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3 Research products, page 1 of 1

  • European Marine Science
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schuster, U.; McKinley, G. A.; Bates, N.; Chevallier, F.; Doney, S. C.; Fay, A. R.; González-Dávila, M.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S.; Krijnen, J.; +12 more
    Project: EC | GREENCYCLESII (238366), EC | COCOS (212196), EC | GEOCARBON (283080), EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879)

    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is −0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1, and by the Arctic it is −0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of −0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2010
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cutter, G.; Andersson, P.; Codispoti, Lou; Croot, P.; François, R.; Lohan, M. C.; Obata, H.; Rutgers v. d. Loeff, Michiel;
    Publisher: GEOTRACES
    Country: Germany
    Project: NSF | The Panulirus (STATION S)... (8613904)

    The GEOTRACES Standards and Intercalibration (S&I) Committee is charged with ensuring that the data generated during GEOTRACES are as precise and accurate as possible, which includes all the steps from sampling to analysis. Thus, sampling methods for dissolved and particulate constituents must take a representative (of the water depth/water mass) and uncontaminated sample, the samples must be stored (or immediately analyzed) in a fashion that preserves the concentrations (activities) and chemical speciation, and the analyses of these samples must yield accurate data (concentration, activity, isotopic composition, chemical speciation). To this end, experiences from the 2008-2010 GEOTRACES Intercalibration Program, and other related intercalibration efforts, helped to create the protocols in this document. However, methods continually evolve and the GEOTRACES S&I Committee will monitor these advances as validated by intercalibrations and modify the methods as warranted. The protocols here are divided into trace element and isotope groups: Hydrography and Ancillary Parameters, Radioactive Isotopes, Radiogenic Isotopes, Trace Elements, and Nutrient Isotopes. Those who contributed to preparing these protocols are listed in Appendix 1 and are sincerely thanked for their efforts in helping GEOTRACES and the worldwide TEI community.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Knap, A. H.; Michaels, A.; Close, A. R.; Ducklow, H.; Dickson, A. G.;
    Country: Germany
    Project: NSF | The Panulirus (STATION S)... (8613904)