 116759, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2021.116759, 2021. Ohkouchi, N., Xu, L., Reddy, C. M., Montluon, D., & linton, T. I. Radiocarbon dating of alkenones from marine sediments: I. Isolation Protocol Radiocarbon, 47, 401-412, doi:10.1017/S0033822200035189, 2005.

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    Authors: Benedetti, Fabio;
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