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168 Research products, page 1 of 17

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romero-Alvarez, Johana; Lupaşcu, Aurelia; Lowe, Douglas; Badia, Alba; Acher-Nicholls, Scott; Dorling, Steve R.; Reeves, Claire E.; Butler, Tim;
    Project: EC | ASIBIA (616938)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations depend on a combination of hemispheric, regional, and local-scale processes. Estimates of how much O3 is produced locally vs. transported from further afield are essential in air quality management and regulatory policies. Here, a tagged-ozone mechanism within the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the contributions to surface O3 in the UK from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from inside and outside the UK during May–August 2015. The contribution of the different source regions to three regulatory O3 metrics is also examined. It is shown that model simulations predict the concentration and spatial distribution of surface O3 with a domain-wide mean bias of −3.7 ppbv. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from the UK and Europe account for 13 % and 16 %, respectively, of the monthly mean surface O3 in the UK, as the majority (71 %) of O3 originates from the hemispheric background. Hemispheric O3 contributes the most to concentrations in the north and the west of the UK with peaks in May, whereas European and UK contributions are most significant in the east, south-east, and London, i.e. the UK's most populated areas, intensifying towards June and July. Moreover, O3 from European sources is generally transported to the UK rather than produced in situ. It is demonstrated that more stringent emission controls over continental Europe, particularly in western Europe, would be necessary to improve the health-related metric MDA8 O3 above 50 and 60 ppbv. Emission controls over larger areas, such as the Northern Hemisphere, are instead required to lessen the impacts on ecosystems as quantified by the AOT40 metric.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McKenna, Christine;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: UKRI | The Cambridge Earth Syste... (NE/L002507/1)

    This is a dataset of output from version 4 of the Reading Intermediate Global Circulation Model (IGCM4) that was used in the article: McKenna, C. M., Bracegirdle, T. J., Shuckburgh, E. F., Haynes, P. H., & Joshi, M. M. (2018). Arctic sea ice loss in different regions leads to contrasting Northern Hemisphere impacts. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 945-954. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL076433 Files required to setup the IGCM4 simulations are given in the directory 'IGCM4_setup'. All other directories contain netcdf files of timeseries of various monthly mean fields for each IGCM4 simulation (see paper for details on these simulations). The available variables are: ua: zonal winds zg: geopotential height ts: surface temperature hfls, hfss, rlds, rlus: surface heatfluxes Flat, Fz, divF: Eliassen-Palm flux vectors and their divergence (only for months November-February) The ua and zg variables are given for different pressure levels indicated in the filenames (e.g., ua500 is ua at 500 hPa). ua is additionally given in terms of the zonal mean with latitude and pressure. zg is additionally given in terms of longitude and pressure, averaged over latitudes between 60N-80N. All files follow CF conventions in terms of metadata, variable names, etc. Note that the CTL, ATL, PAC, and ATLandPAC simulations were all run continuously in time (i.e., every year starts from the end of the previous year). The 0.5ATL and 0.5PAC simulations, however, were run for 300 years in three separate 100-year chunks (i.e., the initial conditions used to start each 100-year chunk were different). The three 100-year chunks have been appended together in the netcdf files.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McLean, Dianne L.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Miller, Karen J.; Schlappy, Marie-Lise; Ajemian, Matthew J.; Berry, Oliver; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Bond, Todd; Boschetti, Fabio; +36 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    This research was supported by the National Decommissioning Research Initiative (NDRI Australia). We acknowledge the time contribution of all co-authors and additionally via research undertaken through the UKRI INSITE Programme including projects ANChor, CHASANS (NE/T010886/1), EcoConnect, EcoSTAR (NE/T010614/1), FuECoMMS (NE/T010800/1), MAPS, NSERC. DMP was supported through The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland (MASTS) funded by the Scottish Funding Council and contributing institutions. SNRB and KH (Cefas) were funded by Cefas and the UK INSITE North Sea programme. Offshore platforms, subsea pipelines, wells and related fixed structures supporting the oil and gas (O&G) industry are prevalent in oceans across the globe, with many approaching the end of their operational life and requiring decommissioning. Although structures can possess high ecological diversity and productivity, information on how they interact with broader ecological processes remains unclear. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the role of O&G infrastructure in maintaining, altering or enhancing ecological connectivity with natural marine habitats. There is a paucity of studies on the subject with only 33 papers specifically targeting connectivity and O&G structures, although other studies provide important related information. Evidence for O&G structures facilitating vertical and horizontal seascape connectivity exists for larvae and mobile adult invertebrates, fish and megafauna; including threatened and commercially important species. The degree to which these structures represent a beneficial or detrimental net impact remains unclear, is complex and ultimately needs more research to determine the extent to which natural connectivity networks are conserved, enhanced or disrupted. We discuss the potential impacts of different decommissioning approaches on seascape connectivity and identify, through expert elicitation, critical knowledge gaps that, if addressed, may further inform decision making for the life cycle of O&G infrastructure, with relevance for other industries (e.g. renewables). The most highly ranked critical knowledge gap was a need to understand how O&G structures modify and influence the movement patterns of mobile species and dispersal stages of sessile marine species. Understanding how different decommissioning options affect species survival and movement was also highly ranked, as was understanding the extent to which O&G structures contribute to extending species distributions by providing rest stops, foraging habitat, and stepping stones. These questions could be addressed with further dedicated studies of animal movement in relation to structures using telemetry, molecular techniques and movement models. Our review and these priority questions provide a roadmap for advancing research needed to support evidence-based decision making for decommissioning O&G infrastructure. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Healy, Susan D.; Patton, B. Wren;
    Country: United Kingdom

    But fish cognitive ecology did not begin in rivers and streams. Rather, one of the starting points for work on fish cognitive ecology was work done on the use of visual cues by homing pigeons. Prior to working with fish, Victoria Braithwaite helped to establish that homing pigeons rely not just on magnetic and olfactory cues but also on visual cues for successful return to their home loft. Simple, elegant experiments on homing established Victoria's ability to develop experimental manipulations to examine the role of visual cues in navigation by fish in familiar areas. This work formed the basis of a rich seam of work whereby a fish's ecology was used to propose hypotheses and predictions as to preferred cue use, and then cognitive abilities in a variety of fish species, from model systems (Atlantic salmon and sticklebacks) to the Panamanian Brachyraphis episcopi. Cognitive ecology in fish led to substantial work on fish pain and welfare, but was never left behind, with some of Victoria's last work addressed to determining the neural instantiation of cognitive variation. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sam Royston; Rory Bingham; Jonathan Bamber;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | GlobalMass (694188)

    The data produced from analysis to be published in Ocean Science Discussions, paper entitled "Attributing decadal climate variability in coastal sea-level trends". NetCDF contains the following sets of fields: 1. Indexing: An index and location (lat, lon) of the coastal grid cells, a locator index attributing each cell to Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean basin, a time (decimal year) index. 2. NEMO model trends (nemo_<component>_trend): Rolling decadal trends at each coastal grid cell from the NEMO model run for steric, manometric (dynamic) and GRD. The sum of these components gives the equivalent to absolute sea level trend. 3. Climate and oceanographic mode indices: The rolling decadal trends in climate indices and the AMOC index calculated from the AMOC model (ci_trend) and their names (ci_index). 4. Empirical Orthogonal Function spatial pattern (eof_<basin>_<component>_D) and Principal Component time series (eof_<basin>_<component>_PC) of the NEMO model trends. 5. Coefficient of linear regression between PC and climate indices (recon_<basin>_<component>_beta) and the rolling trend time series at each grid cell from the reconstruction, sum{ci_trend*beta} (recon_<basin>_<component>_trend). In 4 and 5, the indices are given by basin. The total coastline is a concatenation of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian basin data in that order. The absolute SSH is given by the sum of components. i.e. the SSH for all coastal cells in order index: recon_sum_trend([index(Atlantic_index); index(Pacific_index); index(Indian_index)] = ... [recon_Atlantic_manometric_trend+recon_Atlantic_steric_trend+recon_Atlantic_grd_trend; ... recon_Pacific_manometric_trend+recon_Pacific_steric_trend+recon_Pacific_grd_trend; ... recon_Indian_manometric_trend+recon_Indian_steric_trend+recon_Indian_grd_trend]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hendry, Katharine R; Opher, Jacob; Brearley, James Alexander;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    This data release includes Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profile data collected during a 2017 (June - August) research expedition onboard the RRS Discovery, DY081, in the North Atlantic Ocean. DY081 was the first fieldwork component of a European Research Council funded project, ICY-LAB, led by Dr. K. Hendry from the University of Bristol to study nutrient cycling in the North Atlantic. Twenty-four CTD casts were carried out in four sites of interest: Orphan Knoll off the coast of Newfoundland, and Nuuk, Nasrsaq, and Cape Farewell off southwest Greenland. During each cast, two Teledyne RD WorkHorse 300 kHz ADCPs were secured to the CTD rosette facing in opposite directions. Raw LADCP data files were processed with the LDEO LADCP processing software version IX_8. The processing version was set to bottom tracking mode and employed auxiliary CTD time series data. Processed CTD profile files also incorporated GPS data stored parallel in time, arriving from the ship's 1 Hz feed. Pairing the CTD profile data with the LADCP casts in time is executed by correlating the pressure time series of the CTD file with the depth of the LADCP cast, itself calculated through integration of the vertical velocity. Shipboard ADCP data were not included in the processing procedure. Difficulties were encountered for the CTD stations near Nuuk in waters with a bottom depth shallower than 100m (station 11 and station 14), and with CTD station 22. See cruise report for full details. Note that no data were recorded from CTD station 12.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westaway, Richard M;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | GlobalMass (694188)

    This dataset is the result of a systematic survey of scientific publication to investigate the extent to which rainbow colour maps are used in geoscience publications. Papers were surveyed from five journals - Earth System Dynamics (ESD), Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), Ocean Science (OS), Solid Earth (SE) and The Cryosphere (TC) - for the years 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020. The final data set includes the pre-existing Stoelzle and Stein (2021) survey data for HESS, which is independently available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5145746 (Stoelzle, 2021). All papers (n=2638) were classified according to the type of colour encoding used. year = year of publication (YYYY) title = full paper title authors = list of authors seperated by semi-colon n_authors = number of authors col_code = color-issue classification (see below) volume = Journal volume start_page = first page of paper (where available) end_page = last page of paper (where available) base_url = url to access the paper on the journal website filename = file name of the PDF version of the paper Color classification is stored in the col_code variable with: 0 = Colour visualisations with no colour issues 1 = At least one visualisation with red-green issues 2 = At least one visualisation with a rainbow colour map bw = Black and white paper

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Takeshita, Ryan; Bursian, Steven J; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Collier, Tracy K; Deak, Kristina; Dean, Karen M; De Guise, Sylvain; DiPinto, Lisa M; Elferink, Cornelis J; Esbaugh, Andrew J; +17 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    This research was made possible by a grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. This publication is UMCES contribution No. 6045 and Ref. No. [UMCES] CBL 2022-008. This is National Marine Mammal Foundation Contribution #314 to peer-reviewed scientific literature. In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, a number of government agencies, academic institutions, consultants, and nonprofit organizations conducted lab- and field-based research to understand the toxic effects of the oil. Lab testing was performed with a variety of fish, birds, turtles, and vertebrate cell lines (as well as invertebrates); field biologists conducted observations on fish, birds, turtles, and marine mammals; and epidemiologists carried out observational studies in humans. Eight years after the spill, scientists and resource managers held a workshop to summarize the similarities and differences in the effects of DWH oil on vertebrate taxa and to identify remaining gaps in our understanding of oil toxicity in wildlife and humans, building upon the cross-taxonomic synthesis initiated during the Natural Resource Damage Assessment. Across the studies, consistency was found in the types of toxic response observed in the different organisms. Impairment of stress responses and adrenal gland function, cardiotoxicity, immune system dysfunction, disruption of blood cells and their function, effects on locomotion, and oxidative damage were observed across taxa. This consistency suggests conservation in the mechanisms of action and disease pathogenesis. From a toxicological perspective, a logical progression of impacts was noted: from molecular and cellular effects that manifest as organ dysfunction, to systemic effects that compromise fitness, growth, reproductive potential, and survival. From a clinical perspective, adverse health effects from DWH oil spill exposure formed a suite of signs/symptomatic responses that at the highest doses/concentrations resulted in multi-organ system failure. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hawkings, Jon; Linhoff, Benjamin; Wadham, Jemma; Stibal, Marek; Lamborg, Carl; Carling, Gregory; Lamarche-Gagnon, Guillaume; Kohler, Tyler; Ward, Rachael; Hendry, Katharine; +12 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: UKRI | The role of atmospheric f... (NE/F021399/1), EC | ICICLES (793962), UKRI | DELVE: Development and va... (NE/I008845/1), EC | ICY-LAB (678371), UKRI | Biogenic production of cl... (NE/E004016/1)

    This research is part of a European Commission Horizon 2020 Marie Sk��odowska-Curie Actions fellowship ICICLES (grant agreement #793962) to JRH. Greenland terrestrial research campaigns were funded by a U.K. NERC Standard Grant (NE/I008845/1) and a Leverhulme Trust Research Grant (RPG-2016-439) to JLW, with additional support provided by a Royal Society Wolfson Merit Award to JLW. Additional funding came from Czech Science Foundation grants (GACR; 15-17346Y and 18-12630S) to MS. Fjord fieldwork was supported by European Research Council grant ICY-LAB (grant agreement 678371) and Royal Society Enhancement Award (Grant RGF\EA\181036) to KRH. LM was funded by research programme VENI (0.16.Veni.192.150, NWO). TK was supported by Charles University Research Centre Program No. 204069. The captain and the crew of the R/V Kisaq and staff at Greenland Institute of Natural Resources are also thanked for their assistance during fjord fieldwork. The authors thank all those involved with fieldwork at Leverett camp during the 2012 and 2015 field campaigns. We also thank the analytical support from G. White in the geochemistry group at the National High Magnetic Field Geochemistry Laboratory, which is supported by NSF DMR-1644779 and the State of Florida. Geochemical measurements and hydrochemical datasets linked to the publication "Large subglacial source of mercury from the southwestern margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet" in Nature Geoscience. Presented are (1) data for mercury concentrations in glacial meltwater outflows from the Greenland Ice Sheet taken in 2012, 2015 and 2018, (2) data for mercury concentrations in fjord waters from Nuup Kangerlua, Ameralik Fjord and S��ndre Str��mfjord, and (3) all associated hydrochemical data presented in the manuscript. For additional details (analytical techniques, precision, accuracy and limits of detection) please refer to the methodology in the publication. This third version has additional riverine data added the the 2012 dataset.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; Godrijan, Jelena; Cerino, Federica; Malinverno, Elisa; Langer, Gerald; Brownlee, Colin;
    Project: UKRI | GW4+ - a consortium of ex... (NE/L002434/1), UKRI | NSFGEO-NERC An unexpected... (NE/N011708/1), MZOS | Mechanism of long-term ch... (098-0982705-2731), EC | MEDSEA (265103), EC | SEACELLS (670390)

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.

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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
168 Research products, page 1 of 17
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romero-Alvarez, Johana; Lupaşcu, Aurelia; Lowe, Douglas; Badia, Alba; Acher-Nicholls, Scott; Dorling, Steve R.; Reeves, Claire E.; Butler, Tim;
    Project: EC | ASIBIA (616938)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations depend on a combination of hemispheric, regional, and local-scale processes. Estimates of how much O3 is produced locally vs. transported from further afield are essential in air quality management and regulatory policies. Here, a tagged-ozone mechanism within the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the contributions to surface O3 in the UK from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from inside and outside the UK during May–August 2015. The contribution of the different source regions to three regulatory O3 metrics is also examined. It is shown that model simulations predict the concentration and spatial distribution of surface O3 with a domain-wide mean bias of −3.7 ppbv. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from the UK and Europe account for 13 % and 16 %, respectively, of the monthly mean surface O3 in the UK, as the majority (71 %) of O3 originates from the hemispheric background. Hemispheric O3 contributes the most to concentrations in the north and the west of the UK with peaks in May, whereas European and UK contributions are most significant in the east, south-east, and London, i.e. the UK's most populated areas, intensifying towards June and July. Moreover, O3 from European sources is generally transported to the UK rather than produced in situ. It is demonstrated that more stringent emission controls over continental Europe, particularly in western Europe, would be necessary to improve the health-related metric MDA8 O3 above 50 and 60 ppbv. Emission controls over larger areas, such as the Northern Hemisphere, are instead required to lessen the impacts on ecosystems as quantified by the AOT40 metric.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McKenna, Christine;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: UKRI | The Cambridge Earth Syste... (NE/L002507/1)

    This is a dataset of output from version 4 of the Reading Intermediate Global Circulation Model (IGCM4) that was used in the article: McKenna, C. M., Bracegirdle, T. J., Shuckburgh, E. F., Haynes, P. H., & Joshi, M. M. (2018). Arctic sea ice loss in different regions leads to contrasting Northern Hemisphere impacts. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 945-954. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL076433 Files required to setup the IGCM4 simulations are given in the directory 'IGCM4_setup'. All other directories contain netcdf files of timeseries of various monthly mean fields for each IGCM4 simulation (see paper for details on these simulations). The available variables are: ua: zonal winds zg: geopotential height ts: surface temperature hfls, hfss, rlds, rlus: surface heatfluxes Flat, Fz, divF: Eliassen-Palm flux vectors and their divergence (only for months November-February) The ua and zg variables are given for different pressure levels indicated in the filenames (e.g., ua500 is ua at 500 hPa). ua is additionally given in terms of the zonal mean with latitude and pressure. zg is additionally given in terms of longitude and pressure, averaged over latitudes between 60N-80N. All files follow CF conventions in terms of metadata, variable names, etc. Note that the CTL, ATL, PAC, and ATLandPAC simulations were all run continuously in time (i.e., every year starts from the end of the previous year). The 0.5ATL and 0.5PAC simulations, however, were run for 300 years in three separate 100-year chunks (i.e., the initial conditions used to start each 100-year chunk were different). The three 100-year chunks have been appended together in the netcdf files.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McLean, Dianne L.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Miller, Karen J.; Schlappy, Marie-Lise; Ajemian, Matthew J.; Berry, Oliver; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Bond, Todd; Boschetti, Fabio; +36 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    This research was supported by the National Decommissioning Research Initiative (NDRI Australia). We acknowledge the time contribution of all co-authors and additionally via research undertaken through the UKRI INSITE Programme including projects ANChor, CHASANS (NE/T010886/1), EcoConnect, EcoSTAR (NE/T010614/1), FuECoMMS (NE/T010800/1), MAPS, NSERC. DMP was supported through The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland (MASTS) funded by the Scottish Funding Council and contributing institutions. SNRB and KH (Cefas) were funded by Cefas and the UK INSITE North Sea programme. Offshore platforms, subsea pipelines, wells and related fixed structures supporting the oil and gas (O&G) industry are prevalent in oceans across the globe, with many approaching the end of their operational life and requiring decommissioning. Although structures can possess high ecological diversity and productivity, information on how they interact with broader ecological processes remains unclear. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the role of O&G infrastructure in maintaining, altering or enhancing ecological connectivity with natural marine habitats. There is a paucity of studies on the subject with only 33 papers specifically targeting connectivity and O&G structures, although other studies provide important related information. Evidence for O&G structures facilitating vertical and horizontal seascape connectivity exists for larvae and mobile adult invertebrates, fish and megafauna; including threatened and commercially important species. The degree to which these structures represent a beneficial or detrimental net impact remains unclear, is complex and ultimately needs more research to determine the extent to which natural connectivity networks are conserved, enhanced or disrupted. We discuss the potential impacts of different decommissioning approaches on seascape connectivity and identify, through expert elicitation, critical knowledge gaps that, if addressed, may further inform decision making for the life cycle of O&G infrastructure, with relevance for other industries (e.g. renewables). The most highly ranked critical knowledge gap was a need to understand how O&G structures modify and influence the movement patterns of mobile species and dispersal stages of sessile marine species. Understanding how different decommissioning options affect species survival and movement was also highly ranked, as was understanding the extent to which O&G structures contribute to extending species distributions by providing rest stops, foraging habitat, and stepping stones. These questions could be addressed with further dedicated studies of animal movement in relation to structures using telemetry, molecular techniques and movement models. Our review and these priority questions provide a roadmap for advancing research needed to support evidence-based decision making for decommissioning O&G infrastructure. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Healy, Susan D.; Patton, B. Wren;
    Country: United Kingdom

    But fish cognitive ecology did not begin in rivers and streams. Rather, one of the starting points for work on fish cognitive ecology was work done on the use of visual cues by homing pigeons. Prior to working with fish, Victoria Braithwaite helped to establish that homing pigeons rely not just on magnetic and olfactory cues but also on visual cues for successful return to their home loft. Simple, elegant experiments on homing established Victoria's ability to develop experimental manipulations to examine the role of visual cues in navigation by fish in familiar areas. This work formed the basis of a rich seam of work whereby a fish's ecology was used to propose hypotheses and predictions as to preferred cue use, and then cognitive abilities in a variety of fish species, from model systems (Atlantic salmon and sticklebacks) to the Panamanian Brachyraphis episcopi. Cognitive ecology in fish led to substantial work on fish pain and welfare, but was never left behind, with some of Victoria's last work addressed to determining the neural instantiation of cognitive variation. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sam Royston; Rory Bingham; Jonathan Bamber;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | GlobalMass (694188)

    The data produced from analysis to be published in Ocean Science Discussions, paper entitled "Attributing decadal climate variability in coastal sea-level trends". NetCDF contains the following sets of fields: 1. Indexing: An index and location (lat, lon) of the coastal grid cells, a locator index attributing each cell to Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean basin, a time (decimal year) index. 2. NEMO model trends (nemo_<component>_trend): Rolling decadal trends at each coastal grid cell from the NEMO model run for steric, manometric (dynamic) and GRD. The sum of these components gives the equivalent to absolute sea level trend. 3. Climate and oceanographic mode indices: The rolling decadal trends in climate indices and the AMOC index calculated from the AMOC model (ci_trend) and their names (ci_index). 4. Empirical Orthogonal Function spatial pattern (eof_<basin>_<component>_D) and Principal Component time series (eof_<basin>_<component>_PC) of the NEMO model trends. 5. Coefficient of linear regression between PC and climate indices (recon_<basin>_<component>_beta) and the rolling trend time series at each grid cell from the reconstruction, sum{ci_trend*beta} (recon_<basin>_<component>_trend). In 4 and 5, the indices are given by basin. The total coastline is a concatenation of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian basin data in that order. The absolute SSH is given by the sum of components. i.e. the SSH for all coastal cells in order index: recon_sum_trend([index(Atlantic_index); index(Pacific_index); index(Indian_index)] = ... [recon_Atlantic_manometric_trend+recon_Atlantic_steric_trend+recon_Atlantic_grd_trend; ... recon_Pacific_manometric_trend+recon_Pacific_steric_trend+recon_Pacific_grd_trend; ... recon_Indian_manometric_trend+recon_Indian_steric_trend+recon_Indian_grd_trend]

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hendry, Katharine R; Opher, Jacob; Brearley, James Alexander;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    This data release includes Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profile data collected during a 2017 (June - August) research expedition onboard the RRS Discovery, DY081, in the North Atlantic Ocean. DY081 was the first fieldwork component of a European Research Council funded project, ICY-LAB, led by Dr. K. Hendry from the University of Bristol to study nutrient cycling in the North Atlantic. Twenty-four CTD casts were carried out in four sites of interest: Orphan Knoll off the coast of Newfoundland, and Nuuk, Nasrsaq, and Cape Farewell off southwest Greenland. During each cast, two Teledyne RD WorkHorse 300 kHz ADCPs were secured to the CTD rosette facing in opposite directions. Raw LADCP data files were processed with the LDEO LADCP processing software version IX_8. The processing version was set to bottom tracking mode and employed auxiliary CTD time series data. Processed CTD profile files also incorporated GPS data stored parallel in time, arriving from the ship's 1 Hz feed. Pairing the CTD profile data with the LADCP casts in time is executed by correlating the pressure time series of the CTD file with the depth of the LADCP cast, itself calculated through integration of the vertical velocity. Shipboard ADCP data were not included in the processing procedure. Difficulties were encountered for the CTD stations near Nuuk in waters with a bottom depth shallower than 100m (station 11 and station 14), and with CTD station 22. See cruise report for full details. Note that no data were recorded from CTD station 12.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westaway, Richard M;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | GlobalMass (694188)

    This dataset is the result of a systematic survey of scientific publication to investigate the extent to which rainbow colour maps are used in geoscience publications. Papers were surveyed from five journals - Earth System Dynamics (ESD), Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), Ocean Science (OS), Solid Earth (SE) and The Cryosphere (TC) - for the years 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020. The final data set includes the pre-existing Stoelzle and Stein (2021) survey data for HESS, which is independently available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5145746 (Stoelzle, 2021). All papers (n=2638) were classified according to the type of colour encoding used. year = year of publication (YYYY) title = full paper title authors = list of authors seperated by semi-colon n_authors = number of authors col_code = color-issue classification (see below) volume = Journal volume start_page = first page of paper (where available) end_page = last page of paper (where available) base_url = url to access the paper on the journal website filename = file name of the PDF version of the paper Color classification is stored in the col_code variable with: 0 = Colour visualisations with no colour issues 1 = At least one visualisation with red-green issues 2 = At least one visualisation with a rainbow colour map bw = Black and white paper

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Takeshita, Ryan; Bursian, Steven J; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Collier, Tracy K; Deak, Kristina; Dean, Karen M; De Guise, Sylvain; DiPinto, Lisa M; Elferink, Cornelis J; Esbaugh, Andrew J; +17 more
    Country: United Kingdom

    This research was made possible by a grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. This publication is UMCES contribution No. 6045 and Ref. No. [UMCES] CBL 2022-008. This is National Marine Mammal Foundation Contribution #314 to peer-reviewed scientific literature. In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, a number of government agencies, academic institutions, consultants, and nonprofit organizations conducted lab- and field-based research to understand the toxic effects of the oil. Lab testing was performed with a variety of fish, birds, turtles, and vertebrate cell lines (as well as invertebrates); field biologists conducted observations on fish, birds, turtles, and marine mammals; and epidemiologists carried out observational studies in humans. Eight years after the spill, scientists and resource managers held a workshop to summarize the similarities and differences in the effects of DWH oil on vertebrate taxa and to identify remaining gaps in our understanding of oil toxicity in wildlife and humans, building upon the cross-taxonomic synthesis initiated during the Natural Resource Damage Assessment. Across the studies, consistency was found in the types of toxic response observed in the different organisms. Impairment of stress responses and adrenal gland function, cardiotoxicity, immune system dysfunction, disruption of blood cells and their function, effects on locomotion, and oxidative damage were observed across taxa. This consistency suggests conservation in the mechanisms of action and disease pathogenesis. From a toxicological perspective, a logical progression of impacts was noted: from molecular and cellular effects that manifest as organ dysfunction, to systemic effects that compromise fitness, growth, reproductive potential, and survival. From a clinical perspective, adverse health effects from DWH oil spill exposure formed a suite of signs/symptomatic responses that at the highest doses/concentrations resulted in multi-organ system failure. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hawkings, Jon; Linhoff, Benjamin; Wadham, Jemma; Stibal, Marek; Lamborg, Carl; Carling, Gregory; Lamarche-Gagnon, Guillaume; Kohler, Tyler; Ward, Rachael; Hendry, Katharine; +12 more
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: UKRI | The role of atmospheric f... (NE/F021399/1), EC | ICICLES (793962), UKRI | DELVE: Development and va... (NE/I008845/1), EC | ICY-LAB (678371), UKRI | Biogenic production of cl... (NE/E004016/1)

    This research is part of a European Commission Horizon 2020 Marie Sk��odowska-Curie Actions fellowship ICICLES (grant agreement #793962) to JRH. Greenland terrestrial research campaigns were funded by a U.K. NERC Standard Grant (NE/I008845/1) and a Leverhulme Trust Research Grant (RPG-2016-439) to JLW, with additional support provided by a Royal Society Wolfson Merit Award to JLW. Additional funding came from Czech Science Foundation grants (GACR; 15-17346Y and 18-12630S) to MS. Fjord fieldwork was supported by European Research Council grant ICY-LAB (grant agreement 678371) and Royal Society Enhancement Award (Grant RGF\EA\181036) to KRH. LM was funded by research programme VENI (0.16.Veni.192.150, NWO). TK was supported by Charles University Research Centre Program No. 204069. The captain and the crew of the R/V Kisaq and staff at Greenland Institute of Natural Resources are also thanked for their assistance during fjord fieldwork. The authors thank all those involved with fieldwork at Leverett camp during the 2012 and 2015 field campaigns. We also thank the analytical support from G. White in the geochemistry group at the National High Magnetic Field Geochemistry Laboratory, which is supported by NSF DMR-1644779 and the State of Florida. Geochemical measurements and hydrochemical datasets linked to the publication "Large subglacial source of mercury from the southwestern margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet" in Nature Geoscience. Presented are (1) data for mercury concentrations in glacial meltwater outflows from the Greenland Ice Sheet taken in 2012, 2015 and 2018, (2) data for mercury concentrations in fjord waters from Nuup Kangerlua, Ameralik Fjord and S��ndre Str��mfjord, and (3) all associated hydrochemical data presented in the manuscript. For additional details (analytical techniques, precision, accuracy and limits of detection) please refer to the methodology in the publication. This third version has additional riverine data added the the 2012 dataset.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vries, Joost; Monteiro, Fanny; Wheeler, Glen; Poulton, Alex; Godrijan, Jelena; Cerino, Federica; Malinverno, Elisa; Langer, Gerald; Brownlee, Colin;
    Project: UKRI | GW4+ - a consortium of ex... (NE/L002434/1), UKRI | NSFGEO-NERC An unexpected... (NE/N011708/1), MZOS | Mechanism of long-term ch... (098-0982705-2731), EC | MEDSEA (265103), EC | SEACELLS (670390)

    Coccolithophores are globally important marine calcifying phytoplankton that utilize a haplo-diplontic life cycle. The haplo-diplontic life cycle allows coccolithophores to divide in both life cycle phases and potentially expands coccolithophore niche volume. Research has, however, to date largely overlooked the life cycle of coccolithophores and has instead focused on the diploid life cycle phase of coccolithophores. Through the synthesis and analysis of global scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coccolithophore abundance data (n=2534), we find that calcified haploid coccolithophores generally constitute a minor component of the total coccolithophore abundance (≈ 2 %–15 % depending on season). However, using case studies in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, we show that, depending on environmental conditions, calcifying haploid coccolithophores can be significant contributors to the coccolithophore standing stock (up to ≈30 %). Furthermore, using hypervolumes to quantify the niche of coccolithophores, we illustrate that the haploid and diploid life cycle phases inhabit contrasting niches and that on average this allows coccolithophores to expand their niche by ≈18.8 %, with a range of 3 %–76 % for individual species. Our results highlight that future coccolithophore research should consider both life cycle stages, as omission of the haploid life cycle phase in current research limits our understanding of coccolithophore ecology. Our results furthermore suggest a different response to nutrient limitation and stratification, which may be of relevance for further climate scenarios. Our compilation highlights the spatial and temporal sparsity of SEM measurements and the need for new molecular techniques to identify uncalcified haploid coccolithophores. Our work also emphasizes the need for further work on the carbonate chemistry niche of the coccolithophore life cycle.