Hiba Mohammed Taha; Reza Aalizadeh; Nikiforos Alygizakis; Jean-Philippe Antignac; Hans Peter H. Arp; Richard Bade; Nancy Baker; Lidia Belova; Lubertus Bijlsma; Evan E. Bolton; +87 more
Hiba Mohammed Taha; Reza Aalizadeh; Nikiforos Alygizakis; Jean-Philippe Antignac; Hans Peter H. Arp; Richard Bade; Nancy Baker; Lidia Belova; Lubertus Bijlsma; Evan E. Bolton; Werner Brack; Alberto Celma; Wen-Ling Chen; Tiejun Cheng; Parviel Chirsir; Ľuboš Čirka; Lisa A. D’Agostino; Yannick Djoumbou Feunang; Valeria Dulio; Stellan Fischer; Pablo Gago-Ferrero; Aikaterini Galani; Birgit Geueke; Natalia Głowacka; Juliane Glüge; Ksenia Groh; Sylvia Grosse; Peter Haglund; Pertti J. Hakkinen; Sarah E. Hale; Felix Hernandez; Elisabeth M.-L. Janssen; Tim Jonkers; Karin Kiefer; Michal Kirchner; Jan Koschorreck; Martin Krauss; Jessy Krier; Marja H. Lamoree; Marion Letzel; Thomas Letzel; Qingliang Li; James Little; Yanna Liu; David M. Lunderberg; Jonathan W. Martin; Andrew D. McEachran; John A. McLean; Christiane Meier; Jeroen Meijer; Frank Menger; Carla Merino; Jane Muncke; Matthias Muschket; Michael Neumann; Vanessa Neveu; Kelsey Ng; Herbert Oberacher; Jake O’Brien; Peter Oswald; Martina Oswaldova; Jaqueline A. Picache; Cristina Postigo; Noelia Ramirez; Thorsten Reemtsma; Justin Renaud; Pawel Rostkowski; Heinz Rüdel; Reza M. Salek; Saer Samanipour; Martin Scheringer; Ivo Schliebner; Wolfgang Schulz; Tobias Schulze; Manfred Sengl; Benjamin A. Shoemaker; Kerry Sims; Heinz Singer; Randolph R. Singh; Mark Sumarah; Paul A. Thiessen; Kevin V. Thomas; Sonia Torres; Xenia Trier; Annemarie P. van Wezel; Roel C. H. Vermeulen; Jelle J. Vlaanderen; Peter C. von der Ohe; Zhanyun Wang; Antony J. Williams; Egon L. Willighagen; David S. Wishart; Jian Zhang; Nikolaos S. Thomaidis; Juliane Hollender; Jaroslav Slobodnik; Emma L. Schymanski;
Background: The NORMAN Association (https://www.norman-.network.com/) initiated the NORMAN Suspect List Exchange (NORMAN-SLE; https://www.norman-.network.com/nds/SLE/) in 2015, following the NORMAN collaborative trial on non-target screening of environmental water samples by mass spectrometry. Since then, this exchange of information on chemicals that are expected to occur in the environment, along with the accompanying expert knowledge and references, has become a valuable knowledge base for "suspect screening" lists. The NORMAN-SLE now serves as a FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) chemical information resource worldwide. Results: The NORMAN-SLE contains 99 separate suspect list collections (as of May 2022) from over 70 contributors around the world, totalling over 100,000 unique substances. The substance classes include per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), pharmaceuticals, pesticides, natural toxins, high production volume substances covered under the European REACH regulation (EC: 1272/2008), priority contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and regulatory lists from NORMAN partners. Several lists focus on transformation products (TPs) and complex features detected in the environment with various levels of provenance and structural information. Each list is available for separate download. The merged, curated collection is also available as the NORMAN Substance Database (NORMAN SusDat). Both the NORMAN-SLE and NORMAN SusDat are integrated within the NORMAN Database System (NDS). The individual NORMAN-SLE lists receive digital object identifiers (DOIs) and traceable versioning via a Zenodo community (https://zenodo.org/communities/norman-.sle), with a total of > 40,000 unique views, > 50,000 unique downloads and 40 citations (May 2022). NORMAN-SLE content is progressively integrated into large open chemical databases such as PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and the US EPA's CompTox Chemicals Dashboard (https://comptox. epa.gov/dashboard/), enabling further access to these lists, along with the additional functionality and calculated properties these resources offer. PubChem has also integrated significant annotation content from the NORMAN-SLE, including a classification browser (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/classification/#hid=101). Conclusions: The NORMAN-SLE offers a specialized service for hosting suspect screening lists of relevance for the environmental community in an open, FAIR manner that allows integration with other major chemical resources. These efforts foster the exchange of information between scientists and regulators, supporting the paradigm shift to the "one substance, one assessment" approach. New submissions are welcome via the contacts provided on the NORMAN-SLE website (https://www.norman-.network.com/nds/SLE/). Environmental Sciences Europe, 34 (1) ISSN:2190-4707 ISSN:2190-4715
International audience; There is limited scientific evidence on the real impact of selective breeding in aquaculture on the medium term, while the composition of aquafeeds is rapidly evolving towards plant-based raw materials. We compared a rainbow trout line selected in freshwater for fillet production (improved growth, carcass yield and fillet fat) for ten generations (G10) with an unselected control line from the same base population (G0). We crossed G10 and G0 neomales to the same G10 females, thus creating a Selected and a Control group expected to diverge by half the true difference between G0 and G10. Those were grown to 1.6 kg, and two feeds were compared across the two lines from 264 to 374 days post-hatching. One was a commercial standard, the second was a "future" feed devoid of fishmeal, fish oil and soy-based products, with microalgae as a source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). After doubling the difference between the Selected and the Control to estimate the true performance of G0, we saw that G10 was improved relative to G0 for body weight (+61%), feed conversion ratio (− 17 to − 20%), fillet fat (+28-53%) and carcass yield (+4.2%), but not for fillet yield. Survival was not affected by selection. Both feeds had a similar performance in terms of growth, but the future feed showed a higher FCR, probably due to a feed intake measurement issue. Fish had a good EPA+DHA content (>1.2 g/100 g wet weight) with both feeds, partly linked to endogenous synthesis of these fatty acids. There was little if any genotype by feed interaction. This study shows that selective breeding can produce fast growing, feed efficient and thus provide opportunity for more sustainable fish culture. We showed that highly nutritious fish can be produced with good growth performance without using any fish meal, fish oil or soy-based product.
A total of 1345 specimens belonging to 58 different species of wild fish and seafood from the western Mediterranean Sea were analyzed to assess total mercury levels and to estimate which species meet the EU recommendations for human consumption (0.5 μg g-1 ww) in all cases. All fish species were caught off the Mediterranean coasts and intended for human consumption. All specimens were collected from local markets located in Spain, Italy and France that sell fish caught by local fishermen (Eivissa, Menorca, Mallorca, Alacant, L'Ampolla, Ametlla de Mar, Marseille, Genoa, Civitavecchia, Alghero) at different time periods. Mercury concentrations were measured by thermal decomposition-gold amalgamator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Only thirteen species were found that did not exceed 0.5 μg g-1 ww in any specimen analyzed. These safe species were sardines (Sardina pilchardus), anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), picarel (Spicara smaris), blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), pearly razorfish (Xyrichtys novacula), surmullet (Mullus surmuletus), painted comber (Serranus scriba), brown meagre (Sciaena umbra), salema (Sarpa salpa), common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) and squid (Loligo vulgaris). These species occupy different trophic levels, have different lengths and average weights, but show a low mercury concentration than others living in the same environments. Potential human consumption of these species as sole source of fish would imply estimated weekly intakes representing between 49% and 70% of the recommended provisional tolerable weekly intake of methylmercury in the worst case. Health authorities should pay specific attention to species that do not meet EU thresholds and make appropriate precautionary health recommendations, especially for pregnant women and children. This research was supported by Neurosome, a H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions project (grant agreement number 766251), and PARC (HLTH-2021-ENVHLTH-3:101057014) from the European Commission. Peer reviewed
Aquatic macrophyte taxonomic composition, species abundance and cover determine the physical structure, complexity and heterogeneity of aquatic habitats – the structuring role of macrophytes. These traits influence richness, distribution, feeding and strength of the relationships between food web communities in lakes. The aim of this study was to determine how lakes with different dominating macrophyte ecological groups affect planktonic food web components, emphasising the influence on young of year (YOY) fish and large (≥1 +) fish community. We hypothesised that different dominating macrophyte ecological groups have different structural effects on food web components and YOY fish growth, abundance and feeding. Studied lakes categorised into three different macrophyte ecological groups – lakes dominated by emergent, floating+floating-leaved or submerged vegetation. We found that all dominating ecological groups had a strong influence on plankton communities (except heterotrophic bacterioplankton and nanoflagellates), YOY fish and large fish. Floating-leaved plant dominance was positively related to planktonic food web structure and YOY fish weight, length, abundance and the consumption of zooplankton as a prey of all major species of YOY fishes. Larger fish tended to favour the presence of emergent vegetation. This conclusion has important implications for local managers and conservationists in respect to the maintenance and protection of littoral habitats and fish resources. The project is financed by the European Regional Development Fund, the State budget of the Republic of Latvia and the foundation “Institute for Environmental Solutions”. Also, this project has received funding from the European Union‘s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 951963. The project is financed by the European Regional Development Fund, the State budget of the Republic of Latvia and the foundation “Institute for Environmental Solutions”. Also, this project has received funding from the European Union‘s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 951963.
Acantharia (Radiolaria) are ubiquitous, heterotrophic single-celled plankton in oceanic waters. Their contribution and roles in ecosystems have previously been underestimated, being elusive due to their broad size range and fragility. Yet, recent studies show that they are major components of the planktic community contributing greatly to, among others, the carbon flux. Many acantharian taxa are known to form a photosymbiosis with the microalgae Phaeocystis sp., which is heavily modified inside the acantharian host cell. These modifications seem to aim to exploit photosynthetic capabilities. Whereas observed pseudopodial extensions can suggest an active predation mechanism. The mixotrophic mode of nutrient acquisition of the Acantharia allows energy and biomass to go through the food web at varying trophic levels. Thereby, potentially enhancing biomass transfer efficiency to higher trophic levels, and when taken into account would increase carbon export estimates of biogeochemical models by up to 30%. Nutrient uptake rates, indicating dependence on either trophic mode, are therefore crucial in the parametrization of carbon budgets in planktonic ecosystem models. Yet, the difficulties inherent to the study of live Radiolaria make it that very little is known about their physiology, and thus the metabolic interactions of host and symbiont, or how much Acantharia rely on either photosynthesis or feeding. Here we aimed to elucidate the metabolic dialogue between these symbiotic partners. Therefore, we used single-cell isolations of Acantharia incubated with stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. This allowed bulk rate measurements of photosynthetic carbon uptake under different conditions of nitrogen availability (nitrate or ammonium) as well as, single-cell chemical imaging to spatially visualize carbon/nitrogen uptake, incorporation, and photosynthate translocation between symbionts and host over time. Results obtained in this study suggest that the uptake of inorganic nutrients in this symbiotic association depends on light, and thus photosynthesis of the symbionts. Carbon uptake rates were unaffected by the nitrogen source (i.e., nitrate or ammonium). The total inorganic carbon uptake rate was 1112±82 pgC h-1 Acantharia‑1, 22.3±1.6 pgC h-1 symbiont cell-1assuming 50 symbionts per Acantharia, at ~155-μmol photons m−2 s−1 irradiance. The Acantharia studied could use both inorganic ammonium and nitrate, but ammonium was taken up at a ~5 times higher rate. Prey ingestion of the haptophyte, Isochrysis galbana, was detected using labeled algae. Significant grazing by Acantharia could only be established on the dinoflagellate Effrenium voratum, with a grazing rate of 728 prey Acantharia‑1 hour-1 (i.e., ~56.3 ngC h-1, 46% of total holobiont carbon content) at a ratio of 1.06x104 prey predator-1. Daily photosynthetic carbon uptake rates made up ~14.5% of the total holobiont carbon content (0.9% hourly). Survival of Spumellaria (Radiolaria) has been shown to be photosynthesis dependent (Swanberg and Anderson, 1985). Food in absence of light could not extend the survival of the cells. Symbiont photosynthesis thus fulfills an important role in these radiolarians metabolism. Contrastingly, it has also been hypothesized that photosynthesis in other mixotrophic organisms predominately provides energy. Whereas, a daily consumption of 14.5% of the holobiont’s carbon content might be sufficient for substance and growth, chemical imaging showed no measurable fixation in the host, and thus no carbon transfer from symbionts. The usage of recently assimilated photosynthates is implied by a decreasing δ13C over time. However, the specifics of photosynthate usages cannot yet be ascertained and might be used either directly at the symbionts or at the host cell. We might hypothesize that the synthesis of carbon storages molecules in Phaeocystis, the acantharian symbiont, proceeds in a matter more similar to plants—in their plastids, and the nutrient localization could thus indicate that photosynthates are in fact primarily used for symbiont maintenance or for energy or catabolic processes of the host (with minimal intermediate storage). Our results would currently suggest that if the Acantharia cell obtains photosynthetically acquired carbon by translocation it is not assimilated in the host cell, but might still be used for catabolic processes to obtain energy.
Publisher: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Project: EC | 3D-BioMat (724881)
International audience; Some mollusc shells are formed from an amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) compound, which further transforms into a crystalline material. The transformation mechanism is not fully understood but is however crucial to develop bioinspired synthetic biomineralization strategies or accurate marine biomineral proxies for geoscience. The difficulty arises from the simultaneous presence of crystalline and amorphous compounds in the shell, which complicates the selective experimental characterization of the amorphous fraction. Here, we use nanobeam X-ray total scattering together with an approach to separate crystalline and amorphous scattering contributions to obtain the spatially resolved atomic pair distribution function (PDF). We resolve three distinct amorphous calcium carbonate compounds, present in the shell of Pinctada margaritifera and attributed to: interprismatic periostracum, young mineralizing units, and mature mineralizing units. From this, we extract accurate bond parameters by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of the PDF. This shows that the three amorphous compounds differ mostly in their Ca–O nearest-neighbor atom pair distance. Further characterization with conventional spectroscopic techniques unveils the presence of Mg in the shell and shows Mg–calcite in the final, crystallized shell. In line with recent literature, we propose that the amorphous-to-crystal transition is mediated by the presence of Mg. The transition occurs through the decomposition of the initial Mg-rich precursor into a second Mg-poor ACC compound before forming a crystal.
In this study, we assessed the effect of environmental salinity and pH as independent factors on larval survival of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT –Thunnus thynnus) together with their whole-body Na+/K+-ATPase and v-type H+- ATPase activities. Fertilized eggs of ABFT were obtained from a spontaneous spawning of broodstock in the farming facilities at El Gorguel (Cartagena, SE Spain) and were transferred to facilities of the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) in Mazarron ´ (SE Spain). In a first experiment, eggs (200 fertilized eggs L− 1 per treatment, in 3 replicates) were exposed to different salinities treatments and constant pH 8.0 (control) until hatch was completed (50 h post-fertilization, hpf, at 23 ◦C): 27, 30, 33, 36, 37, 38 (control), 39, 40, 43, 46 and 49 ppt. In a second experiment eggs (200 fertilized eggs L− 1 , in 3 replicates) were exposed to seawater salinity (SW: 38 ppt) and four reduced pH treatments until hatch was completed (50 hpf at 23 ◦C): 8.0 (control), 7.7, 7.5 and 7.3. An inverse “U-shaped” relationship was observed between environmental salinity and number of hatched larvae. An opposite pattern was observed for both Na+/K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase activities in hatched larvae, increasing both activities in groups exposed to extreme salinities. Thus, larval survival was higher at intermediate salinities and lower at the extreme salinities tested. These results suggest higher survival rates with lower active pumps activities. No significant differences in larval survival were observed with pH treatment, but lower H+-ATPase activity was detected at control environmental pH (pH 8.0). Survival results are discussed in terms of osmoregulatory cost adapting to a salinity and pH predicted for the near future scenarios.
The spatio-temporal dynamics of the black scabbardfish ( Aphanopus carbo Lowe, 1839) abundance in the northeast Atlantic was modeled using two linked Bayesian state-space models fitted to fishery-dependent data from trawlers operating to the west and north off the British Isles and longliners off the west coast of Portugal. The stage-structured life cycle models included species vital processes and fishing, and are linked by the migration flow between the two areas. Although data on spawner abundance and recruitment are missing, the hierarchical nature of state-space models allows a convenient representation of black scabbardfish dynamics using reliable data from the two studied areas, which correspond to two of the three main fishing grounds for the species. The approach presented is comparable to the few models developed for other species, such as European eel, where spawning and recruitment occur at restricted and distant regions. This approach is likely to remain the only option for black scabbardfish stock assessment and fisheries monitoring, as it is unlikely that data about the unobserved spawning and early life stages will become available in the near future.
Elisa Clagnan; Giuliana D'Imporzano; Marta Dell'Orto; Alessia Bani; Alex J. Dumbrell; Katia Parati; Francisco Gabriel Acién-Fernández; Agustín Portillo-Hahnefeld; Antera Martel-Quintana; Juan Luis Gómez-Pinchetti; +1 more
Elisa Clagnan; Giuliana D'Imporzano; Marta Dell'Orto; Alessia Bani; Alex J. Dumbrell; Katia Parati; Francisco Gabriel Acién-Fernández; Agustín Portillo-Hahnefeld; Antera Martel-Quintana; Juan Luis Gómez-Pinchetti; Fabrizio Adani;