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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zamanillo, Marina; Sim��, Rafel;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: SNSF | Impact of interactions be... (166197), SNSF | The role of Southern Ocea... (186681), EC | BACCHUS (603445), SNSF | Natural Atmospheric new p... (169090), SNSF | The role of Southern Ocea... (175162), SNSF | Antarctic precipitation, ... (142684), SNSF | Impact of interactions be... (166197), SNSF | The role of Southern Ocea... (186681), EC | BACCHUS (603445), SNSF | Natural Atmospheric new p... (169090),...

    Dataset abstract TEP are operationally defined as gel particles that are retained on 0.4 ��m polycarbonate filters and stained with the cationic copper phthalocyanine dye Alcian Blue 8GX at pH 2.5. CSP are gel particles retained on 0.4 ��m polycarbonate filters that are stained with a solution of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G (CCB) at pH 7.4. Seawater surface samples (5 m) were collected every 6 hours from the ship���s underway pump. In addition, vertical profiles (6 depths, generally from 5 to 100-150 m) were sampled from 19 CTD casts using a SBE 911 Plus attached to a rosette of 24 12-L PVC Niskin bottles. This dataset presents TEP and CSP from seawater samples collected from the ship���s underway pump and CTDs. Samples were collected around the Southern Ocean on the R/V Akademik Tryoshnikov in the austral summer of 2016/2017, as part of the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition (ACE). Dataset contents ace_seawater_csp.csv, data file, comma-separated values ace_seawater_tep.csv, data file, comma-separated values data_file_header_csp.txt, metadata, text data_file_header_tep.txt, metadata, text README.txt, metadata, text Dataset license This TEP and CSP dataset from ACE is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) whose full text can be found at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ {"references": ["Passow, U., and Alldredge, A. L.: A dye-binding assay for the spectrophotometric measurement of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), Limnology and Oceanography, 40, 1326-1335, 1995.", "Cisternas-Novoa, C., Lee, C., and Engel, A.: A semi-quantitative spectrophotometric, dye-binding assay for determination of Coomassie Blue stainable particles, Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 12, 604-616, 10.4319/lom.2014.12.604, 2014."]} The Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition was made possible by funding from the Swiss Polar Institute and Ferring Pharmaceuticals. MZ was supported by a FPU predoctoral fellowship (FPU13/04630) from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Culture.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Benedetti, Fabio;
    Publisher: JETZON - investigating the Ocean's Twilight Zone
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | AtlantECO (862923)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Plach, Andreas; Vinther, Bo M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Blunier, Thomas;
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    This study presents simulations of Greenland surface melt for the Eemian interglacial period (∼130 000 to 115 000 years ago) derived from regional climate simulations with a coupled surface energy balance model. Surface melt is of high relevance due to its potential effect on ice core observations, e.g., lowering the preserved total air content (TAC) used to infer past surface elevation. An investigation of surface melt is particularly interesting for warm periods with high surface melt, such as the Eemian interglacial period. Furthermore, Eemian ice is the deepest and most compressed ice preserved on Greenland, resulting in our inability to identify melt layers visually. Therefore, simulating Eemian melt rates and associated melt layers is beneficial to improve the reconstruction of past surface elevation. Estimated TAC, based on simulated melt during the Eemian, could explain the lower TAC observations. The simulations show Eemian surface melt at all deep Greenland ice core locations and an average of up to ∼30 melt days per year at Dye-3, corresponding to more than 600 mm water equivalent (w.e.) of annual melt. For higher ice sheet locations, between 60 and 150 mmw.e.yr-1 on average are simulated. At the summit of Greenland, this yields a refreezing ratio of more than 25 % of the annual accumulation. As a consequence, high melt rates during warm periods should be considered when interpreting Greenland TAC fluctuations as surface elevation changes. In addition to estimating the influence of melt on past TAC in ice cores, the simulated surface melt could potentially be used to identify coring locations where Greenland ice is best preserved.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Robertson, Elizabeth K.; Conley, Daniel J.; Hermans, Martijn; Humborg, Christoph; Kubeneck, L. Joëlle; Lenstra, Wytze K.; Slomp, Caroline P.;
    Project: EC | PHOXY (278364), NWO | Response of the Iron Biog... (2300182111)

    Coastal systems can act as filters for anthropogenic nutrient input into marine environments. Here, we assess the processes controlling the removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) for four sites in the eutrophic Stockholm archipelago. Bottom water concentrations of oxygen (O2) and P are inversely correlated. This is attributed to the seasonal release of P from iron-oxide-bound (Fe-oxide-bound) P in surface sediments and from degrading organic matter. The abundant presence of sulfide in the pore water and its high upward flux towards the sediment surface (∼4 to 8 mmol m−2 d−1), linked to prior deposition of organic-rich sediments in a low-O2 setting (“legacy of hypoxia”), hinder the formation of a larger Fe-oxide-bound P pool in winter. This is most pronounced at sites where water column mixing is naturally relatively low and where low bottom water O2 concentrations prevail in summer. Burial rates of P are high at all sites (0.03–0.3 mol m−2 yr−1), a combined result of high sedimentation rates (0.5 to 3.5 cm yr−1) and high sedimentary P at depth (∼30 to 50 µmol g−1). Sedimentary P is dominated by Fe-bound P and organic P at the sediment surface and by organic P, authigenic Ca-P and detrital P at depth. Apart from one site in the inner archipelago, where a vivianite-type Fe(II)-P mineral is likely present at depth, there is little evidence for sink switching of organic or Fe-oxide-bound P to authigenic P minerals. Denitrification is the major benthic nitrate-reducing process at all sites (0.09 to 1.7 mmol m−2 d−1) with rates decreasing seaward from the inner to outer archipelago. Our results explain how sediments in this eutrophic coastal system can remove P through burial at a relatively high rate, regardless of whether the bottom waters are oxic or (frequently) hypoxic. Our results suggest that benthic N processes undergo annual cycles of removal and recycling in response to hypoxic conditions. Further nutrient load reductions are expected to contribute to the recovery of the eutrophic Stockholm archipelago from hypoxia. Based on the dominant pathways of P and N removal identified in this study, it is expected that the sediments will continue to remove part of the P and N loads.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Landwehr, Sebastian; Thomas, Jenny; Schmale, Julia;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: Switzerland

    Dataset abstract This data set contains the air-flow distortion bias factors of the port and starboard anemometers of the Akademik Tryoshnikov estimated during the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition (ACE) legs 0-4 undertaken during the austral summer of 2016/2017. The data are provided over overlapping wind direction secotors of 5(10) degree width stepped by 1(2) degrees relative wind direction. These bias factors can be used to correct the observed wind speeds for air-flow distortion on a sample by sample basis. For details see Landwehr et al. (2019; DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-366). Dataset contents flow_distortion_bias_sensor1.csv, data file, comma-separated values flow_distortion_bias_sensor2.csv, data file, comma-separated values data_file_header, metadata, text format README.txt, metadata, text format Dataset license This dataset of air-flow distortion factors is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) whose full text can be found at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ {"references": ["Landwehr, S., Thurnherr, I., Cassar, N., Gysel-Beer, M., and Schmale, J.: Using global reanalysis data to quantify and correct airflow distortion bias in shipborne wind speed measurements, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-366", "Smith, Shawn R., Mark A. Bourassa, and Ryan J. Sharp. 'Establishing More Truth in True Winds'. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 16 (1999): 14", "Python Software Foundation. Python Language Reference, version 3.7.3. Available at https://www.python.org"]} The Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition was made possible by funding from the Swiss Polar Institute and Ferring Pharmaceuticals. SL received funding from the Swiss Data Science Center project c17-02.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jonkers, Lukas; Cartapanis, Olivier; Langner, Michael; McKay, Nicholas; Mulitza, Stefan; Strack, Anne; Kucera, Michal;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (144811), SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (144811)

    {"references": ["Jonkers, L., Cartapanis, O., Langner, M., McKay, N., Mulitza, S., Strack, A., and Kucera, M.: Integrating palaeoclimate time series with rich metadata for uncertainty modelling: strategy and documentation of the PalMod 130k marine palaeoclimate data synthesis, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1053\u20131081, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-1053-2020, 2020"]} Palaeoclimate time series in the PALMOD 130k marine palaeoclimate data synthesis v1.0.1. This table lists the site names and location, parameters including additional information as well as the source of the data and the original publications where the data were presented.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Janssen, David J; Sieber, Matthias; Ellwood, Michael J; Conway, Tim M; Barrett, Pamela M; Chen, Xiaoyu; de Souza, Gregory F; Hassler, Christel S; Jaccard, Samuel L;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SCrIPT (819139), SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (172915), EC | SOSiC (708407), EC | SCrIPT (819139), SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (172915), EC | SOSiC (708407)

    Dissolved trace metal (Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) concentrations in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean from the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition, 2016-2017. Dissolved trace metal (Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) concentrations measured on seawater samples from the Southern Ocean. Samples were collected with a trace metal clean rosette system to a maximum depth of 1000 m during Legs 1 and 2 of the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition (ACE), 2016-2017. Samples were filtered through Akropak Supor filters (0.2 um) in a class 100 clean container, acidified to pH ≤ 2 and stored until analysis (>6 months). Samples from Leg 1 (TMR Casts 3-7) were collected during a transect from Cape Town, South Africa to Hobart, Australia. Samples from Leg 2 (TMR casts 8-20) were collected during a transect from Hobart, Australia to Punta Arenas, Chile. Data cover environments near subantarctic and Antarctic islands (TMR 3, 4, 13-15), in the Mertz Glacier Polynya (TMR 11-12) and near the Antarctic Peninsula (TMR 18), as well as meridional transects to and from the Antarctic continent (TMR 7-12, TMR 18-20). These data were collected as part of the Antarctic Circumnavigation Experiment, which was organized by the Swiss Polar Institute with funding from Ferring Pharmaceuticals. This dataset is accompanied by the following open access publication: Janssen, D.J., Sieber, M., Ellwood, M.J., Conway, T.M., Barrett, P.M., Chen, X., de Souza, G.F., Hassler, C.S., Jaccard, S.L. (2020). Trace metal and nutrient dynamics across broad biogeochemical gradients in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean. Marine Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103773 {"references": ["Janssen, D.J., Sieber, M., Ellwood, M.J., Conway, T.M., Barrett, P.M., Chen, X., de Souza, G.F., Hassler, C.S., Jaccard, S.L. (2020). Trace metal and nutrient dynamics across broad biogeochemical gradients in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean. Marine Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2020.103773"]}

  • Research data . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Costa, Kassandra M; Hayes, Christopher T; Anderson, Robert F; Pavia, Frank J; Bausch, Alexandra Renee; Deng, Feifei; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Geibert, Walter; Heinze, Christoph; Henderson, Gideon M; +24 more
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: ARC | Discovery Projects - Gran... (DP180100048), SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (144811), SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (172915)

    In this dataset we present a global compilation of over 1000 sedimentary records of 230Th from across the global ocean at two time slices, the Late Holocene (0-5000 years ago, or 0-5 ka) and the Last Glacial Maximum (18.5-23.5 ka). Data have been screened for age control, errors, and lithogenic corrections. Overall quality levels were computed by summing each record's scores on the individual criteria. A record is optimal if it is based on a chronology that is constrained by δ18O or 14C and it provides both the raw nuclide concentrations and the associated errors. About one quarter of the records in the database achieved this highest quality level. The large majority of the records in the database are good, passing two of the three criteria, while the remaining quarter are of fair or poor quality.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rickli, Jörg; Janssen, David J.; Hassler, Christel; Ellwood, Michael; Jaccard, Samuel L.;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (172915), SNSF | SeaO2 - Past changes in S... (172915)

    Dataset abstract Dissolved seawater chromium (Cr) concentrations and stable isotope compositions measured on samples collected with a trace metal clean rosette system in the Southern Ocean. Stations TM 7 to TM 12 reflect a north-south transect from Hobart, Tasmania to Mertz Glacier in Antarctica. Stations TM 14 and TM 15 neighbour the Balleny Islands. Stations TM 18 and TM 20 are located in the Drake Passage. Water samples were collected down to a depth of 1000 metres. The water was filtered in a class 100 clean container aboard the ship through pre-rinsed Supor Acropak capsule filters (0.2 um). Subsequently the samples were acidified and stored at a pH < 2 for several months prior to analysis. Reported values therefore represent bulk seawater chromium (Cr III and Cr VI). The data was obtained using the double-spike technique. Dataset contents ace_chromium_isotope_concentration.csv, data file, comma-separated values data_file_header.txt, metadata, text format README.txt, metadata, text format Dataset license This chromium concentration and isotope composition dataset is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) whose full text can be found at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ {"references": ["Rudge J.F., Reynolds B.C. and Bourdon B. (2009) The double spike toolbox. Chemical Geology 265, 420-431.", "R Core Team (2014). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org/", "Rickli, J., Janssen, D. J., Hassler, C., Ellwood, M. J. and Jaccard, S. L. (2019) 'ScienceDirect Chromium biogeochemistry and stable isotope distribution in the Southern Ocean', Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. The Authors, 262, pp. 188\u2013206. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2019.07.033."]} This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF – grant PP00P2_172915). The MC-ICP-MS at the Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern has been acquired within the framework of the NCCR project PlanetS. The Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition was made possible by funding from the Swiss Polar Institute and Ferring Pharmaceuticals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Seroussi, Hélène; Nowicki, Sophie; Simon, Erika; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Albrecht, Torsten; Brondex, Julien; Cornford, Stephen; Dumas, Christophe; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Goelzer, Heiko; +29 more
    Project: EC | ACCLIMATE (339108), EC | NACLIM (308299), NSF | The Management and Operat... (1852977), ANR | TROIS-AS (ANR-15-CE01-0005), NSF | Collaborative Research: E... (1443229)

    Ice sheet numerical modeling is an important tool to estimate the dynamic contribution of the Antarctic ice sheet to sea level rise over the coming centuries. The influence of initial conditions on ice sheet model simulations, however, is still unclear. To better understand this influence, an initial state intercomparison exercise (initMIP) has been developed to compare, evaluate, and improve initialization procedures and estimate their impact on century-scale simulations. initMIP is the first set of experiments of the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6), which is the primary Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) activity focusing on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Following initMIP-Greenland, initMIP-Antarctica has been designed to explore uncertainties associated with model initialization and spin-up and to evaluate the impact of changes in external forcings. Starting from the state of the Antarctic ice sheet at the end of the initialization procedure, three forward experiments are each run for 100 years: a control run, a run with a surface mass balance anomaly, and a run with a basal melting anomaly beneath floating ice. This study presents the results of initMIP-Antarctica from 25 simulations performed by 16 international modeling groups. The submitted results use different initial conditions and initialization methods, as well as ice flow model parameters and reference external forcings. We find a good agreement among model responses to the surface mass balance anomaly but large variations in responses to the basal melting anomaly. These variations can be attributed to differences in the extent of ice shelves and their upstream tributaries, the numerical treatment of grounding line, and the initial ocean conditions applied, suggesting that ongoing efforts to better represent ice shelves in continental-scale models should continue.