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273 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2022-2022
  • Publications
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hagen Buck-Wiese; Mona A. Andskog; Nguyen P. Nguyen; Margot Bligh; +5 Authors

    Brown algae annually convert gigatons of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, including the complex extracellular matrix polysaccharide fucoidan. Due to its persistence in the environment, fucoidan is potentially a pathway for marine carbon sequestration. Rates of fucoidan secretion by brown algae remain unknown due to the challenge of identifying and quantifying complex polysaccharides in seawater. We adapted the techniques of anion exchange chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and biocatalytic enzyme-based assay for detection and quantification of fucoidan. We found the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus at the Baltic Sea coast of south-west Finland to secrete 0.3% of their biomass as fucoidan per day. Dissolved fucoidan concentrations in seawater adjacent to algae reached up to 0.48 mg L −1 . Fucoidan accumulated during incubations of F. vesiculosus , significantly more in light than in darkness. Maximum estimation by acid hydrolysis indicated fucoidan secretion at a rate of 28 to 40 mg C kg −1 h −1 , accounting for 44 to 50% of all exuded dissolved organic carbon. Composed only of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur, fucoidan secretion does not consume nutrients enabling carbon sequestration independent of algal growth. Extrapolated over a year, the algae sequester more carbon into secreted fucoidan than their biomass. The global utility of fucoidan secretion is an alternative pathway for carbon dioxide removal by brown algae without the need to harvest or bury algal biomass.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Proceedings of the N...arrow_drop_down
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Proceedings of the N...arrow_drop_down
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rebecca S. Chen; Carl D. Soulsbury; Christophe Lebigre; Gilbert Ludwig; +2 Authors

    AbstractIntensive hunting activities such as commercial fishing and trophy hunting can have profound influences on natural populations. However, less intensive recreational hunting can also have subtle effects on animal behaviour, habitat use and movement, with implications for population persistence. Lekking species such as the black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) may be especially prone to hunting as leks are temporally and spatially predictable, making them easy targets. Furthermore, inbreeding in black grouse is mainly avoided through female‐biased dispersal, so any disruptions to dispersal caused by hunting could lead to changes in gene flow, increasing the risk of inbreeding. We therefore investigated the impact of hunting on genetic diversity, inbreeding and dispersal on a metapopulation of black grouse in Central Finland. We genotyped 1065 adult males and 813 adult females from twelve lekking sites (six hunted, six unhunted) and 200 unrelated chicks from seven sites (two hunted, five unhunted) at up to thirteen microsatellite loci. Our initial confirmatory analysis of sex‐specific fine‐scale population structure revealed little genetic structure in the metapopulation. Levels of inbreeding did not differ significantly between hunted and unhunted sites in neither adults nor chicks. However, immigration rates into hunted sites were significantly higher among adults compared to immigration into unhunted sites. We conclude that the influx of migrants into hunted sites may compensate for the loss of harvested individuals, thereby increasing gene flow and mitigating inbreeding. Given the absence of any obvious barriers to gene flow in Central Finland, a spatially heterogeneous matrix of hunted and unhunted regions may be crucial to ensure sustainable harvests into the future.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Evolutionary Applications
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: VIRTA
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    Evolutionary Applications
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Publications at Bielefeld University
    Other literature type . 2022
    License: "In Copyright" Rights Statement
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
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      NERC Open Research Archive
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Evolutionary Applications
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: VIRTA
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Evolutionary Applications
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Publications at Bielefeld University
      Other literature type . 2022
      License: "In Copyright" Rights Statement
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rowell, Isobel; Martin, Carlos; Mulvaney, Robert; Pryer, Helena; +5 Authors

    Abstract. Few ice cores from the Amundsen Sea and Bellingshausen Sea sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) extend back in time further than a few hundred years. The WAIS is believed to be susceptible to collapse as a result of anthropogenic climate change and may have at least partially collapsed during the Last Interglacial (LIG) period. Understanding the stability of the WAIS during warm periods such as the LIG and Holocene is important. As part of the WACSWAIN (WArm Climate Stability of the West Antarctic ice sheet in the last INterglacial) project, the British Antarctic Survey's (BAS) Rapid Access Isotope Drill (RAID) was deployed in 2020 on Sherman Island in the Abbot Ice Shelf, West Antarctica. We drilled a 323 m deep borehole, with discrete samples of ice chippings collected that cover the entire depth range of the drilled ice. The samples were analysed for stable water isotope composition and major ion content at BAS from 2020–2022. Using annual layer counting of chemical records, volcanic horizon identification and ice modelling, an age scale for the record of 1724 discrete samples is presented. The Sherman Island ice record extends back to greater than 1240 years, providing the oldest, continuous ice-derived palaeoclimate records in the coastal Amundsen and Bellingshausen Sea sectors to date. We demonstrate the potential for recovery of a complete Holocene climate record from Sherman Island in the future and confidence in the ability of RAID samples to contain sufficiently resolved records for meaningful climatic interpretation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Other literature type . 2023
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-202...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Other literature type . 2022
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NERC Open Research A...arrow_drop_down
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      NERC Open Research Archive
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Other literature type . 2023
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-202...
      Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Other literature type . 2022
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Apollo
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    Authors: J. Muchowski; L. Arneborg; L. Umlauf; P. Holtermann; +4 Authors

    AbstractDiapycnal mixing impacts vertical transport rates of salt, heat, and other dissolved substances, essential for the overturning circulation and ecosystem functioning in marine systems. While most studies have focused on mixing induced by individual obstacles in tidal flows, we investigate the net effect of non‐tidal flow over multiple small‐scale (<1 km) bathymetric features penetrating a strongly‐stratified density interface in a coastal region. We combine high‐resolution broadband acoustic observations of turbulence microstructure with traditional shear microstructure profiling, to resolve the variability and intermittency of stratified turbulence related to the rough bathymetry. Scale analysis and acoustic imaging suggest that underlying mixing mechanisms are related to topographic wake eddies and breaking internal waves. Depth averaged dissipation rates (1.1 × 10−7 Wkg−1) and turbulent vertical diffusivities (7 × 10−4 m2s−1) in the halocline exceed reference values by two orders of magnitude. Our study emphasizes the importance of rough small‐scale bathymetric features for the vertical transport of salt in coastal areas.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geophysical Research...arrow_drop_down
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    Geophysical Research Letters
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Geophysical Research Letters
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Steins, Nathalie A.; Mackinson, Steven; Mangi, Stephen C.; Pastoors, Martin A.; +9 Authors

    For future sustainable management of fisheries, we anticipate deeper and more diverse information will be needed. Future needs include not only biological data, but also information that can only come from fishers, such as real-time ‘early warning’ indicators of changes at sea, socio-economic data and fishing strategies. The fishing industry, in our experience, shows clear willingness to voluntarily contribute data and experiential knowledge, but there is little evidence that current institutional frameworks for science and management are receptive and equipped to accommodate such contributions. Current approaches to producing knowledge in support of fisheries management need critical re-evaluation, including the contributions that industry can make. Using examples from well-developed advisory systems in Europe, United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, we investigate evidence for three interrelated issues inhibiting systematic integration of voluntary industry contributions to science: (1) concerns about data quality; (2) beliefs about limitations in useability of unique fishers’ knowledge; and (3) perceptions about the impact of industry contributions on the integrity of science. We show that whilst these issues are real, they can be addressed. Entrenching effective science-industry research collaboration (SIRC) calls for action in three specific areas; (i) a move towards alternative modes of knowledge production; (ii) establishing appropriate quality assurance frameworks; and (iii) transitioning to facilitating governance structures. Attention must also be paid to the science-policy-stakeholder interface. Better definition of industry’s role in contributing to science will improve credibility and legitimacy of the scientific process, and of resulting management.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2022
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    Frontiers in Marine Science
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Marine Science
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    Authors: Bergler, Christian; Smeele, Simeon Q; Tyndel, Stephen A; Barnhill, Alexander; +11 Authors

    Bioacoustic research spans a wide range of biological questions and applications, relying on identification of target species or smaller acoustic units, such as distinct call types. However, manually identifying the signal of interest is time-intensive, error-prone, and becomes unfeasible with large data volumes. Therefore, machine-driven algorithms are increasingly applied to various bioacoustic signal identification challenges. Nevertheless, biologists still have major difficulties trying to transfer existing animal- and/or scenario-related machine learning approaches to their specific animal datasets and scientific questions. This study presents an animal-independent, open-source deep learning framework, along with a detailed user guide. Three signal identification tasks, commonly encountered in bioacoustics research, were investigated: (1) target signal vs. background noise detection, (2) species classification, and (3) call type categorization. ANIMAL-SPOT successfully segmented humanannotated target signals in data volumes representing 10 distinct animal species and 1 additional genus, resulting in a mean test accuracy of 97.9%, together with an average area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 95.9%, when predicting on unseen recordings. Moreover, an average segmentation accuracy and F1-score of 95.4% was achieved on the publicly available BirdVox-Full-Night data corpus. In addition, multi-class species and call type classification resulted in 96.6% and 92.7% accuracy on unseen test data, as well as 95.2% and 88.4% regarding previous animal-specific machine-based detection excerpts. Furthermore, an Unweighted Average Recall (UAR) of 89.3% outperformed the multi-species classification baseline system of the ComParE 2021 Primate Sub-Challenge. Besides animal independence, ANIMAL-SPOT does not rely on expert knowledge or special computing resources, thereby making deep-learning-based bioacoustic signal identification accessible to a broad audience. 1-16 140

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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Scientific Reports
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      MPG.PuRe
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    Authors: R J Shellock; C Cvitanovic; M C McKinnon; M Mackay; +41 Authors

    AbstractDiverse and inclusive marine research is paramount to addressing ocean sustainability challenges in the 21st century, as envisioned by the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. Despite increasing efforts to diversify ocean science, women continue to face barriers at various stages of their career, which inhibits their progression to leadership within academic institutions. In this perspective, we draw on the collective experiences of thirty-four global women leaders, bolstered by a narrative review, to identify practical strategies and actions that will help empower early career women researchers to become the leaders of tomorrow. We propose five strategies: (i) create a more inclusive culture, (ii) ensure early and equitable career development opportunities for women ECRs, (iii) ensure equitable access to funding for women ECRs, (iv) offer mentoring opportunities and, (v) create flexible, family-friendly environments. Transformational, meaningful, and lasting change will only be achieved through commitment and collaborative action across various scales and by multiple stakeholders.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2023
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    ICES Journal of Marine Science
    Article . 2022 . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Brage IMR
    Article . 2023
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      ICES Journal of Marine Science
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      Brage IMR
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Kim, Hyun Jung; Li, Zhun; Gu, Haifeng; Mertens, Kenneth; +7 Authors

    Six strains of three different Gonyaulax species were established by isolating cells from the Korean coastal area and the East China Sea, and their morphologies and molecular phylogenies based on SSU and LSU rRNA gene sequences were examined. In addition, the growth responses of the Gonyaulax species to changes in temperature and salinity were investigated. Based on morphological features and phylogenetic positions, Gonyaulax whaseongensis and G. polygramma were identified, and G. geomunensis sp. nov. is proposed in this study. These species displayed the plate formula typical for Gonyaulax, but G. polygramma and G. geomunensis sometimes showed a small intercalary plate (1a) surrounded by plates 2’, *3’ and 3’’. G. geomunensis was morphologically characterized by an S-type ventral organization, descending with a displacement of one cingulum width and bearing one, two or three prominent antapical spines of similar size. The cell surface, which was distinct from other Gonyaulax species, was thick and heavily reticulated into numerous polygonal areas. The reticulation was deeply excavated. The phylogenetics revealed that G. geomunensis and G. whaseongensis belong to different clades, and that there are two ribotypes of G. polygramma, which were morphologically indistinguishable. These species had a close phylogenetic relationship to G. hyalina, and all of them were characterized by dextral torsion. G. whaseongensis, G. polygramma and G. geomunensis had different growth responses to changes of temperature and salinity, respectively, indicating that morphological and phylogenetic identification of Gonyaulax species can be supported by ecological niches.

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    Phycologia
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kevin K. Newsham; Birgitte Kortegaard Danielsen; Elisabeth Machteld Biersma; Bo Elberling; +5 Authors

    The influence of climate change on microbial communities inhabiting the sparsely vegetated patterned ground soils that are widespread across the High Arctic is poorly understood. Here, in a four-year experiment on Svalbard, we warmed patterned ground soil with open top chambers and biannually irrigated the soil to predict the responses of its microbial community to rising temperatures and precipitation. A 1 °C rise in summertime soil temperature caused 44% and 78% increases in CO2 efflux and CH 4 consumption, respectively, and a 32% increase in the frequency of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Bacterial alpha diversity was unaffected by the treatments, but, of the 40 most frequent bacterial taxa, warming caused 44-45% reductions in the relative abundances of a Sphingomonas sp. and Ferruginibacter sp. and 33-91% increases in those of a Phenylobacterium sp. and a member of the Acetobacteraceae. Warming did not influence the frequency of fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 copies, and irrigation had no effects on the measured variables. Our study suggests rapid changes to the activities and abundances of microbes, and particularly bacteria, in High Arctic patterned ground soils as they warm. At current rates of soil warming on Svalbard (0.8 °C per decade), we anticipate that similar effects to those reported here will manifest themselves in the natural environment by approximately the mid 2030s.

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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Biology
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Biology
    Article . 2022
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      NERC Open Research Archive
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biology
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Biology
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gunter Stober; Alan Liu; Alexander Kozlovsky; Zishun Qiao; +10 Authors

    The Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha′apai volcano eruption was a unique event that caused many atmospheric phenomena around the globe. In this study, we investigate the atmospheric gravity waves in the mesosphere/lower-thermosphere (MLT) launched by the volcanic explosion in the Pacific, leveraging multistatic meteor radar observations from the Chilean Observation Network De Meteor Radars (CONDOR) and the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster in Fennoscandia. MLT winds are computed using a recently developed 3DVAR+DIV algorithm. We found eastward- and westward-traveling gravity waves in the CONDOR zonal and meridional wind measurements, which arrived 12 and 48 h after the eruption, and we found one in the Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster that arrived 27.5 h after the volcanic detonation. We obtained observed phase speeds for the eastward great circle path at both locations of about 250 m s−1, and they were 170–150 m s−1 for the opposite propagation direction. The intrinsic phase speed was estimated to be 200–212 m s−1. Furthermore, we identified a potential lamb wave signature in the MLT winds using 5 min resolved 3DVAR+DIV retrievals.

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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.48350/18182...
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
    Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48350/17553...
    Research . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2023
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    Fraunhofer-ePrints
    Other literature type . 2023
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.48350/18182...
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/egusph...
      Preprint . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.48350/17553...
      Research . 2022
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      Copernicus Publications
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hagen Buck-Wiese; Mona A. Andskog; Nguyen P. Nguyen; Margot Bligh; +5 Authors

    Brown algae annually convert gigatons of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, including the complex extracellular matrix polysaccharide fucoidan. Due to its persistence in the environment, fucoidan is potentially a pathway for marine carbon sequestration. Rates of fucoidan secretion by brown algae remain unknown due to the challenge of identifying and quantifying complex polysaccharides in seawater. We adapted the techniques of anion exchange chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and biocatalytic enzyme-based assay for detection and quantification of fucoidan. We found the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus at the Baltic Sea coast of south-west Finland to secrete 0.3% of their biomass as fucoidan per day. Dissolved fucoidan concentrations in seawater adjacent to algae reached up to 0.48 mg L −1 . Fucoidan accumulated during incubations of F. vesiculosus , significantly more in light than in darkness. Maximum estimation by acid hydrolysis indicated fucoidan secretion at a rate of 28 to 40 mg C kg −1 h −1 , accounting for 44 to 50% of all exuded dissolved organic carbon. Composed only of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur, fucoidan secretion does not consume nutrients enabling carbon sequestration independent of algal growth. Extrapolated over a year, the algae sequester more carbon into secreted fucoidan than their biomass. The global utility of fucoidan secretion is an alternative pathway for carbon dioxide removal by brown algae without the need to harvest or bury algal biomass.

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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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