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  • European Marine Science
  • 2019-2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Veiros, Li; Schweinfurth, Manon K.; Webster, Mike M.;

    This work was funded by an EASTBIO DTP scholarship to A. Li Veiros. Cooperative behaviours, which benefit a recipient, are widespread in the animal kingdom; yet their evolution is not straightforward. Reciprocity, i.e., cooperating with previously experienced cooperative partners, has been suggested to underly cooperation, but has been contested throughout the years. Once a textbook example of reciprocity was cooperative predator inspection, where one or several individuals leave their group to approach a potential threat. Each can at any point stop or retreat, increasing the risk for its partner. It was suggested that inspecting individuals follow a specific reciprocal strategy called tit-for-tat, i.e., cooperating on the first move and then copying the partner's last move. Numerous studies provide evidence to support the claim that fish cooperate to inspect predators, including three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). However, over the past few decades some scholars have expressed scepticism whether predator inspection is indeed a cooperative behaviour or rather a case of by-product mutualism, which describes behaviours that benefit a partner as a corollary of an otherwise selfish behaviour. For instance, it has been shown that pairs of fish moving in unfamiliar environments appear to coordinate movements even in the absence of predators. Many studies have also used coarse measures of overall approach rates towards predators rather than the fine-grained analyses necessary to infer tit-for-tat in cooperative inspections. Now is the time to return to the question of cooperative predator inspection with new tools and approaches to resolve a decades-old debate. Peer reviewed

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  • Authors: Diaz-Arce, Natalia; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Richardson, David E.; Walter III, John F.; +15 Authors

    The commercially important Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), a large migratory fish, has experienced notable recovery aided by accurate resource assessment and effective fisheries management efforts. Traditionally, this species has been perceived as consisting of eastern and western populations, spawning respectively in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, with mixing occurring throughout the Atlantic. However, recent studies have challenged this assumption by revealing weak genetic differentiation and identifying a previously unknown spawning ground in the Slope Sea used by Atlantic bluefin tuna of uncertain origin. To further understand the current and past population structure and connectivity of Atlantic bluefin tuna, we have assembled a unique dataset including thousands of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 500 larvae, young of the year and spawning adult samples covering the three spawning grounds and including individuals of other Thunnus species. Our analyses support two weakly differentiated but demographically connected ancestral populations that interbreed in the Slope Sea. Moreover, we also identified signatures of introgression from albacore (Thunnus alalunga) into the Atlantic bluefin tuna genome, exhibiting varied frequencies across spawning areas, indicating strong gene flow from the Mediterranean Sea towards the Slope Sea. We hypothesize that the observed genetic differentiation may be attributed to increased gene flow caused by a recent intensification of westward migration by the eastern population, which could have implications for the genetic diversity and conservation of western populations. Future conservation efforts should consider these findings to address potential genetic homogenization in the species.

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  • Authors: Ricour, Florian; Guidi, Lionel; Gehlen, Marion; DeVries, Timothy; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Martínez Moreno, Josué;

    This dataset includes the NEMO 4.0.2 configuration used and analysed in the paper titled "Eddy-driven heterogeneity in sea ice during the ice-growth season". The output data is approximately 4TB for the 3 idealised configuration used in the manuscript, thus we opted to distribute the configuration. Note: The initial conditions for each simulation are compressed into the file `init_cond.zip` The configuration for one of the simulations is compressed in the file `config.zip` In order to reproduce all the runs, it's only required to change the initial conditions in the file namelist_cfg and namelist_ice_cfg. Further information and scripts to reproduce the result of the manuscript can be found at: https://github.com/josuemtzmo/Ice_formation

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    Authors: King, Amy;

    Bootstrapped Monte Carlo spline and confidence interval generation for ice core gas records in: 'Reconciling ice core CO2 and land-use change following New World-Old World contact'.

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  • Authors: Segur, Théo; Sonke, Jeroen, E;

    Cartoon describing the fundamental futility of trying to clean up floating marine debris. The cartoon accompanies an eLetter in the journal Science posted online on 13/11/2023: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adj0102.Our eLetter and the cartoon are in reply to a Letter by Zouxia Long in Science (same above mink) that we need to accelerate efforts to clean up the ocean. Scientific research shows that most (80%) plastic waste resides on land, and that only a small amount (0.004%) floats at the surface of the ocean. We argue that we need to first limit plastics production and use, and cleanup plastics on land.

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    Authors: Banerjee, Tridib; Danilov, Sergey; Scholz, Patrick; Klingbeil, Knut; +1 Authors

    FESOM2.5 code with preliminary implementation of the Split-Explicit external mode solver. This project is a contribution to the projects M5 (Reducing spurious mixing and energetic inconsistencies in realistic ocean modelling applications) and S2 (Improved parameterisations and numerics in climate models) of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 181 "Energy Transfer in Atmosphere and Ocean" funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) - Projektnummer 274762653.

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  • Authors: Willis, Megan D.; Lannuzel, Delphine; Else, Brent; Angot, Hélène; +15 Authors

    Polar oceans and sea ice cover 15% of the Earth’s ocean surface, and the environment is changing rapidly at both poles. Improving knowledge on the interactions between the atmospheric and oceanic realms in the polar regions, a Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) project key focus, is essential to understanding the Earth system in the context of climate change. However, our ability to monitor the pace and magnitude of changes in the polar regions and evaluate their impacts for the rest of the globe is limited by both remoteness and sea-ice coverage. Sea ice not only supports biological activity and mediates gas and aerosol exchange but can also hinder some in-situ and remote sensing observations. While satellite remote sensing provides the baseline climate record for sea-ice properties and extent, these techniques cannot provide key variables within and below sea ice. Recent robotics, modeling, and in-situ measurement advances have opened new possibilities for understanding the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere system, but critical knowledge gaps remain. Seasonal and long-term observations are clearly lacking across all variables and phases. Observational and modeling efforts across the sea-ice, ocean, and atmospheric domains must be better linked to achieve a system-level understanding of polar ocean and sea-ice environments. As polar oceans are warming and sea ice is becoming thinner and more ephemeral than before, dramatic changes over a suite of physicochemical and biogeochemical processes are expected, if not already underway.These changes in sea-ice and ocean conditions will affect atmospheric processes by modifying the production of aerosols, aerosol precursors, reactive halogens and oxidants, and the exchange of greenhouse gases. Quantifying which processes will be enhanced or reduced by climate change calls for tailored monitoring programs for high-latitude ocean environments. Open questions in this coupled system will be best resolved by leveraging ongoing international and multidisciplinary programs, such as efforts led by SOLAS, to link research across the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere interface.

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  • Authors: Garcia-Baron, Isabel; Granado, Igor; Astarloa, Amaia; Boyra, Guillermo; +7 Authors

    Fishery bycatch is a serious threat to several protected, endangered, and threatened species (PETs), requiring urgent action to develop and implement conservation measures. This study performs an Ecological Risk Assessment for the Effects of Fishing (ERAEF) using a spatially and temporally Productivity-Susceptibility Analysis (PSA) to calculate the potential risk to great shearwaters (Ardenna gravis) from direct interaction with the metiers of the artisanal tuna fishing fleet at the Bay of Biscay (baitboats and trollers). The PSA incorporates productivity attributes based on the Fecundity Factor Index; and susceptibility attributes calculated from the species spatio-temporal abundance patterns obtained developing density surface models and distribution and intensity of fishing activity based on pooled Vessel Monitoring System and logbook data. The PSA shows an overall moderate risk to great shearwaters by the artisanal tuna fishery also revealing that baitboats are less risky than trollers (risk score of 3.12 +/- 0.09 and 2.70 +/- 0.05, respectively). Spatially, the likelihood of presence of high potential risk areas was associated with prey availability for both the PET and the commercial fish species. The systematic, repeatable, and standardized ERAEF followed in this study can be used to advice for ecosystem-based fisheries management to improve management measures for reducing bycatch of PETs around the world.

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  • Authors: Aliani, Stefano; Basurko, Oihane C.; Arias, Manuel; Isobe, Atsuhiko; +3 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Veiros, Li; Schweinfurth, Manon K.; Webster, Mike M.;

    This work was funded by an EASTBIO DTP scholarship to A. Li Veiros. Cooperative behaviours, which benefit a recipient, are widespread in the animal kingdom; yet their evolution is not straightforward. Reciprocity, i.e., cooperating with previously experienced cooperative partners, has been suggested to underly cooperation, but has been contested throughout the years. Once a textbook example of reciprocity was cooperative predator inspection, where one or several individuals leave their group to approach a potential threat. Each can at any point stop or retreat, increasing the risk for its partner. It was suggested that inspecting individuals follow a specific reciprocal strategy called tit-for-tat, i.e., cooperating on the first move and then copying the partner's last move. Numerous studies provide evidence to support the claim that fish cooperate to inspect predators, including three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). However, over the past few decades some scholars have expressed scepticism whether predator inspection is indeed a cooperative behaviour or rather a case of by-product mutualism, which describes behaviours that benefit a partner as a corollary of an otherwise selfish behaviour. For instance, it has been shown that pairs of fish moving in unfamiliar environments appear to coordinate movements even in the absence of predators. Many studies have also used coarse measures of overall approach rates towards predators rather than the fine-grained analyses necessary to infer tit-for-tat in cooperative inspections. Now is the time to return to the question of cooperative predator inspection with new tools and approaches to resolve a decades-old debate. Peer reviewed

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  • Authors: Diaz-Arce, Natalia; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Richardson, David E.; Walter III, John F.; +15 Authors

    The commercially important Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), a large migratory fish, has experienced notable recovery aided by accurate resource assessment and effective fisheries management efforts. Traditionally, this species has been perceived as consisting of eastern and western populations, spawning respectively in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, with mixing occurring throughout the Atlantic. However, recent studies have challenged this assumption by revealing weak genetic differentiation and identifying a previously unknown spawning ground in the Slope Sea used by Atlantic bluefin tuna of uncertain origin. To further understand the current and past population structure and connectivity of Atlantic bluefin tuna, we have assembled a unique dataset including thousands of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 500 larvae, young of the year and spawning adult samples covering the three spawning grounds and including individuals of other Thunnus species. Our analyses support two weakly differentiated but demographically connected ancestral populations that interbreed in the Slope Sea. Moreover, we also identified signatures of introgression from albacore (Thunnus alalunga) into the Atlantic bluefin tuna genome, exhibiting varied frequencies across spawning areas, indicating strong gene flow from the Mediterranean Sea towards the Slope Sea. We hypothesize that the observed genetic differentiation may be attributed to increased gene flow caused by a recent intensification of westward migration by the eastern population, which could have implications for the genetic diversity and conservation of western populations. Future conservation efforts should consider these findings to address potential genetic homogenization in the species.

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  • Authors: Ricour, Florian; Guidi, Lionel; Gehlen, Marion; DeVries, Timothy; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Martínez Moreno, Josué;

    This dataset includes the NEMO 4.0.2 configuration used and analysed in the paper titled "Eddy-driven heterogeneity in sea ice during the ice-growth season". The output data is approximately 4TB for the 3 idealised configuration used in the manuscript, thus we opted to distribute the configuration. Note: The initial conditions for each simulation are compressed into the file `init_cond.zip` The configuration for one of the simulations is compressed in the file `config.zip` In order to reproduce all the runs, it's only required to change the initial conditions in the file namelist_cfg and namelist_ice_cfg. Further information and scripts to reproduce the result of the manuscript can be found at: https://github.com/josuemtzmo/Ice_formation

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    Authors: King, Amy;

    Bootstrapped Monte Carlo spline and confidence interval generation for ice core gas records in: 'Reconciling ice core CO2 and land-use change following New World-Old World contact'.

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  • Authors: Segur, Théo; Sonke, Jeroen, E;

    Cartoon describing the fundamental futility of trying to clean up floating marine debris. The cartoon accompanies an eLetter in the journal Science posted online on 13/11/2023: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adj0102.Our eLetter and the cartoon are in reply to a Letter by Zouxia Long in Science (same above mink) that we need to accelerate efforts to clean up the ocean. Scientific research shows that most (80%) plastic waste resides on land, and that only a small amount (0.004%) floats at the surface of the ocean. We argue that we need to first limit plastics production and use, and cleanup plastics on land.

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    Authors: Banerjee, Tridib; Danilov, Sergey; Scholz, Patrick; Klingbeil, Knut; +1 Authors

    FESOM2.5 code with preliminary implementation of the Split-Explicit external mode solver. This project is a contribution to the projects M5 (Reducing spurious mixing and energetic inconsistencies in realistic ocean modelling applications) and S2 (Improved parameterisations and numerics in climate models) of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 181 "Energy Transfer in Atmosphere and Ocean" funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) - Projektnummer 274762653.

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