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8 Research products, page 1 of 1

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vilibić, Ivica; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Janeković, Ivica; Denamiel, Cléa; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Orlić, Mirko; Dunić, Natalija; Dadić, Vlado; Pasarić, Mira; Muslim, Stipe; +8 more
    Project: EC | EUROFLEETS2 (312762)

    The paper investigates the wintertime dynamics of the coastal northeastern Adriatic Sea and is based on numerical modelling and in situ data collected through field campaigns executed during the winter and spring of 2015. The data were collected with a variety of instruments and platforms (acoustic Doppler current profilers, conductivity–temperature–depth probes, glider, profiling float) and are accompanied by the atmosphere–ocean ALADIN/ROMS modelling system. The research focused on the dense-water formation (DWF), thermal changes, circulation, and water exchange between the coastal and open Adriatic. According to both observations and modelling results, dense waters are formed in the northeastern coastal Adriatic during cold bora outbreaks. However, the dense water formed in this coastal region has lower densities than the dense water formed in the open Adriatic due to lower salinities. Since the coastal area is deeper than the open Adriatic, the observations indicate (i) balanced inward–outward exchange at the deep connecting channels of denser waters coming from the open Adriatic DWF site and less-dense waters coming from the coastal region and (ii) outward flow of less-dense waters dominating in the intermediate and surface layers. The latter phenomenon was confirmed by the model, even if it significantly underestimates the currents and transports in the connecting channels. The median residence time of the coastal area is estimated to be approximately 20 days, indicating that the coastal area may be renewed relatively quickly by the open Adriatic waters. The data that were obtained represent a comprehensive marine dataset that can be used to calibrate atmospheric and oceanic numerical models and point to several interesting phenomena to be investigated in the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Guerra, Davide; Schroeder, Katrin; Borghini, Mireno; Camatti, Elisa; Pansera, Marco; Schroeder, Anna; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Chiggiato, Jacopo;
    Project: EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410), EC | OCEAN-CERTAIN (603773)

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a survival strategy adopted by zooplankton that we investigated in the Corsica Channel using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data from April 2014 to November 2016. The principal aim of the study is to characterize migration patterns and biomass temporal evolution of zooplankton along the water column. The ADCP measured vertical velocity and echo intensity in the water column range between about 70 and 390 m (the bottom depth is 443 m). During the investigated period, zooplanktonic biomass had a well-defined daily and seasonal cycle, with peaks occurring in late winter to spring (2015 and 2016) when the stratification of the water column is weaker. Zooplanktonic biomass temporal distribution in the whole water column is well correlated with biomass of primary producers, estimated with satellite data. Zooplanktonic blooming and non-blooming periods have been identified and studied separately. During the non-blooming period zooplanktonic biomass was most abundant in the upper and the deep layers, while during the blooming period the upper-layer maximum in zooplanktonic biomass disappeared and the deep layer with high zooplanktonic biomass became thicker. These two layers are likely to correspond to two different zooplanktonic communities. The evolution of zooplanktonic biomass is well correlated with chlorophyll, with phytoplankton biomass peaks preceding the upper-layer secondary production by a lag of about 3.5 weeks. Nocturnal DVM appears to be the main pattern during both periods, but reverse and twilight migration are also detected. Nocturnal DVM was more evident at mid-water than in the deep and the upper layers. DVM occurred with different intensities during blooming and non-blooming periods. One of the main outcomes is that the principal drivers for DVM are light intensity and stratification, but other factors, like the moon cycle and primary production, are also taken in consideration.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hayes, Daniel R.; Dobricic, Srdjan; Gildor, Hezi;
    Project: EC | GROOM (284321), EC | BRIDGES (635359)

    An operational data assimilation system for the Eastern Mediterranean is described and evaluated for a 6-month twin experiment. In the assimilative run, glider profiles of temperature and salinity are assimilated daily into a high resolution ocean forecast, after an initial spin up of one week. In the control run, the same initial and boundary conditions are used to produce an operational forecast, but without assimilation of in situ data. While both runs were similar for most of the time and most of the domain, significant differences were found near the region of assimilation, particularly when the glider passed through the anticyclonic Cyprus eddy. Root mean square differences of the misfits between the temperature and salinity observations and the model background field at those locations (before any assimilation) were approximately 15% lower in the assimilative run. Improvements in the forecasting capability of surface currents were found, and would provide a significant improvement of predictive capacity for applications such as pollutant spreading or offshore operational safety.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tesi, Tommaso; Geibel, Marc C.; Pearce, Christof; Panova, Elena; Vonk, Jorien E.; Karlsson, Emma; Salvado, Joan A.; Kruså, Martin; Bröder, Lisa; Humborg, Christoph; +2 more
    Project: EC | CC-TOP (695331), EC | ARCTIC (300259), EC | ACTIVE PERMAFROST (328049)

    Recent Arctic studies suggest that sea ice decline and permafrost thawing will affect phytoplankton dynamics and stimulate heterotrophic communities. However, in what way the plankton composition will change as the warming proceeds remains elusive. Here we investigate the chemical signature of the plankton-dominated fraction of particulate organic matter (POM) collected along the Siberian Shelf. POM (> 10 µm) samples were analysed using molecular biomarkers (CuO oxidation and IP25) and dual-carbon isotopes (δ13C and Δ14C). In addition, surface water chemical properties were integrated with the POM (> 10 µm) dataset to understand the link between plankton composition and environmental conditions. δ13C and Δ14C exhibited a large variability in the POM (> 10 µm) distribution while the content of terrestrial biomarkers in the POM was negligible. In the Laptev Sea (LS), δ13C and Δ14C of POM (> 10 µm) suggested a heterotrophic environment in which dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the Lena River was the primary source of metabolisable carbon. Within the Lena plume, terrestrial DOC probably became part of the food web via bacteria uptake and subsequently transferred to relatively other heterotrophic communities (e.g. dinoflagellates). Moving eastwards toward the sea-ice-dominated East Siberian Sea (ESS), the system became progressively more autotrophic. Comparison between δ13C of POM (> 10 µm) samples and CO2aq concentrations revealed that the carbon isotope fractionation increased moving towards the easternmost and most productive stations. In a warming scenario characterised by enhanced terrestrial DOC release (thawing permafrost) and progressive sea ice decline, heterotrophic conditions might persist in the LS while the nutrient-rich Pacific inflow will likely stimulate greater primary productivity in the ESS. The contrasting trophic conditions will result in a sharp gradient in δ13C between the LS and ESS, similar to what is documented in our semi-synoptic study.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Howard, T.; Pardaens, A. K.; Bamber, J. L.; Ridley, J.; Spada, G.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Lowe, J. A.; Vaughan, D.;
    Project: EC | ICE2SEA (226375)

    Changes in both global and regional mean sea level, and changes in the magnitude of extreme flood heights, are the result of a combination of several distinct contributions most, but not all, of which are associated with climate change. These contributions include effects in the solid earth, gravity field, changes in ocean mass due to ice loss from ice sheets and glaciers, thermal expansion, alterations in ocean circulation driven by climate change and changing freshwater fluxes, and the intensity of storm surges. Due to the diverse range of models required to simulate these systems, the contributions to sea-level change have usually been discussed in isolation rather than in one self-consistent assessment. Focusing on the coastline of northwest Europe, we consider all the processes mentioned above and their relative impact on 21st century regional mean sea levels and the 50-year return flood height. As far as possible our projections of change are derived from process-based models forced by the A1B emissions scenario to provide a self-consistent comparison of the contributions. We address uncertainty by considering both a mid-range and an illustrative high-end combination of the different components. For our mid-range ice loss scenario we find that thermal expansion of seawater is the dominant contributor to change in northwest European sea level by 2100. However, the projected contribution to extreme sea level, due to changes in storminess alone, is in some places significant and comparable to the global mean contribution of thermal expansion. For example, under the A1B emissions scenario, by 2100, change in storminess contributes around 15 cm to the increase in projected height of the 50-year storm surge on the west coast of the Jutland Peninsula, compared with a contribution of around 22 cm due to thermal expansion and a total of 58 cm from all of the contributions we consider. An illustrative combination of our high-end projections suggests increases in the 50-year return level of 86 cm at Sheerness, 95 cm at Roscoff, 106 cm at Esbjerg, and 67cm at Bergen. The notable regional differences between these locations arise primarily from differences in the rates of vertical land movement and changes in storminess.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sammartino, M.; Di Cicco, A.; Marullo, S.; Santoleri, R.;
    Project: EC | PERSEUS (287600), EC | MYOCEAN2 (283367)

    The seasonal and year-to-year variability of the phytoplankton size class (PSC) spatial distribution has been examined in the Mediterranean Sea by using the entire time series of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) space observations (1998–2010). Daily maps of PSCs have been determined using an empirical model based on a synoptic relationship between surface chlorophyll a and diagnostic pigments referred to different taxonomic groups. The analysis of micro-, nano- and pico-phytoplankton satellite time series (1998–2010) describes, quantitatively, the algal assemblage structure over the basin and reveals that the main contribution to chlorophyll a in most of the Mediterranean Sea comes from the pico-phytoplankton component, especially in nutrient-poor environments. Regions with different and peculiar features are the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, the Alborán Sea and several coastal areas, such as the North Adriatic Sea. In these areas, local interactions between physical and biological components modulate the composition of the three phytoplankton size classes. It results that, during the spring bloom season, micro-phytoplankton dominates in areas of intense vertical winter mixing and deep/intermediate water formation, while in coastal areas micro-phytoplankton dominates in all seasons because of the nutrient supply from the terrestrial inputs. In the Alborán Sea, where the Atlantic inflow modulates the nutrient availability, any predominance of one class over the other two has been observed. The nano-phytoplankton component instead remains widespread over the entire basin along the year, and its contribution to chlorophyll a is of the order of 30–40 %. The largest inter-annual signal occurs in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, driven by the year-to-year variation in intensity and extension of the spring bloom, followed by the Alborán Sea, in which the inter-annual variability is strongly modulated by the Atlantic inflow. In absence of sufficient in situ data of community composition, the satellite-based analysis demonstrated that pico-, nano- and micro-phytoplankton classes often coexist. The predominance of one group over the other ones is strongly dependent on the physical and biological processes occurring at the mesoscale. These processes directly influence the nutrient and light availability, which are the principal forcing for the algae growth.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dobricic, S.; Dufau, C.; Oddo, P.; Pinardi, N.; Pujol, I.; Rio, M.-H.;
    Project: EC | MYOCEAN (218812)

    A large number of SLA observations at a high along track horizontal resolution are an important ingredient of the data assimilation in the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS). Recently, new higher-frequency SLA products have become available, and the atmospheric pressure forcing has been implemented in the numerical model used in the MFS data assimilation system. In a set of numerical experiments, we show that, in order to obtain the most accurate analyses, the ocean model should include the atmospheric pressure forcing and the observations should contain the atmospheric pressure signal. When the model is not forced by the atmospheric pressure, the high-frequency filtering of SLA observations, however, improves the quality of the SLA analyses. It is further shown by comparing the power density spectra of the model fields and observations that the model is able to extract the correct information from noisy observations even without their filtering during the pre-processing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lipizer, M.; Partescano, E.; Rabitti, A.; Giorgetti, A.; Crise, A.;
    Project: EC | SEADATANET II (283607)

    An updated climatology, based on a comprehensive data set (1911–2009) of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, has been produced for the whole Adriatic Sea with the variational inverse method using the DIVA (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) software. Climatological maps were produced at 26 levels and validated with ordinary cross-validation and with a real vs. synthetic temperature–salinity diagram intercomparison. The concept of climatology–observation misfit (COM) has been introduced as an estimate of the physical variability associated with the climatological structures. In order to verify the temporal stability of the climatology, long-term variability has been investigated in the Middle Adriatic and the South Adriatic pits, regarded as the most suitable records of possible long-term changes. Compared with previous climatologies, this study allows a clear identification of the seasonal dynamic of the southern Adriatic, where a clear oxygen minimum is typically observed in the centre of the South Adriatic Gyre. New and better resolved features emerged from this analysis: (1) below 100 m all properties profoundly differ between the central and the southern Adriatic and seem characterized by different biogeochemical dynamics; (2) the South Adriatic Pit clearly shows the remote effects of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient, while no effect is observed in the Middle Adriatic Pit; (3) the deepest part of the southern Adriatic seems now to be significantly saltier (+0.18 psu since the period 1910–1914, with an increase of +0.018 decade−1 since the late 1940s) and warmer (+0.54 °C since 1910–1914) even though a long-term temperature trend could not be statistically demonstrated; (4) the Middle Adriatic Pit shows a long-term increase in apparent oxygen utilization (+0.77 mL L−1 since 1910–1914, with a constant increase of +0.2 mL L−1 decade−1 after the 1970s).

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
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Include:
The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
8 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vilibić, Ivica; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Janeković, Ivica; Denamiel, Cléa; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Orlić, Mirko; Dunić, Natalija; Dadić, Vlado; Pasarić, Mira; Muslim, Stipe; +8 more
    Project: EC | EUROFLEETS2 (312762)

    The paper investigates the wintertime dynamics of the coastal northeastern Adriatic Sea and is based on numerical modelling and in situ data collected through field campaigns executed during the winter and spring of 2015. The data were collected with a variety of instruments and platforms (acoustic Doppler current profilers, conductivity–temperature–depth probes, glider, profiling float) and are accompanied by the atmosphere–ocean ALADIN/ROMS modelling system. The research focused on the dense-water formation (DWF), thermal changes, circulation, and water exchange between the coastal and open Adriatic. According to both observations and modelling results, dense waters are formed in the northeastern coastal Adriatic during cold bora outbreaks. However, the dense water formed in this coastal region has lower densities than the dense water formed in the open Adriatic due to lower salinities. Since the coastal area is deeper than the open Adriatic, the observations indicate (i) balanced inward–outward exchange at the deep connecting channels of denser waters coming from the open Adriatic DWF site and less-dense waters coming from the coastal region and (ii) outward flow of less-dense waters dominating in the intermediate and surface layers. The latter phenomenon was confirmed by the model, even if it significantly underestimates the currents and transports in the connecting channels. The median residence time of the coastal area is estimated to be approximately 20 days, indicating that the coastal area may be renewed relatively quickly by the open Adriatic waters. The data that were obtained represent a comprehensive marine dataset that can be used to calibrate atmospheric and oceanic numerical models and point to several interesting phenomena to be investigated in the future.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Guerra, Davide; Schroeder, Katrin; Borghini, Mireno; Camatti, Elisa; Pansera, Marco; Schroeder, Anna; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Chiggiato, Jacopo;
    Project: EC | JERICO-NEXT (654410), EC | OCEAN-CERTAIN (603773)

    Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a survival strategy adopted by zooplankton that we investigated in the Corsica Channel using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data from April 2014 to November 2016. The principal aim of the study is to characterize migration patterns and biomass temporal evolution of zooplankton along the water column. The ADCP measured vertical velocity and echo intensity in the water column range between about 70 and 390 m (the bottom depth is 443 m). During the investigated period, zooplanktonic biomass had a well-defined daily and seasonal cycle, with peaks occurring in late winter to spring (2015 and 2016) when the stratification of the water column is weaker. Zooplanktonic biomass temporal distribution in the whole water column is well correlated with biomass of primary producers, estimated with satellite data. Zooplanktonic blooming and non-blooming periods have been identified and studied separately. During the non-blooming period zooplanktonic biomass was most abundant in the upper and the deep layers, while during the blooming period the upper-layer maximum in zooplanktonic biomass disappeared and the deep layer with high zooplanktonic biomass became thicker. These two layers are likely to correspond to two different zooplanktonic communities. The evolution of zooplanktonic biomass is well correlated with chlorophyll, with phytoplankton biomass peaks preceding the upper-layer secondary production by a lag of about 3.5 weeks. Nocturnal DVM appears to be the main pattern during both periods, but reverse and twilight migration are also detected. Nocturnal DVM was more evident at mid-water than in the deep and the upper layers. DVM occurred with different intensities during blooming and non-blooming periods. One of the main outcomes is that the principal drivers for DVM are light intensity and stratification, but other factors, like the moon cycle and primary production, are also taken in consideration.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hayes, Daniel R.; Dobricic, Srdjan; Gildor, Hezi;
    Project: EC | GROOM (284321), EC | BRIDGES (635359)

    An operational data assimilation system for the Eastern Mediterranean is described and evaluated for a 6-month twin experiment. In the assimilative run, glider profiles of temperature and salinity are assimilated daily into a high resolution ocean forecast, after an initial spin up of one week. In the control run, the same initial and boundary conditions are used to produce an operational forecast, but without assimilation of in situ data. While both runs were similar for most of the time and most of the domain, significant differences were found near the region of assimilation, particularly when the glider passed through the anticyclonic Cyprus eddy. Root mean square differences of the misfits between the temperature and salinity observations and the model background field at those locations (before any assimilation) were approximately 15% lower in the assimilative run. Improvements in the forecasting capability of surface currents were found, and would provide a significant improvement of predictive capacity for applications such as pollutant spreading or offshore operational safety.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tesi, Tommaso; Geibel, Marc C.; Pearce, Christof; Panova, Elena; Vonk, Jorien E.; Karlsson, Emma; Salvado, Joan A.; Kruså, Martin; Bröder, Lisa; Humborg, Christoph; +2 more
    Project: EC | CC-TOP (695331), EC | ARCTIC (300259), EC | ACTIVE PERMAFROST (328049)

    Recent Arctic studies suggest that sea ice decline and permafrost thawing will affect phytoplankton dynamics and stimulate heterotrophic communities. However, in what way the plankton composition will change as the warming proceeds remains elusive. Here we investigate the chemical signature of the plankton-dominated fraction of particulate organic matter (POM) collected along the Siberian Shelf. POM (> 10 µm) samples were analysed using molecular biomarkers (CuO oxidation and IP25) and dual-carbon isotopes (δ13C and Δ14C). In addition, surface water chemical properties were integrated with the POM (> 10 µm) dataset to understand the link between plankton composition and environmental conditions. δ13C and Δ14C exhibited a large variability in the POM (> 10 µm) distribution while the content of terrestrial biomarkers in the POM was negligible. In the Laptev Sea (LS), δ13C and Δ14C of POM (> 10 µm) suggested a heterotrophic environment in which dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the Lena River was the primary source of metabolisable carbon. Within the Lena plume, terrestrial DOC probably became part of the food web via bacteria uptake and subsequently transferred to relatively other heterotrophic communities (e.g. dinoflagellates). Moving eastwards toward the sea-ice-dominated East Siberian Sea (ESS), the system became progressively more autotrophic. Comparison between δ13C of POM (> 10 µm) samples and CO2aq concentrations revealed that the carbon isotope fractionation increased moving towards the easternmost and most productive stations. In a warming scenario characterised by enhanced terrestrial DOC release (thawing permafrost) and progressive sea ice decline, heterotrophic conditions might persist in the LS while the nutrient-rich Pacific inflow will likely stimulate greater primary productivity in the ESS. The contrasting trophic conditions will result in a sharp gradient in δ13C between the LS and ESS, similar to what is documented in our semi-synoptic study.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Howard, T.; Pardaens, A. K.; Bamber, J. L.; Ridley, J.; Spada, G.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Lowe, J. A.; Vaughan, D.;
    Project: EC | ICE2SEA (226375)

    Changes in both global and regional mean sea level, and changes in the magnitude of extreme flood heights, are the result of a combination of several distinct contributions most, but not all, of which are associated with climate change. These contributions include effects in the solid earth, gravity field, changes in ocean mass due to ice loss from ice sheets and glaciers, thermal expansion, alterations in ocean circulation driven by climate change and changing freshwater fluxes, and the intensity of storm surges. Due to the diverse range of models required to simulate these systems, the contributions to sea-level change have usually been discussed in isolation rather than in one self-consistent assessment. Focusing on the coastline of northwest Europe, we consider all the processes mentioned above and their relative impact on 21st century regional mean sea levels and the 50-year return flood height. As far as possible our projections of change are derived from process-based models forced by the A1B emissions scenario to provide a self-consistent comparison of the contributions. We address uncertainty by considering both a mid-range and an illustrative high-end combination of the different components. For our mid-range ice loss scenario we find that thermal expansion of seawater is the dominant contributor to change in northwest European sea level by 2100. However, the projected contribution to extreme sea level, due to changes in storminess alone, is in some places significant and comparable to the global mean contribution of thermal expansion. For example, under the A1B emissions scenario, by 2100, change in storminess contributes around 15 cm to the increase in projected height of the 50-year storm surge on the west coast of the Jutland Peninsula, compared with a contribution of around 22 cm due to thermal expansion and a total of 58 cm from all of the contributions we consider. An illustrative combination of our high-end projections suggests increases in the 50-year return level of 86 cm at Sheerness, 95 cm at Roscoff, 106 cm at Esbjerg, and 67cm at Bergen. The notable regional differences between these locations arise primarily from differences in the rates of vertical land movement and changes in storminess.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sammartino, M.; Di Cicco, A.; Marullo, S.; Santoleri, R.;
    Project: EC | PERSEUS (287600), EC | MYOCEAN2 (283367)

    The seasonal and year-to-year variability of the phytoplankton size class (PSC) spatial distribution has been examined in the Mediterranean Sea by using the entire time series of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) space observations (1998–2010). Daily maps of PSCs have been determined using an empirical model based on a synoptic relationship between surface chlorophyll a and diagnostic pigments referred to different taxonomic groups. The analysis of micro-, nano- and pico-phytoplankton satellite time series (1998–2010) describes, quantitatively, the algal assemblage structure over the basin and reveals that the main contribution to chlorophyll a in most of the Mediterranean Sea comes from the pico-phytoplankton component, especially in nutrient-poor environments. Regions with different and peculiar features are the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, the Alborán Sea and several coastal areas, such as the North Adriatic Sea. In these areas, local interactions between physical and biological components modulate the composition of the three phytoplankton size classes. It results that, during the spring bloom season, micro-phytoplankton dominates in areas of intense vertical winter mixing and deep/intermediate water formation, while in coastal areas micro-phytoplankton dominates in all seasons because of the nutrient supply from the terrestrial inputs. In the Alborán Sea, where the Atlantic inflow modulates the nutrient availability, any predominance of one class over the other two has been observed. The nano-phytoplankton component instead remains widespread over the entire basin along the year, and its contribution to chlorophyll a is of the order of 30–40 %. The largest inter-annual signal occurs in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, driven by the year-to-year variation in intensity and extension of the spring bloom, followed by the Alborán Sea, in which the inter-annual variability is strongly modulated by the Atlantic inflow. In absence of sufficient in situ data of community composition, the satellite-based analysis demonstrated that pico-, nano- and micro-phytoplankton classes often coexist. The predominance of one group over the other ones is strongly dependent on the physical and biological processes occurring at the mesoscale. These processes directly influence the nutrient and light availability, which are the principal forcing for the algae growth.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dobricic, S.; Dufau, C.; Oddo, P.; Pinardi, N.; Pujol, I.; Rio, M.-H.;
    Project: EC | MYOCEAN (218812)

    A large number of SLA observations at a high along track horizontal resolution are an important ingredient of the data assimilation in the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS). Recently, new higher-frequency SLA products have become available, and the atmospheric pressure forcing has been implemented in the numerical model used in the MFS data assimilation system. In a set of numerical experiments, we show that, in order to obtain the most accurate analyses, the ocean model should include the atmospheric pressure forcing and the observations should contain the atmospheric pressure signal. When the model is not forced by the atmospheric pressure, the high-frequency filtering of SLA observations, however, improves the quality of the SLA analyses. It is further shown by comparing the power density spectra of the model fields and observations that the model is able to extract the correct information from noisy observations even without their filtering during the pre-processing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lipizer, M.; Partescano, E.; Rabitti, A.; Giorgetti, A.; Crise, A.;
    Project: EC | SEADATANET II (283607)

    An updated climatology, based on a comprehensive data set (1911–2009) of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, has been produced for the whole Adriatic Sea with the variational inverse method using the DIVA (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) software. Climatological maps were produced at 26 levels and validated with ordinary cross-validation and with a real vs. synthetic temperature–salinity diagram intercomparison. The concept of climatology–observation misfit (COM) has been introduced as an estimate of the physical variability associated with the climatological structures. In order to verify the temporal stability of the climatology, long-term variability has been investigated in the Middle Adriatic and the South Adriatic pits, regarded as the most suitable records of possible long-term changes. Compared with previous climatologies, this study allows a clear identification of the seasonal dynamic of the southern Adriatic, where a clear oxygen minimum is typically observed in the centre of the South Adriatic Gyre. New and better resolved features emerged from this analysis: (1) below 100 m all properties profoundly differ between the central and the southern Adriatic and seem characterized by different biogeochemical dynamics; (2) the South Adriatic Pit clearly shows the remote effects of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient, while no effect is observed in the Middle Adriatic Pit; (3) the deepest part of the southern Adriatic seems now to be significantly saltier (+0.18 psu since the period 1910–1914, with an increase of +0.018 decade−1 since the late 1940s) and warmer (+0.54 °C since 1910–1914) even though a long-term temperature trend could not be statistically demonstrated; (4) the Middle Adriatic Pit shows a long-term increase in apparent oxygen utilization (+0.77 mL L−1 since 1910–1914, with a constant increase of +0.2 mL L−1 decade−1 after the 1970s).