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  • European Marine Science
  • 2014-2023
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  • Atmospheric Measurement Techniques ...
  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: A. Waza; K. Schneiders; J. May; S. Rodríguez; +4 Authors

    Frequently, passive dry deposition collectors are used to sample atmospheric dust deposition. However, there exists a multitude of different instruments with different, usually not well-characterized sampling efficiencies. As a result, the acquired data might be considerably biased with respect to their size representativity and, as a consequence, also composition. In this study, individual particle analysis by automated scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was used to characterize different, commonly used passive samplers with respect to their size-resolved deposition rate and concentration. This study focuses on the microphysical properties, i.e., the aerosol concentration and deposition rates as well as the particle size distributions. In addition, computational fluid dynamics modeling was used in parallel to achieve deposition velocities from a theoretical point of view. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-calculated deposition rate measurements made using different passive samplers show a disagreement among the samplers. Modified Wilson and Cooke (MWAC) and Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) – both horizontal flux samplers – collect considerably more material than the flat plate and Sigma-2 samplers, which are vertical flux samplers. The collection efficiency of MWAC increases for large particles in comparison to Sigma-2 with increasing wind speed, while such an increase is less observed in the case of BSNE. A positive correlation is found between deposition rate and PM10 concentration measurements by an optical particle spectrometer. The results indicate that a BSNE and Sigma-2 can be good options for PM10 measurement, whereas MWAC and flat-plate samplers are not a suitable choice. A negative correlation was observed in between dust deposition rate and wind speed. Deposition velocities calculated from different classical deposition models do not agree with deposition velocities estimated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The deposition velocity estimated from CFD was often higher than the values derived from classical deposition velocity models. Moreover, the modeled deposition velocity ratios between different samplers do not agree with the observations. This research has been supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) (grant nos. 264907654, 264912134 and 416816480 (KA 2280)).

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    https://doi.org/10.25534/tupri...
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . Preprint
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ
    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ tuprintsarrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.25534/tupri...
      Article . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
      Preprint . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . Preprint
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      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: A. D. Harrison; T. F. Whale; T. F. Whale; R. Rutledge; +7 Authors

    Low concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are thought to be important for the properties of mixed-phase clouds, but their detection is challenging. Hence, there is a need for instruments where INP concentrations of less than 0.01 L−1 can be routinely and efficiently determined. The use of larger volumes of suspension in drop assays increases the sensitivity of an experiment to rarer INPs or rarer active sites due to the increase in aerosol or surface area of particulates per droplet. Here we describe and characterise the InfraRed-Nucleation by Immersed Particles Instrument (IR-NIPI), a new immersion freezing assay that makes use of IR emissions to determine the freezing temperature of individual 50 µL droplets each contained in a well of a 96-well plate. Using an IR camera allows the temperature of individual aliquots to be monitored. Freezing temperatures are determined by detecting the sharp rise in well temperature associated with the release of heat caused by freezing. In this paper we first present the calibration of the IR temperature measurement, which makes use of the fact that following ice nucleation aliquots of water warm to the ice–liquid equilibrium temperature (i.e. 0 ∘C when water activity is ∼1), which provides a point of calibration for each individual well in each experiment. We then tested the temperature calibration using ∼100 µm chips of K-feldspar, by immersing these chips in 1 µL droplets on an established cold stage (µL-NIPI) as well as in 50 µL droplets on IR-NIPI; the results were consistent with one another, indicating no bias in the reported freezing temperature. In addition we present measurements of the efficiency of the mineral dust NX-illite and a sample of atmospheric aerosol collected on a filter in the city of Leeds. NX-illite results are consistent with literature data, and the atmospheric INP concentrations were in good agreement with the results from the µL-NIPI instrument. This demonstrates the utility of this approach, which offers a relatively high throughput of sample analysis and access to low INP concentrations.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . Preprint
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    Article . 2018
    Data sources: DOAJ
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    Other literature type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
      Preprint . 2018
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Roscoe, H. K.; Roozendael, M.; Fayt, C.; Piesanie, A.; +47 Authors

    In June 2009, 22 spectrometers from 14 institutes measured tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 from the ground for more than 11 days during the Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI), at Cabauw, NL (51.97° N, 4.93° E). All visible instruments used a common wavelength range and set of cross sections for the spectral analysis. Most of the instruments were of the multi-axis design with analysis by differential spectroscopy software (MAX-DOAS), whose non-zenith slant columns were compared by examining slopes of their least-squares straight line fits to mean values of a selection of instruments, after taking 30-min averages. Zenith slant columns near twilight were compared by fits to interpolated values of a reference instrument, then normalised by the mean of the slopes of the best instruments. For visible MAX-DOAS instruments, the means of the fitted slopes for NO2 and O4 of all except one instrument were within 10% of unity at almost all non-zenith elevations, and most were within 5%. Values for UV MAX-DOAS instruments were almost as good, being 12% and 7%, respectively. For visible instruments at zenith near twilight, the means of the fitted slopes of all instruments were within 5% of unity. This level of agreement is as good as that of previous intercomparisons, despite the site not being ideal for zenith twilight measurements. It bodes well for the future of measurements of tropospheric NO2, as previous intercomparisons were only for zenith instruments focussing on stratospheric NO2, with their longer heritage.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospheric Measurem...arrow_drop_down
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2018
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Schönhardt, A.; Altube, P.; Gerilowski, K.; Krautwurst, S.; +4 Authors

    The Airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) has been developed for the purpose of trace gas measurements and pollution mapping. The instrument has been characterized and successfully operated from aircraft. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns were retrieved from the AirMAP observations. A major benefit of the push-broom imaging instrument is the spatially continuous, gap-free measurement sequence independent of flight altitude, a valuable characteristic for mapping purposes. This is made possible by the use of a charge coupled device (CCD) frame-transfer detector. A broad field of view across track of around 48° is achieved with wide-angle entrance optics. This leads to a swath width of about the same size as the flight altitude. The use of fibre coupled light intake optics with sorted light fibres allows flexible instrument positioning within the aircraft and retains the very good imaging capabilities. The measurements yield ground spatial resolutions below 100 m depending on flight altitude. The number of viewing directions is chosen from a maximum of 35 individual viewing directions (lines of sight, LOS) represented by 35 individual fibres. The selection is adapted to each situation by averaging according to signal-to-noise or spatial resolution requirements. Observations at 30 m spatial resolution are obtained when flying at 1000 m altitude and making use of all 35 viewing directions. This makes the instrument a suitable tool for mapping trace gas point sources and small-scale variability. The position and aircraft attitude are taken into account for accurate spatial mapping using the Attitude and Heading Reference System of the aircraft. A first demonstration mission using AirMAP was undertaken in June 2011. AirMAP was operated on the AWI Polar-5 aircraft in the framework of the AIRMETH-2011 campaign. During a flight above a medium-sized coal-fired power plant in north-west Germany, AirMAP clearly detected the emission plume downwind from the exhaust stack, with NO2 vertical columns around 2 × 1016 molecules cm−2 in the plume centre. NOx emissions estimated from the AirMAP observations are consistent with reports in the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register. Strong spatial gradients and variability in NO2 amounts across and along flight direction are observed, and small-scale enhancements of NO2 above a motorway are detected.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: A. Waza; K. Schneiders; J. May; S. Rodríguez; +4 Authors

    Frequently, passive dry deposition collectors are used to sample atmospheric dust deposition. However, there exists a multitude of different instruments with different, usually not well-characterized sampling efficiencies. As a result, the acquired data might be considerably biased with respect to their size representativity and, as a consequence, also composition. In this study, individual particle analysis by automated scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was used to characterize different, commonly used passive samplers with respect to their size-resolved deposition rate and concentration. This study focuses on the microphysical properties, i.e., the aerosol concentration and deposition rates as well as the particle size distributions. In addition, computational fluid dynamics modeling was used in parallel to achieve deposition velocities from a theoretical point of view. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-calculated deposition rate measurements made using different passive samplers show a disagreement among the samplers. Modified Wilson and Cooke (MWAC) and Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) – both horizontal flux samplers – collect considerably more material than the flat plate and Sigma-2 samplers, which are vertical flux samplers. The collection efficiency of MWAC increases for large particles in comparison to Sigma-2 with increasing wind speed, while such an increase is less observed in the case of BSNE. A positive correlation is found between deposition rate and PM10 concentration measurements by an optical particle spectrometer. The results indicate that a BSNE and Sigma-2 can be good options for PM10 measurement, whereas MWAC and flat-plate samplers are not a suitable choice. A negative correlation was observed in between dust deposition rate and wind speed. Deposition velocities calculated from different classical deposition models do not agree with deposition velocities estimated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The deposition velocity estimated from CFD was often higher than the values derived from classical deposition velocity models. Moreover, the modeled deposition velocity ratios between different samplers do not agree with the observations. This research has been supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) (grant nos. 264907654, 264912134 and 416816480 (KA 2280)).

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.25534/tupri...
    Article . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ
    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ tuprintsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.25534/tupri...
      Article . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
      Preprint . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      Article . 2019
      Data sources: DOAJ
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      Other literature type . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: A. D. Harrison; T. F. Whale; T. F. Whale; R. Rutledge; +7 Authors

    Low concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are thought to be important for the properties of mixed-phase clouds, but their detection is challenging. Hence, there is a need for instruments where INP concentrations of less than 0.01 L−1 can be routinely and efficiently determined. The use of larger volumes of suspension in drop assays increases the sensitivity of an experiment to rarer INPs or rarer active sites due to the increase in aerosol or surface area of particulates per droplet. Here we describe and characterise the InfraRed-Nucleation by Immersed Particles Instrument (IR-NIPI), a new immersion freezing assay that makes use of IR emissions to determine the freezing temperature of individual 50 µL droplets each contained in a well of a 96-well plate. Using an IR camera allows the temperature of individual aliquots to be monitored. Freezing temperatures are determined by detecting the sharp rise in well temperature associated with the release of heat caused by freezing. In this paper we first present the calibration of the IR temperature measurement, which makes use of the fact that following ice nucleation aliquots of water warm to the ice–liquid equilibrium temperature (i.e. 0 ∘C when water activity is ∼1), which provides a point of calibration for each individual well in each experiment. We then tested the temperature calibration using ∼100 µm chips of K-feldspar, by immersing these chips in 1 µL droplets on an established cold stage (µL-NIPI) as well as in 50 µL droplets on IR-NIPI; the results were consistent with one another, indicating no bias in the reported freezing temperature. In addition we present measurements of the efficiency of the mineral dust NX-illite and a sample of atmospheric aerosol collected on a filter in the city of Leeds. NX-illite results are consistent with literature data, and the atmospheric INP concentrations were in good agreement with the results from the µL-NIPI instrument. This demonstrates the utility of this approach, which offers a relatively high throughput of sample analysis and access to low INP concentrations.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
    Preprint . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: DOAJ
    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2019
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-20...
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
      Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
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      Copernicus Publications
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    Authors: Roscoe, H. K.; Roozendael, M.; Fayt, C.; Piesanie, A.; +47 Authors

    In June 2009, 22 spectrometers from 14 institutes measured tropospheric and stratospheric NO2 from the ground for more than 11 days during the Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI), at Cabauw, NL (51.97° N, 4.93° E). All visible instruments used a common wavelength range and set of cross sections for the spectral analysis. Most of the instruments were of the multi-axis design with analysis by differential spectroscopy software (MAX-DOAS), whose non-zenith slant columns were compared by examining slopes of their least-squares straight line fits to mean values of a selection of instruments, after taking 30-min averages. Zenith slant columns near twilight were compared by fits to interpolated values of a reference instrument, then normalised by the mean of the slopes of the best instruments. For visible MAX-DOAS instruments, the means of the fitted slopes for NO2 and O4 of all except one instrument were within 10% of unity at almost all non-zenith elevations, and most were within 5%. Values for UV MAX-DOAS instruments were almost as good, being 12% and 7%, respectively. For visible instruments at zenith near twilight, the means of the fitted slopes of all instruments were within 5% of unity. This level of agreement is as good as that of previous intercomparisons, despite the site not being ideal for zenith twilight measurements. It bodes well for the future of measurements of tropospheric NO2, as previous intercomparisons were only for zenith instruments focussing on stratospheric NO2, with their longer heritage.

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    Copernicus Publications
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    Authors: Schönhardt, A.; Altube, P.; Gerilowski, K.; Krautwurst, S.; +4 Authors

    The Airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) has been developed for the purpose of trace gas measurements and pollution mapping. The instrument has been characterized and successfully operated from aircraft. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns were retrieved from the AirMAP observations. A major benefit of the push-broom imaging instrument is the spatially continuous, gap-free measurement sequence independent of flight altitude, a valuable characteristic for mapping purposes. This is made possible by the use of a charge coupled device (CCD) frame-transfer detector. A broad field of view across track of around 48° is achieved with wide-angle entrance optics. This leads to a swath width of about the same size as the flight altitude. The use of fibre coupled light intake optics with sorted light fibres allows flexible instrument positioning within the aircraft and retains the very good imaging capabilities. The measurements yield ground spatial resolutions below 100 m depending on flight altitude. The number of viewing directions is chosen from a maximum of 35 individual viewing directions (lines of sight, LOS) represented by 35 individual fibres. The selection is adapted to each situation by averaging according to signal-to-noise or spatial resolution requirements. Observations at 30 m spatial resolution are obtained when flying at 1000 m altitude and making use of all 35 viewing directions. This makes the instrument a suitable tool for mapping trace gas point sources and small-scale variability. The position and aircraft attitude are taken into account for accurate spatial mapping using the Attitude and Heading Reference System of the aircraft. A first demonstration mission using AirMAP was undertaken in June 2011. AirMAP was operated on the AWI Polar-5 aircraft in the framework of the AIRMETH-2011 campaign. During a flight above a medium-sized coal-fired power plant in north-west Germany, AirMAP clearly detected the emission plume downwind from the exhaust stack, with NO2 vertical columns around 2 × 1016 molecules cm−2 in the plume centre. NOx emissions estimated from the AirMAP observations are consistent with reports in the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register. Strong spatial gradients and variability in NO2 amounts across and along flight direction are observed, and small-scale enhancements of NO2 above a motorway are detected.

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    DOAJ
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