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19 Research products, page 1 of 2

  • European Marine Science
  • Research data
  • Other research products
  • SpringerOpen

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  • Other research product . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Papandroulakis, Nikos; Thomsen, Claudia; Mintenbeck, Katja; Mayorga, Pedro; Hernández-Brito, José Joaquín;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Germany

    The global population is growing and the demand for food and energy is steadily increasing. Coastal space all over the world becomes increasingly limited and near-shore resources are often already heavily exploited. The use of offshore regions may provide new opportunities, but also involves major challenges such as the development of designs and technologies suitable for offshore condition. The floating TROPOS ‘Green & Blue’ modular multi-use platform concept introduced in this chapter is especially designed for offshore conditions and provides solutions for the problems and obstacles involved in “moving offshore”. The Green & Blue platform concept integrates fish and algae aquaculture with a wind farm. The floating multi-use approach allows for platform operation in deep waters and the promotion of synergies such as joint logistics, shared infrastructure and services, thereby making the use of offshore resources viable and profitable.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mudelsee, Manfred;
    Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Country: Germany

    Extremereignisse zeigen am augenfälligsten, wie verletzlich Deutschland gegenüber dem Klima und seinen Veränderungen ist. Betrachtet man Extremereignisse genauer, verursachten in den vergangenen 20 Jahren Hochwasser die größten Schäden (Ernst Rauch, Münchener Rückversicherungs-Gesellschaft, persönliche Mitteilung). In der Wissenschaft herrscht Einigkeit darüber, dass sich der zukünftige globale Wasserkreislauf durch steigende atmosphärische Treibhausgaskonzentrationen verändern wird (Kirtman et al. 2013). Doch selbst bei der vergleichsweise guten Datenlage für Deutschland ist es unsicher, ob sich die Auftrittsrate – die Anzahl an Ereignissen pro Jahr – von Hochwasser verändert (Trend), wie stark eventuell vorliegende Trends sind und wie stark der Klimawandel ursächlich einwirkt. Diese Zuschreibung der Ursachen wird als Attribution bezeichnet. Gleichzeitig bilden diese Informationen eine wichtige Grundlage für Entscheidungsträger, die über Mitigations- und Anpassungsstrategien befinden. Die damit verbundenen Unsicherheiten müssen daher möglichst transparent kommuniziert werden, um einen Umgang damit zu ermöglichen. Ihre Quellen und Ausmaße werden im Folgenden am Beispiel der Elbehochwasser ausführlich illustriert. Für die Elbe ist der Wissensstand aufgrund der guten Datenqualität und umfangreicher wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen relativ hoch. Für andere Flüsse (▶ Kap. 10) und andere Ereignistypen sind die Unsicherheiten zum Teil wesentlich größer.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Löder, Martin G. J.; Gerdts, Gunnar;
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: Germany

    Microplastics in aquatic ecosystems and especially in the marine environment represent a pollution of increasing scientific and societal concern, thus, meanwhile a substantial number of studies on microplastics exist. Although first steps towards a standardisation of methodologies used for the detection and identification of microplastics in environmental samples are made, the comparability of data on microplastics is currently hampered by a huge variety of different methodologies which result in the generation of data of extremely different quality and resolution. This chapter reviews the methodology presently used for assessing the concentration of microplastics in the marine environment with focus on the most convenient techniques and approaches. After an overview of non-selective sampling approaches, sample processing and treatment in the laboratory, the reader is introduced to the currently applied techniques for the identification and quantification of microplastics. The subsequent case study on microplastics in sediment samples from the North Sea measured with focal plane array (FPA)-based micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy shows that only 1.4 % of the particles visually resembling microplastics were of synthetic polymer origin. This finding emphasizes the importance of verifying the synthetic polymer origin of potential microplastics. Thus, a burning issue concerning current microplastic research is the generation of standards that allow for the assessment of reliable data on concentrations of microscopic plastic particles and the involved polymers with analytical laboratory techniques such as micro-FTIR or micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  • Other research product . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kiessling, Tim; Gutow, Lars; Thiel, Martin;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Germany

    Floating anthropogenic litter provides habitat for a diverse community of marine organisms. A total of 387 taxa, including pro- and eukaryotic micro-organisms, seaweeds and invertebrates, have been found rafting on floating litter in all major oceanic regions. Among the invertebrates, species of bryozoans, crustaceans, molluscs and cnidarians are most frequently reported as rafters on marine litter. Microorganisms are also ubiquitous on marine litter although the composition of the microbial community seems to depend on specific substratum characteristics such as the polymer type of floating plastic items. Sessile suspension feeders are particularly well-adapted to the limited autochthonous food resources on artificial floating substrata and an extended planktonic larval development seems to facilitate colonization of floating litter at sea. Properties of floating litter, such as size and surface rugosity, are crucial for colonization by marine organisms and the subsequent succession of the rafting community. The rafters themselves affect substratum characteristics such as floating stability, buoyancy, and degradation. Under the influence of currents and winds marine litter can transport associated organisms over extensive distances. Because of the great persistence (especially of plastics) and the vast quantities of litter in the world’s oceans, rafting dispersal has become more prevalent in the marine environment, potentially facilitating the spread of invasive species.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Karlsson, Mikael; Gilek, Michael; Lundberg, Cecilia;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Linke, Sebastian; Gilek, Michael; Karlsson, Mikael;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Project: EC | BONUS+ (217246)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gilek, Michael; Karlsson, Mikael;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Project: EC | BONUS+ (217246)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sellke, Piet; Dreyer, Marion; Linke, Sebastian;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Project: EC | BONUS+ (217246)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Boström, Magnus; Grönholm, Sam; Hassler, Björn;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Project: EC | BONUS+ (217246)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jönsson, Anna Maria; Boström, Magnus; Dreyer, Marion; Söderström, Sara;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Project: EC | BONUS+ (217246)