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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romero-Alvarez, Johana; Lupaşcu, Aurelia; Lowe, Douglas; Badia, Alba; Acher-Nicholls, Scott; Dorling, Steve R.; Reeves, Claire E.; Butler, Tim;
    Project: EC | ASIBIA (616938)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations depend on a combination of hemispheric, regional, and local-scale processes. Estimates of how much O3 is produced locally vs. transported from further afield are essential in air quality management and regulatory policies. Here, a tagged-ozone mechanism within the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the contributions to surface O3 in the UK from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from inside and outside the UK during May–August 2015. The contribution of the different source regions to three regulatory O3 metrics is also examined. It is shown that model simulations predict the concentration and spatial distribution of surface O3 with a domain-wide mean bias of −3.7 ppbv. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from the UK and Europe account for 13 % and 16 %, respectively, of the monthly mean surface O3 in the UK, as the majority (71 %) of O3 originates from the hemispheric background. Hemispheric O3 contributes the most to concentrations in the north and the west of the UK with peaks in May, whereas European and UK contributions are most significant in the east, south-east, and London, i.e. the UK's most populated areas, intensifying towards June and July. Moreover, O3 from European sources is generally transported to the UK rather than produced in situ. It is demonstrated that more stringent emission controls over continental Europe, particularly in western Europe, would be necessary to improve the health-related metric MDA8 O3 above 50 and 60 ppbv. Emission controls over larger areas, such as the Northern Hemisphere, are instead required to lessen the impacts on ecosystems as quantified by the AOT40 metric.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Galgani, Luisa; Tzempelikou, Eleni; Kalantzi, Ioanna; Tsiola, Anastasia; Tsapakis, Manolis; Paraskevi, Pitta; Esposito, Chiara; Tsotskou, Anastasia; Magiopoulos, Iordanis; Benavides, Roberto; +2 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | POSEIDOMM (702747)

    Microplastics are substrates for microbial activity and can influence biomass production. This has potentially important implications in the sea-surface microlayer, the marine boundary layer that controls gas exchange with the atmosphere and where biologically produced organic compounds can accumulate. In the present study, we used six large scale mesocosms to simulate future ocean scenarios of high plastic concentration. Each mesocosm was filled with 3 m3 of seawater from the oligotrophic Sea of Crete, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. A known amount of standard polystyrene microbeads of 30 μm diameter was added to three replicate mesocosms, while maintaining the remaining three as plastic-free controls. Over the course of a 12-day experiment, we explored microbial organic matter dynamics in the sea-surface microlayer in the presence and absence of microplastic contamination of the underlying water. Our study shows that microplastics increased both biomass production and enrichment of carbohydrate-like and proteinaceous marine gel compounds in the sea-surface microlayer. Importantly, this resulted in a 3 % reduction in the concentration of dissolved CO2 in the underlying water. This reduction was associated to both direct and indirect impacts of microplastic pollution on the uptake of CO2 within the marine carbon cycle, by modifying the biogenic composition of the sea's boundary layer with the atmosphere. for information: luisa.galgani@icloud.com; luisa.galgani@unisi.it; lgalgani@geomar.de

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Zens, Patrick; Black, Samuel; Lund, Kasper Holst; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul;
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    Greenland ice cores provide information about past climate. Few impurity records covering the past 2 decades exist from Greenland. Here we present results from six firn cores obtained during a 426 km long northern Greenland traverse made in 2015 between the NEEM and the EGRIP deep-drilling stations situated on the western side and eastern side of the Greenland ice sheet, respectively. The cores (9 to 14 m long) are analyzed for chemical impurities and cover time spans of 18 to 53 years (±3 years) depending on local snow accumulation that decreases from west to east. The high temporal resolution allows for annual layers and seasons to be resolved. Insoluble dust, ammonium, and calcium concentrations in the six firn cores overlap, and the seasonal cycles are also similar in timing and magnitude across sites, while peroxide (H2O2) and conductivity both have spatial variations, H2O2 driven by the accumulation pattern, and conductivity likely influenced by sea salt. Overall, we determine a rather constant dust flux over the period, but in the data from recent years (1998–2015) we identify an increase in large dust particles that we ascribe to an activation of local Greenland sources. We observe an expected increase in acidity and conductivity in the mid-1970s as a result of anthropogenic emissions, followed by a decrease due to mitigation. Several volcanic horizons identified in the conductivity and acidity records can be associated with eruptions in Iceland and in the Barents Sea region. From a composite ammonium record we obtain a robust forest fire proxy associated primarily with Canadian forest fires (R=0.49).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Droste, Elise S.; Hoppema, Mario; González-Dávila, Melchor; Santana-Casiano, Juana Magdalena; Queste, Bastien Y.; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Venables, Hugh J.; Rohardt, Gerd; Ossebaar, Sharyn; Schuller, Daniel; +2 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879)

    Tides significantly affect polar coastlines by modulating ice shelf melt and modifying shelf water properties through transport and mixing. However, the effect of tides on the marine carbonate chemistry in such regions, especially around Antarctica, remains largely unexplored. We address this topic with two case studies in a coastal polynya in the south-eastern Weddell Sea, neighbouring the Ekström Ice Shelf. The case studies were conducted in January 2015 (PS89) and January 2019 (PS117), capturing semi-diurnal oscillations in the water column. These are pronounced in both physical and biogeochemical variables for PS89. During rising tide, advection of sea ice meltwater from the north-east created a fresher, warmer, and more deeply mixed water column with lower dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) content. During ebbing tide, water from underneath the ice shelf decreased the polynya's temperature, increased the DIC and TA content, and created a more stratified water column. The variability during the PS117 case study was much smaller, as it had less sea ice meltwater input during rising tide and was better mixed with sub-ice shelf water. The contrasts in the variability between the two case studies could be wind and sea ice driven, and they underline the complexity and highly dynamic nature of the system. The variability in the polynya induced by the tides results in an air–sea CO2 flux that can range between a strong sink (−24 mmol m−2 d−1) and a small source (3 mmol m−2 d−1) on a semi-diurnal timescale. If the variability induced by tides is not taken into account, there is a potential risk of overestimating the polynya's CO2 uptake by 67 % or underestimating it by 73 %, compared to the average flux determined over several days. Depending on the timing of limited sampling, the polynya may appear to be a source or a sink of CO2. Given the disproportionate influence of polynyas on heat and carbon exchange in polar oceans, we recommend future studies around the Antarctic and Arctic coastlines to consider the timing of tidal currents in their sampling strategies and analyses. This will help constrain variability in oceanographic measurements and avoid potential biases in our understanding of these highly complex systems.

  • Research data . 2022
    English
    Authors: 
    Reñé, Albert; Timoneda Solé, Natàlia; Sarno, Diana; Zingone, Adriana; Margiotta, Francesca; Passarelli, Augusto; Gallia, Roberto; Tramontano, Ferdinando; Montresor, Marina; Garcés, Esther;
    Publisher: CSIC - Instituto de Ciencias del Mar (ICM)
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | ASSEMBLE Plus (730984)

    The presence of phytoplankton parasites along the water column was explored at the Long Term Ecological Station MareChiara (LTER-MC) in the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean Sea) in October 2019. Microscopy analyses showed diatoms dominating the phytoplankton community in the upper layers (0-20 m). Metabarcoding data from the water column showed the presence of Chytridiomycota predominantly in the upper layers coinciding with the vertical distribution of diatoms. Laboratory incubations of natural samples enriched with different diatom cultures confirmed parasitic interactions of some of those chytrids – including members of Kappamyces – with diatom taxa. The temporal dynamics of diatoms and chytrids was also explored in a three-year metabarcoding time-series (2011-2013) from surface waters of the study area and in sediment samples. Chytrids were recurrently present at low relative abundances, and some taxa found to infect diatoms in the incubation experiments were also identified in the ASV time-series. However, co-occurrence analyses did not show any clear or recurrent pairing patterns for chytrid and diatom taxa along the three years. The chytrid community in the sediments showed a clearly different species composition compared to the recorded in the water column samples, with higher diversity and relative abundance. The combination of observations, incubations and metabarcoding confirmed that parasites are a common component of marine protist communities at LTER-MC. Host-parasite interactions must be determined and quantified to understand their role and the impact they have on phytoplankton dynamics File1: VERDI_samples_parameters.xlsx - Physico-chemical variables obtained from CTD profile - Inorganic nutrients concentrations - Chlorophyll-a concentrations - Organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations - Phytoplankton abundances - Detections of chytrids File 2: VERDI_asv_table.tbl: ASV abundances from natural samples and incubations File 3: VERDI_tax_table.tbl: Taxonomic assignments of ASVs File 4: VERDI_asv_seqs.fa: Sequences of ASVs File 5: VERDI_incubations_images.zip - Compilation of images taken during incubations with diatoms - Physico-chemical variables obtained from CTD profile - Inorganic nutrients concentrations - Chlorophyll-a concentrations - Organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations - Phytoplankton abundances - Detections of chytrids - Metabarcoding ASV abundances from natural samples and incubations - Metabarcoding Taxonomic assignments of ASVs - Metabarcoding Sequences of ASVs - Compilation of images taken during incubations with diatoms - European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 730984, ASSEMBLE Plus project. - Spanish MICINN Project SMART (PID2020-112978GB-I00) - The research program LTER-MC is funded by the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    de Froe, Evert; Maier, Sandra R.; Horn, Henriette G.; Wolff, George. A.; Blackbird, Sabena; Mohn, Christian; Schultz, Mads; van der Kaaden, Anna-Selma; Cheng, Chiu H.; Wubben, Evi; +6 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | ATLAS (678760), EC | ATLAS (678760)

    This file contains the raw data and data analyses scripts to: Hydrography and food distribution during a tidal cycle above a cold-water coral mound Evert de Froe, Sandra R. Maier, Henriette G. Horn, George A. Wolff, Sabena Blackbird, Christian Mohn, Mads Schultz, Anna-Selma van der Kaaden, Chiu H. Cheng, Evi Wubben, Britt van Haastregt, Eva Friis Moller, Marc Lavaleye, Karline Soetaert, Gert-Jan Reichart, Dick van Oevelen. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 2022, ISSN 0967-0637, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2022.103854. Abstract: Cold-water corals (CWCs) are important ecosystem engineers in the deep sea that provide habitat for numerous species and can form large coral mounds. These mounds influence surrounding currents and induce distinct hydrodynamic features, such as internal waves and episodic downwelling events that accelerate transport of organic matter towards the mounds, supplying the corals with food. To date, research on organic matter distribution at coral mounds has focussed either on seasonal timescales or has provided single point snapshots. Data on food distribution at the timescale of a diurnal tidal cycle is currently limited. Here, we integrate physical, biogeochemical, and biological data throughout the water column and along a transect on the south-eastern slope of Rockall Bank, Northeast Atlantic Ocean. This transect consisted of 24-hour sampling stations at four locations: Bank, Upper slope, Lower slope, and the Oreo coral mound. We investigated how the organic matter distribution in the water column along the transect is affected by tidal activity. Repeated CTD casts indicated that the water column above Oreo mound was more dynamic than above other stations in multiple ways. First, the bottom water showed high variability in physical parameters and nutrient concentrations, possibly due to the interaction of the tide with the mound topography. Second, in the surface water a diurnal tidal wave replenished nutrients in the photic zone, supporting new primary production. Third, above the coral mound an internal wave (200 m amplitude) was recorded at 400 m depth after the turning of the barotropic tide. After this wave passed, high quality organic matter was recorded in bottom waters on the mound coinciding with shallow water physical characteristics such as high oxygen concentration and high temperature. Trophic markers in the benthic community suggest feeding on a variety of food sources, including phytodetritus and zooplankton. We suggest that there are three transport mechanisms that supply food to the CWC ecosystem. First, small phytodetritus particles are transported downwards to the seafloor by advection from internal waves, supplying high quality organic matter to the CWC reef community. Second, the shoaling of deeper nutrient-rich water into the surface water layer above the coral mound could stimulate diatom growth, which form fast-sinking aggregates. Third, evidence from lipid analysis indicates that zooplankton faecal pellets also enhance supply of organic matter to the reef communities. This study is the first to report organic matter quality and composition over a tidal cycle at a coral mound and provides evidence that fresh high-quality organic matter is transported towards a coral reef during a tidal cycle. SM, and DvO were supported by the Innovational Research Incentives Scheme of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), respectively, under grant agreement 864.13.007. We acknowledge the funding of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO and Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research NIOZ in organising the Netherlands Initiative Changing Oceans NICO expedition in 2018.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kajanto, Karita; Straneo, Fiammetta; Nisancioglu, Kerim;
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    The role of icebergs in narrow fjords hosting marine terminating glaciers in Greenland is poorly understood, even though icebergs provide a substantial freshwater flux that can exceed the subglacial discharge. Iceberg melt is distributed at depth, contributing to fjord stratification, thus impacting melt and dynamics of the glacier front. We model the high-silled Ilulissat Icefjord in Western Greenland with the MITgcm ocean model, using the IceBerg package to study the effect of icebergs on fjord properties, and compare our results with available observations from 2014. We find the subglacial discharge plume to be the primary driver of the seasonality of circulation, glacier melt and iceberg melt. Icebergs are necessary to include to correctly understand the properties of Ilulissat Icefjord, since they modify the fjord in three main ways: First, icebergs cool and freshen the water column within their vertical extent; Second, icebergs depress the neutral buoyancy depth of the plume and the outflow route of glacially modified water; Third, icebergs modify the deep basin, below their vertical extent, due to both increased entrainment of glacially modified water into the fjord, and iceberg modification of the incoming ambient water. Furthermore, the depressed neutral buoyancy depth of the plume limits melt to the deep section of the front of Sermeq Kujalleq (Jakobshavn Isbræ) even during peak summer, and thus promotes undercutting. We postulate that the impact of icebergs on the neutral buoyancy depth of the plume is a key mechanism connecting iceberg melange and glacier calving, independent of mechanical support.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ribotti, Alberto; Sorgente, Roberto; Pessini, Federica; Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Borghini, Mireno;
    Project: EC | COMMON SENSE (614155), EC | MYOCEAN2 (283367)

    Since 2000, and for the following 20 years, hydrological data of the Mediterranean Sea, with a particular focus on the western and central Mediterranean sub-basins, have been acquired to study the hydrodynamics at both coastal and open sea scales. In total, 1468 hydrological casts were realized in 29 oceanographic cruises planned due to scientific purposes linked with funding research projects but were also sometimes driven by sea conditions and type of vessel. After accurate quality assurance and control, following standard procedures, all hydrological data were included in four online public open-access repositories in SEANOE (SEA scieNtific Open data Edition), available from https://doi.org/10.17882/87567 (Ribotti et al., 2022). Hydrological and dissolved oxygen data are always present in all of the datasets, whereas pH, fluorescence, turbidity, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are available just for some cruises. Samplings were carried out mainly along transects, with some repetition over the years. The results of two data analyses, i.e., staircase systems in the Tyrrhenian Sea and in the Algero-Provençal sub-basin and spreading of the Western Mediterranean Transient, are mentioned.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Francesco Paladini de Mendoza; Katrin Schroeder; Leonardo Langone; Jacopo Chiggiato; Mireno Borghini; Patrizia Giordano; Giulio Verazzo; Stefano Miserocchi;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | HERMIONE (226354), EC | COCONET (287844), EC | HERMIONE (226354), EC | COCONET (287844)

    This data set includes n.4 files (NetCDF format) containing observational data and related metadata from two mooring sites, sites BB and FF, located in the Southern Adriatic Sea from the period from March 2012 to June 2020. The stand-alone moorings are equipped with an ADCP-RDI system which measures currents along the last 100 meters of the water column and a CTD probe located approximatively 10 m above the bottom. Moorings were configured and maintained for continuous long-term monitoring following the approach of the CIESM Hydrochanges Program (www.ciesm.org/marine/programs/hydrochanges.html). The moorings are currently operational as from 2021 they have joined the southern Adriatic submarine observatory of EMSO-ERIC European Consortium. The data are described in data paper Paladini et al., (In prep): Deep water hydrodynamic observations of two moorings sites on the continental slope of the Southern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westhoff, Julien; Sinnl, Giulia; Svensson, Anders; Freitag, Johannes; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Vinther, Bo; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Weikusat, Ilka;
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    We present a record of melt events obtained from the East Greenland Ice Core Project (EastGRIP) ice core in central northeastern Greenland, covering the largest part of the Holocene. The data were acquired visually using an optical dark-field line scanner. We detect and describe melt layers and lenses, seen as bubble-free layers and lenses, throughout the ice above the bubble–clathrate transition. This transition is located at 1150 m depth in the EastGRIP ice core, corresponding to an age of 9720 years b2k. We define the brittle zone in the EastGRIP ice core as that from 650 to 950 m depth, where we count on average more than three core breaks per meter. We analyze melt layer thicknesses, correct for ice thinning, and account for missing layers due to core breaks. Our record of melt events shows a large, distinct peak around 1014 years b2k (986 CE) and a broad peak around 7000 years b2k, corresponding to the Holocene Climatic Optimum. In total, we can identify approximately 831 mm of melt (corrected for thinning) over the past 10 000 years. We find that the melt event from 986 CE is most likely a large rain event similar to that from 2012 CE, and that these two events are unprecedented throughout the Holocene. We also compare the most recent 2500 years to a tree ring composite and find an overlap between melt events and tree ring anomalies indicating warm summers. Considering the ice dynamics of the EastGRIP site resulting from the flow of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), we find that summer temperatures must have been at least 3 ± 0.6 ∘C warmer during the Early Holocene compared to today.