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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shevtsova, Iuliia; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Heim, Birgit; Kruse, Stefan;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | GlacialLegacy (772852)

    The model LAVESI (Kruse et al. 2016) was updated (Kruse 2023) and forced with historical and future climate forcing for 3 simulation repeats. This data set uses the data set of Kruse (2023) and applies a threshold of 0.68 km m-2 to differentiate forested areas according to the 2018 field inventories (Shevtsova et al., 2021). In this data set the total forest cover was summed up and the percent of total available areas is presented for the three climate forcings RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 and each complemented with a hypothetical cooling scenario from year 2300 CE onwards. The data provided is from years 1800, 1860, 1900, 1990, 2000 and in 5-year steps until 3000 CE and presents the mean over the three repeats of the sum of AGB of the whole study region: extent: 640008.2, 649998.2, 7475006, 7494716 m (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax). Format: csv, with headers 1-year, Year in CE, 2-average percent forests cover for the study region, 3-upper and 4-lower, is the minimum and maximum value of the three simulations, 5-RCP, is the RCP scenario, 6-Cooling, contains in case of the cooling scenario the string “Cooling”. {"references": ["Stefan Kruse, Mareike Wieczorek, Florian Jeltsch and Ulrike Herzschuh (2016) Treeline dynamics in Siberia under changing climates as inferred from an individual-based model for Larix. Ecological Modelling, 338, 101\u2013121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2016.08.003 Additional data and results are available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.863584", "Stefan Kruse (2023). StefanKruse/LAVESI: LAVESI-WIND with landscape (v2.0). Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7505539", "Shevtsova, Iuliia, Herzschuh, Ulrike, Heim, Birgit, & Kruse, Stefan. (2023). Simulated above ground biomass of forests (larch) aggregated over the vicinity of the Ilirney lake system region, Chukotka, Russia [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7505616", "Shevtsova I, Herzschuh U, Heim B, Schulte L, St\u00fcnzi S, Pestryakova LA, Zakharov ES, Kruse S: Recent above-ground biomass changes in central Chukotka (Russian Far East) using field sampling and Landsat satellite data. Biogeosciences, 18, 3343\u20133366, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-3343-2021, 2021."]} This work has been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which enabled the Russian-German research programme "Kohlenstoff im Permafrost KoPf" (grant no. 03F0764A), by the Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association and by the ERC consolidator grant Glacial Legacy of Ulrike Herzschuh (grant no. 772852).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shevtsova, Iuliia; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Heim, Birgit; Kruse, Stefan;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | GlacialLegacy (772852)

    Forest density estimates visually determined by describing the amount of present trees satellite imagery from Esri basemap (Esri) at an area of ~30x30 m qualitatively for 6515 stratified sampled locations at an equal number of locations based on elevation, aspect and slope angle. The density was categorized ranging from 1: single trees to 4: dense tree stands present, and contains a 0: no trees present. Format: ESRI shapefile, points; projection UTM58N; extent: 642085.1, 654775.1, 7462263, 7492833 m (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax) This work has been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which enabled the Russian-German research programme "Kohlenstoff im Permafrost KoPf" (grant no. 03F0764A), by the Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association and by the ERC consolidator grant Glacial Legacy of Ulrike Herzschuh (grant no. 772852). {"references": ["Esri: \"High-resolution satellite and aerial imagery, typically within 3-5 years\" [basemap]. Scale Not Given. \"World Imagery\". https://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=10df2279f9684e4a9f6a7f08febac2a9, Accession: 15 December 2020."]}

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shevtsova, Iuliia; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Heim, Birgit; Kruse, Stefan;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | GlacialLegacy (772852)

    The elevation was accessed for the area of interest in 90 m spatial resolution from the TanDEM-X 90 m digital elevation model (DEM) product (Krieger et al, 2013). Prior to spatial topographical parameters extraction, the DEM was resampled from the 90-m cell spacing to a 30-m resolution. The result was classified into 589 different possible combinations of elevation, slope angle, aspect. For the classification we used the possible combinations of elevation, slope, and aspect which were grouped into the following categories: Elevation: 0-400 m 400-450m 450-500m 500-600m 600-650m 650-700m 700-1000m 1000-1500m Slope: 0-2° 2-4° 4-6° 6-8° 8-10° 10-12° 12-16° 16-18° 18-20° 20-25° 25-50° Aspect: 0-45° 45-90° 90-135° 135-180° 180-225° 225-270° 270-315° 315-360° Format: Geotiff; projection UTM58N and 30x30 m tiles; extent: 642010.1, 654910.1, 7462218, 7492908 m (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax) {"references": ["Krieger G, Zink M, Bachmann M, Br\u00e4utigam B, Schulze D, Martone M, Rizzoli P, Steinbrecher U, Antony JW, De Zan F, Hajnsek I, Papathanassiou K, Kugler F, Rodriguez Cassola M, Younis M, Baumgartner S, L\u00f3pez-Dekker P, Prats P, Moreira A: TanDEM-X: a radar interferometer with two formation-flying satellites. Acta Astronautica, 89, 83\u201398, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2013.03.008, 2013."]} This work has been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which enabled the Russian-German research programme "Kohlenstoff im Permafrost KoPf" (grant no. 03F0764A), by the Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association and by the ERC consolidator grant Glacial Legacy of Ulrike Herzschuh (grant no. 772852).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Muglia, Juan; Mulitza, Stefan; Repschläger, Janne; Schmittner, Andreas; Lembke-Jene, Lester; Mix, Alan; Saraswat, Rajeev; Sikes, Elizabeth; Waelbroeck, Claire; Gottschalk, Julia; +10 more
    Publisher: Zenodo

    In paleoceanography, carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios from benthic foraminifera are used as tracers of physical and biogeochemical properties of the deep ocean. We present the first version of the Ocean Carbon Cycling working group database, of stable isotope ratios of oxygen and carbon from benthic foraminifera from deep ocean sediment cores from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 23-20 ky before present (BP)) to the Holocene (<10 ky BP) with a particular focus on the early last deglaciation (20-15 ky BP). It includes 287 globally distributed coring sites, with metadata, isotopic and chronostratigraphic information, and age models. A quality check was performed for all data and age models. Sites with at least millennial resolution were preferred, because the main goal is to resolve ocean changes associated with the last deglaciation on at least millennial timescales. Software tools were produced to access and analyze the data, and are included with this publication. Deep water mass structure as well as differences between the early deglaciation and LGM are captured by the data in the compilation, even though its coverage is still sparse in many ocean regions. We find high correlations among time series calculated with different age models at sites that allow such analysis. The database provides a useful dynamical approach to map physical and biogeochemical changes of the ocean throughout the last deglaciation. Custom python scripts to read and analyze the data base may be found in https://github.com/juanmuglia/OC3-python-scripts and in OC3-python-scripts.zip in this repository. plots_d13c.pdf and plots_d18o.pdf contain time series for all sites and available age models.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Larson, Wes;
    Publisher: Dryad

    Freshwater mussels (family Unionidae) are among the world’s most endangered taxa, with almost 75% of North American taxa classified as a species of concern, threatened, or endangered. Despite the critical importance of comprehensive distributional data for the conservation of unionids and fishes, these data are often lacking because of the labor and resources associated with traditional survey methods. During their larval stage, unionid mussels use various fish species as obligate hosts, making native fish species vital to unionid persistence and an understanding of host distribution similarly important. Here, we utilized an eDNA metabarcoding approach to evaluate patterns of co-distribution of unionid mussels and fishes along ~362 km of the densely sampled Grand River network as well as the outlets of 19 tributaries along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, USA. We detected a total of 21 mussel and 40 fish taxa, with distinctive composition of both mussel and fish assemblages across tributaries and differences in fish taxa between sampling periods. Notably, we detected more mussel taxa within the Grand River watershed than at the outlets of all 20 rivers combined. Within the Grand River network, two fish taxa (Pylodictus olivaris and Cyprinella) were found more frequently in areas of high mussel diversity, and three fish taxa more frequently in areas of low mussel diversity (Umbra, Leuciscidae, and Etheostoma). There was little difference between eDNA detections of mussels from samples collected in June versus August, but we detected significantly more fish taxa in August compared to June. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the value of eDNA metabarcoding for evaluating co-distribution of ecologically connected taxa. The use of eDNA as a tool for determining distributions of mussels and their obligate hosts may facilitate conservation efforts for these imperiled taxa. See manuscript.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frid, Ori;
    Publisher: Dryad

    The positive effect of fully protected Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) on marine biodiversity, specifically on fishes, has been widely documented. In contrast, the potential of MPAs to mitigate the impact of adverse climatic conditions has seldom been investigated. Here, we assessed the effectiveness of MPAs, quantified as increasing fish biomass, across wide geographic and environmental gradients across the Mediterranean Sea. We performed underwater visual surveys within and outside MPAs to characterize fish assemblages in 52 rocky reef sites across an extent of over 3,300 km. We used the steep spatial temperature gradient across the Mediterranean as a 'space-for-time' substitution to infer climate-driven temporal changes. We found that, as expected, Mediterranean MPAs increased fish biomass. At the same time, higher seawater temperatures are associated with decreased fish biomass, changes in species composition, and shifts towards more thermophilic species. Importantly, we found that the rate of decrease in fish biomass with temperature was similar between protected and fished sites. Taken together, these results suggest that the capacity of MPAs to harbor higher fish biomass, compared to surrounding areas, is maintained across a broad temperature range. At the same time, MPAs will not be able to offset larger-scale biotic alterations associated with climate change. Policy implications: Our results suggest that sustained warming will likely reduce fish biomass in the Mediterranean Sea and shift community structure, requiring more conservative targets for fishery regulations. At the same time, protection from fishing will remain an important management tool even with future high-water temperatures, and MPAs are expected to continue to provide local-scale benefits to conservation and fisheries.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yates, Matthew;
    Publisher: Dryad

    Relating environmental DNA (eDNA) signal strength to organism abundance requires a fundamental understanding of eDNA production. A number of studies have demonstrated that eDNA production may scale allometrically – that is, larger organisms tend to exhibit lower mass-specific eDNA production rates, likely due to allometric scaling in key processes related to eDNA production (e.g. surface area, excretion/egestion). While most previous studies have examined intra-specific allometry, physiological rates and organism surface area also scale allometrically across species. We therefore hypothesize that eDNA production will similarly exhibit inter-specific allometric scaling. To evaluate this hypothesis, we reanalyzed previously published eDNA data from Stoeckle et al. (2021) which compared metabarcoding read count to organism count and biomass data obtained from trawl surveys off the New Jersey coast. Using a Bayesian model we empirically estimated the value of the allometric scaling coefficient (‘b’) for Northwestern Atlantic bony fishes to be 0.77 (credible interval = 0.64 – 0.92), although our model failed to converge for Chondrichthyan species. We found that integrating allometry significantly improved correlations between organism abundance and metabarcoding read count relative to traditional metrics of abundance (density and biomass) for bony fishes. Although substantial unexplained variation remains in the relationship between read count and organism abundance, our study provides evidence that eDNA production may scale allometrically across species in some contexts. Future studies investigating the relationship between eDNA signal strength and metrics of fish abundance could potentially be improved by accounting for allometry; to this end, we developed an online tool that can facilitate the integration of allometry in eDNA/abundance relationships. This is a curated dataset obtained from: Stoeckle, M.Y., Adolf, J., Charlop-powers, Z., Dunton, K.J., Hinks, G., and Vanmorter, S.M. 2021. Trawl and eDNA assessment of marine fish diversity, seasonality, and relative abundance in coastal New Jersey, USA. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 78(1): 293–304. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsaa225. We separated Chondrichtyan and Osteichthyan species into separate datasets, including only species which were detected using eDNA. Values of 0.001 were added to 'zeroes' for abundance data, due to the inclusion of a heteroscedastic residual error term in some of the models.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dagestad, Knut-Frode; Röhrs, Johannes;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Ocean drifters from oil-on-water exercise in North Sea (Frigg oil field) June 2019. Described in more detail in Brekke, C., Espeseth, M. M., Dagestad, K.-F., Röhrs, J., Hole, L. R., & Reigber, A. (2021). Integrated analysis of multisensor datasets and oil drift simulations - a free-floating oil experiment in the open ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126, e2020JC016499. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JC016499 Work is funded by grant no. 237906 (CIRFA) of the Norwegian Research Council. Work is funded by grant no. 237906 (CIRFA) of the Norwegian Research Council

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Waelbroeck, Claire; Tjiputra, Jerry; Guo, Chuncheng; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Jansen, Eystein; Vazquez Riveiros, Natalia; Toucanne, Samuel; Eynaud, Frédérique; Rossignol, Linda; Dewilde, Fabien; +3 more
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | ACCLIMATE (339108)

    We combine consistently dated benthic carbon isotopic records distributed over the entire Atlantic Ocean with numerical simulations performed by a glacial configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model with active ocean biogeochemistry, in order to interpret the observed Cibicides δ13C changes at the stadial-interstadial transition corresponding to the end of Heinrich Stadial 4 (HS4) in terms of ocean circulation and remineralization changes. We show that the marked increase in Cibicides δ13C observed at the end of HS4 between ~2000 and 4200 m in the Atlantic can be explained by changes in nutrient concentrations as simulated by the model in response to the halting of freshwater input in the high latitude glacial North Atlantic. Our model results show that this Cibicides δ13C signal is associated with changes in the ratio of southern-sourced (SSW) versus northern-sourced (NSW) water masses at the core sites, whereby SSW is replaced by NSW as a consequence of the resumption of deep water formation in the northern North Atlantic and Nordic Seas after the freshwater input is halted. Our results further suggest that the contribution of ocean circulation changes to this signal increases from ~40 % at 2000 m to ~80 % at 4000 m. Below ~4200 m, the model shows little ocean circulation change but an increase in remineralization across the transition marking the end of HS4. The simulated lower remineralization during stadials than interstadials is particularly pronounced in deep subantarctic sites, in agreement with the decrease in the export production of carbon to the deep Southern Ocean during stadials found in previous studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mruzek, Joseph; Budnick, William; Larson, Chad; Luc, Dinh; Passy, Sophia;
    Publisher: Dryad

    Aim: Niche and dispersal processes influence biodiversity, but their relative importance along latitude is unclear. We predicted that: i) niche processes would dominate at high latitudes due to increased climatic stress, consistent with the physiological tolerance hypothesis and the Dobzhansky-MacArthur hypothesis and ii) dispersal limitation would prevail at low latitudes due to narrower niches and smaller range sizes, as postulated by the dispersal-ecological specialization tradeoff hypothesis, the latitude-niche breadth hypothesis, and Rapoport’s rule. Location: Central United States Time Period: 1993-2019 Major taxa studied: Stream algae, insects, and fish Methods: We examined the relative effects of environment (climate and physicochemistry) vs. space on stream biodiversity in seven latitudinal zones, spanning 19 latitudinal degrees. In each zone, species richness (α-diversity) was analyzed with multiple regression and variance partitioning. Compositional dissimilarity (β-diversity) within zones was assessed with distance-based RDA and variance partitioning. Results: For α-diversity, latitudinal variability of niche and dispersal processes conformed to our predictions in all three groups, except for dispersal processes in insects. However, the drivers of β-diversity did not follow our predictions. The latitude-niche breadth hypothesis and Rapoport’s rule were weakly supported only in fish. Main Conclusions: The importance of niche and dispersal processes varied predictably along the latitudinal gradient only for α-diversity. However, the niche effects were driven mostly by physicochemistry, and the dispersal effects were not always linked with ecological specialization and range size. This suggests that climate-based biodiversity theories do not have particular relevance for the streams in our study. Niche processes had a greater impact than dispersal processes across species groups and diversity metrics, emphasizing the primary role of the environment. Datasets containing 2687 algal sites, 3809 insect sites, and 2753 fish sites from streams in the conterminous United States were used to measure species range size and niche breadth. Smaller subsets from the middle United States (349 algal, and 350 insect and fish sites) were used to determine the relative importance of niche and dispersal processes on α- and β-diversity along a latitudinal gradient, comprising seven latitudinal zones. Files can be accessed using Microsoft Excel and R.

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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
8,523 Research products, page 1 of 853
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shevtsova, Iuliia; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Heim, Birgit; Kruse, Stefan;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | GlacialLegacy (772852)

    The model LAVESI (Kruse et al. 2016) was updated (Kruse 2023) and forced with historical and future climate forcing for 3 simulation repeats. This data set uses the data set of Kruse (2023) and applies a threshold of 0.68 km m-2 to differentiate forested areas according to the 2018 field inventories (Shevtsova et al., 2021). In this data set the total forest cover was summed up and the percent of total available areas is presented for the three climate forcings RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 and each complemented with a hypothetical cooling scenario from year 2300 CE onwards. The data provided is from years 1800, 1860, 1900, 1990, 2000 and in 5-year steps until 3000 CE and presents the mean over the three repeats of the sum of AGB of the whole study region: extent: 640008.2, 649998.2, 7475006, 7494716 m (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax). Format: csv, with headers 1-year, Year in CE, 2-average percent forests cover for the study region, 3-upper and 4-lower, is the minimum and maximum value of the three simulations, 5-RCP, is the RCP scenario, 6-Cooling, contains in case of the cooling scenario the string “Cooling”. {"references": ["Stefan Kruse, Mareike Wieczorek, Florian Jeltsch and Ulrike Herzschuh (2016) Treeline dynamics in Siberia under changing climates as inferred from an individual-based model for Larix. Ecological Modelling, 338, 101\u2013121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2016.08.003 Additional data and results are available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.863584", "Stefan Kruse (2023). StefanKruse/LAVESI: LAVESI-WIND with landscape (v2.0). Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7505539", "Shevtsova, Iuliia, Herzschuh, Ulrike, Heim, Birgit, & Kruse, Stefan. (2023). Simulated above ground biomass of forests (larch) aggregated over the vicinity of the Ilirney lake system region, Chukotka, Russia [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7505616", "Shevtsova I, Herzschuh U, Heim B, Schulte L, St\u00fcnzi S, Pestryakova LA, Zakharov ES, Kruse S: Recent above-ground biomass changes in central Chukotka (Russian Far East) using field sampling and Landsat satellite data. Biogeosciences, 18, 3343\u20133366, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-3343-2021, 2021."]} This work has been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which enabled the Russian-German research programme "Kohlenstoff im Permafrost KoPf" (grant no. 03F0764A), by the Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association and by the ERC consolidator grant Glacial Legacy of Ulrike Herzschuh (grant no. 772852).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shevtsova, Iuliia; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Heim, Birgit; Kruse, Stefan;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | GlacialLegacy (772852)

    Forest density estimates visually determined by describing the amount of present trees satellite imagery from Esri basemap (Esri) at an area of ~30x30 m qualitatively for 6515 stratified sampled locations at an equal number of locations based on elevation, aspect and slope angle. The density was categorized ranging from 1: single trees to 4: dense tree stands present, and contains a 0: no trees present. Format: ESRI shapefile, points; projection UTM58N; extent: 642085.1, 654775.1, 7462263, 7492833 m (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax) This work has been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which enabled the Russian-German research programme "Kohlenstoff im Permafrost KoPf" (grant no. 03F0764A), by the Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association and by the ERC consolidator grant Glacial Legacy of Ulrike Herzschuh (grant no. 772852). {"references": ["Esri: \"High-resolution satellite and aerial imagery, typically within 3-5 years\" [basemap]. Scale Not Given. \"World Imagery\". https://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=10df2279f9684e4a9f6a7f08febac2a9, Accession: 15 December 2020."]}

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shevtsova, Iuliia; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Heim, Birgit; Kruse, Stefan;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | GlacialLegacy (772852)

    The elevation was accessed for the area of interest in 90 m spatial resolution from the TanDEM-X 90 m digital elevation model (DEM) product (Krieger et al, 2013). Prior to spatial topographical parameters extraction, the DEM was resampled from the 90-m cell spacing to a 30-m resolution. The result was classified into 589 different possible combinations of elevation, slope angle, aspect. For the classification we used the possible combinations of elevation, slope, and aspect which were grouped into the following categories: Elevation: 0-400 m 400-450m 450-500m 500-600m 600-650m 650-700m 700-1000m 1000-1500m Slope: 0-2° 2-4° 4-6° 6-8° 8-10° 10-12° 12-16° 16-18° 18-20° 20-25° 25-50° Aspect: 0-45° 45-90° 90-135° 135-180° 180-225° 225-270° 270-315° 315-360° Format: Geotiff; projection UTM58N and 30x30 m tiles; extent: 642010.1, 654910.1, 7462218, 7492908 m (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax) {"references": ["Krieger G, Zink M, Bachmann M, Br\u00e4utigam B, Schulze D, Martone M, Rizzoli P, Steinbrecher U, Antony JW, De Zan F, Hajnsek I, Papathanassiou K, Kugler F, Rodriguez Cassola M, Younis M, Baumgartner S, L\u00f3pez-Dekker P, Prats P, Moreira A: TanDEM-X: a radar interferometer with two formation-flying satellites. Acta Astronautica, 89, 83\u201398, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2013.03.008, 2013."]} This work has been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which enabled the Russian-German research programme "Kohlenstoff im Permafrost KoPf" (grant no. 03F0764A), by the Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association and by the ERC consolidator grant Glacial Legacy of Ulrike Herzschuh (grant no. 772852).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Muglia, Juan; Mulitza, Stefan; Repschläger, Janne; Schmittner, Andreas; Lembke-Jene, Lester; Mix, Alan; Saraswat, Rajeev; Sikes, Elizabeth; Waelbroeck, Claire; Gottschalk, Julia; +10 more
    Publisher: Zenodo

    In paleoceanography, carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios from benthic foraminifera are used as tracers of physical and biogeochemical properties of the deep ocean. We present the first version of the Ocean Carbon Cycling working group database, of stable isotope ratios of oxygen and carbon from benthic foraminifera from deep ocean sediment cores from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 23-20 ky before present (BP)) to the Holocene (<10 ky BP) with a particular focus on the early last deglaciation (20-15 ky BP). It includes 287 globally distributed coring sites, with metadata, isotopic and chronostratigraphic information, and age models. A quality check was performed for all data and age models. Sites with at least millennial resolution were preferred, because the main goal is to resolve ocean changes associated with the last deglaciation on at least millennial timescales. Software tools were produced to access and analyze the data, and are included with this publication. Deep water mass structure as well as differences between the early deglaciation and LGM are captured by the data in the compilation, even though its coverage is still sparse in many ocean regions. We find high correlations among time series calculated with different age models at sites that allow such analysis. The database provides a useful dynamical approach to map physical and biogeochemical changes of the ocean throughout the last deglaciation. Custom python scripts to read and analyze the data base may be found in https://github.com/juanmuglia/OC3-python-scripts and in OC3-python-scripts.zip in this repository. plots_d13c.pdf and plots_d18o.pdf contain time series for all sites and available age models.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Larson, Wes;
    Publisher: Dryad

    Freshwater mussels (family Unionidae) are among the world’s most endangered taxa, with almost 75% of North American taxa classified as a species of concern, threatened, or endangered. Despite the critical importance of comprehensive distributional data for the conservation of unionids and fishes, these data are often lacking because of the labor and resources associated with traditional survey methods. During their larval stage, unionid mussels use various fish species as obligate hosts, making native fish species vital to unionid persistence and an understanding of host distribution similarly important. Here, we utilized an eDNA metabarcoding approach to evaluate patterns of co-distribution of unionid mussels and fishes along ~362 km of the densely sampled Grand River network as well as the outlets of 19 tributaries along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, USA. We detected a total of 21 mussel and 40 fish taxa, with distinctive composition of both mussel and fish assemblages across tributaries and differences in fish taxa between sampling periods. Notably, we detected more mussel taxa within the Grand River watershed than at the outlets of all 20 rivers combined. Within the Grand River network, two fish taxa (Pylodictus olivaris and Cyprinella) were found more frequently in areas of high mussel diversity, and three fish taxa more frequently in areas of low mussel diversity (Umbra, Leuciscidae, and Etheostoma). There was little difference between eDNA detections of mussels from samples collected in June versus August, but we detected significantly more fish taxa in August compared to June. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the value of eDNA metabarcoding for evaluating co-distribution of ecologically connected taxa. The use of eDNA as a tool for determining distributions of mussels and their obligate hosts may facilitate conservation efforts for these imperiled taxa. See manuscript.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Frid, Ori;
    Publisher: Dryad

    The positive effect of fully protected Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) on marine biodiversity, specifically on fishes, has been widely documented. In contrast, the potential of MPAs to mitigate the impact of adverse climatic conditions has seldom been investigated. Here, we assessed the effectiveness of MPAs, quantified as increasing fish biomass, across wide geographic and environmental gradients across the Mediterranean Sea. We performed underwater visual surveys within and outside MPAs to characterize fish assemblages in 52 rocky reef sites across an extent of over 3,300 km. We used the steep spatial temperature gradient across the Mediterranean as a 'space-for-time' substitution to infer climate-driven temporal changes. We found that, as expected, Mediterranean MPAs increased fish biomass. At the same time, higher seawater temperatures are associated with decreased fish biomass, changes in species composition, and shifts towards more thermophilic species. Importantly, we found that the rate of decrease in fish biomass with temperature was similar between protected and fished sites. Taken together, these results suggest that the capacity of MPAs to harbor higher fish biomass, compared to surrounding areas, is maintained across a broad temperature range. At the same time, MPAs will not be able to offset larger-scale biotic alterations associated with climate change. Policy implications: Our results suggest that sustained warming will likely reduce fish biomass in the Mediterranean Sea and shift community structure, requiring more conservative targets for fishery regulations. At the same time, protection from fishing will remain an important management tool even with future high-water temperatures, and MPAs are expected to continue to provide local-scale benefits to conservation and fisheries.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yates, Matthew;
    Publisher: Dryad

    Relating environmental DNA (eDNA) signal strength to organism abundance requires a fundamental understanding of eDNA production. A number of studies have demonstrated that eDNA production may scale allometrically – that is, larger organisms tend to exhibit lower mass-specific eDNA production rates, likely due to allometric scaling in key processes related to eDNA production (e.g. surface area, excretion/egestion). While most previous studies have examined intra-specific allometry, physiological rates and organism surface area also scale allometrically across species. We therefore hypothesize that eDNA production will similarly exhibit inter-specific allometric scaling. To evaluate this hypothesis, we reanalyzed previously published eDNA data from Stoeckle et al. (2021) which compared metabarcoding read count to organism count and biomass data obtained from trawl surveys off the New Jersey coast. Using a Bayesian model we empirically estimated the value of the allometric scaling coefficient (‘b’) for Northwestern Atlantic bony fishes to be 0.77 (credible interval = 0.64 – 0.92), although our model failed to converge for Chondrichthyan species. We found that integrating allometry significantly improved correlations between organism abundance and metabarcoding read count relative to traditional metrics of abundance (density and biomass) for bony fishes. Although substantial unexplained variation remains in the relationship between read count and organism abundance, our study provides evidence that eDNA production may scale allometrically across species in some contexts. Future studies investigating the relationship between eDNA signal strength and metrics of fish abundance could potentially be improved by accounting for allometry; to this end, we developed an online tool that can facilitate the integration of allometry in eDNA/abundance relationships. This is a curated dataset obtained from: Stoeckle, M.Y., Adolf, J., Charlop-powers, Z., Dunton, K.J., Hinks, G., and Vanmorter, S.M. 2021. Trawl and eDNA assessment of marine fish diversity, seasonality, and relative abundance in coastal New Jersey, USA. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 78(1): 293–304. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsaa225. We separated Chondrichtyan and Osteichthyan species into separate datasets, including only species which were detected using eDNA. Values of 0.001 were added to 'zeroes' for abundance data, due to the inclusion of a heteroscedastic residual error term in some of the models.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dagestad, Knut-Frode; Röhrs, Johannes;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Ocean drifters from oil-on-water exercise in North Sea (Frigg oil field) June 2019. Described in more detail in Brekke, C., Espeseth, M. M., Dagestad, K.-F., Röhrs, J., Hole, L. R., & Reigber, A. (2021). Integrated analysis of multisensor datasets and oil drift simulations - a free-floating oil experiment in the open ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126, e2020JC016499. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JC016499 Work is funded by grant no. 237906 (CIRFA) of the Norwegian Research Council. Work is funded by grant no. 237906 (CIRFA) of the Norwegian Research Council

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Waelbroeck, Claire; Tjiputra, Jerry; Guo, Chuncheng; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Jansen, Eystein; Vazquez Riveiros, Natalia; Toucanne, Samuel; Eynaud, Frédérique; Rossignol, Linda; Dewilde, Fabien; +3 more
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055), EC | ACCLIMATE (339108)

    We combine consistently dated benthic carbon isotopic records distributed over the entire Atlantic Ocean with numerical simulations performed by a glacial configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model with active ocean biogeochemistry, in order to interpret the observed Cibicides δ13C changes at the stadial-interstadial transition corresponding to the end of Heinrich Stadial 4 (HS4) in terms of ocean circulation and remineralization changes. We show that the marked increase in Cibicides δ13C observed at the end of HS4 between ~2000 and 4200 m in the Atlantic can be explained by changes in nutrient concentrations as simulated by the model in response to the halting of freshwater input in the high latitude glacial North Atlantic. Our model results show that this Cibicides δ13C signal is associated with changes in the ratio of southern-sourced (SSW) versus northern-sourced (NSW) water masses at the core sites, whereby SSW is replaced by NSW as a consequence of the resumption of deep water formation in the northern North Atlantic and Nordic Seas after the freshwater input is halted. Our results further suggest that the contribution of ocean circulation changes to this signal increases from ~40 % at 2000 m to ~80 % at 4000 m. Below ~4200 m, the model shows little ocean circulation change but an increase in remineralization across the transition marking the end of HS4. The simulated lower remineralization during stadials than interstadials is particularly pronounced in deep subantarctic sites, in agreement with the decrease in the export production of carbon to the deep Southern Ocean during stadials found in previous studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mruzek, Joseph; Budnick, William; Larson, Chad; Luc, Dinh; Passy, Sophia;
    Publisher: Dryad

    Aim: Niche and dispersal processes influence biodiversity, but their relative importance along latitude is unclear. We predicted that: i) niche processes would dominate at high latitudes due to increased climatic stress, consistent with the physiological tolerance hypothesis and the Dobzhansky-MacArthur hypothesis and ii) dispersal limitation would prevail at low latitudes due to narrower niches and smaller range sizes, as postulated by the dispersal-ecological specialization tradeoff hypothesis, the latitude-niche breadth hypothesis, and Rapoport’s rule. Location: Central United States Time Period: 1993-2019 Major taxa studied: Stream algae, insects, and fish Methods: We examined the relative effects of environment (climate and physicochemistry) vs. space on stream biodiversity in seven latitudinal zones, spanning 19 latitudinal degrees. In each zone, species richness (α-diversity) was analyzed with multiple regression and variance partitioning. Compositional dissimilarity (β-diversity) within zones was assessed with distance-based RDA and variance partitioning. Results: For α-diversity, latitudinal variability of niche and dispersal processes conformed to our predictions in all three groups, except for dispersal processes in insects. However, the drivers of β-diversity did not follow our predictions. The latitude-niche breadth hypothesis and Rapoport’s rule were weakly supported only in fish. Main Conclusions: The importance of niche and dispersal processes varied predictably along the latitudinal gradient only for α-diversity. However, the niche effects were driven mostly by physicochemistry, and the dispersal effects were not always linked with ecological specialization and range size. This suggests that climate-based biodiversity theories do not have particular relevance for the streams in our study. Niche processes had a greater impact than dispersal processes across species groups and diversity metrics, emphasizing the primary role of the environment. Datasets containing 2687 algal sites, 3809 insect sites, and 2753 fish sites from streams in the conterminous United States were used to measure species range size and niche breadth. Smaller subsets from the middle United States (349 algal, and 350 insect and fish sites) were used to determine the relative importance of niche and dispersal processes on α- and β-diversity along a latitudinal gradient, comprising seven latitudinal zones. Files can be accessed using Microsoft Excel and R.