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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nadine Schubert; Lorenzo Alvarez-Filip; Laurie C. Hofmann;

    Ocean acidification (OA) has been identified as one of the major climate-change related threats, mainly due to its significant impacts on marine calcifiers. Among those are the calcareous green algae of the genus Halimeda that are known to be major carbonate producers in shallow tropical and subtropical seas. Hence, any negative OA impacts on these organisms may translate into significant declines in regional and global carbonate production. In this study, we compiled the available information regarding Halimeda spp. responses to OA (experimental, in situ), with special focus on the calcification responses, one of the most studied response parameters in this group. Furthermore, among the compiled studies (n = 31), we selected those reporting quantitative data of OA effects on algal net calcification in an attempt to identify potential general patterns of species- and/or regional-specific OA responses and hence, impacts on carbonate production. While obtaining general patterns was largely hampered by the often scarce number of studies on individual species and/or regions, the currently available information indicates species-specific susceptibility to OA, seemingly unrelated to evolutionary lineages (and associated differences in morphology), that is often accompanied by differences in a species� response across different regions. Thus, for projections of future declines in Halimeda-associated carbonate production, we used available regional reports of species-specific carbonate production in conjunction with experimental OA responses for the respective species and regions. Based on the available information, declines can be expected worldwide, though some regions harbouring more sensitive species might be more impacted than others.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Climate Change Ecolo...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Climate Change Ecolo...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Seifert, Miriam; Nissen, Cara; id_orcid0000-0001-5804-3191; Rost, Björn; Vogt, Meike; +2 Authors

    Phytoplankton growth is controlled by multiple environmental drivers, which are all modified by climate change. While numerous experimental studies identify interactive effects between drivers, large-scale ocean biogeochemistry models mostly account for growth responses to each driver separately and leave the results of these experimental multiple-driver studies largely unused. Here, we amend phytoplankton growth functions in a biogeochemical model by dual-driver interactions (CO2 and temperature, CO2 and light), based on data of a published meta-analysis on multiple-driver laboratory experiments. The effect of this parametrization on phytoplankton biomass and community composition is tested using present-day and future high-emission (SSP5-8.5) climate forcing. While the projected decrease in future total global phytoplankton biomass in simulations with driver interactions is similar to that in control simulations without driver interactions (5%-6%), interactive driver effects are group-specific. Globally, diatom biomass decreases more with interactive effects compared with the control simulation (-8.1% with interactions vs. no change without interactions). Small-phytoplankton biomass, by contrast, decreases less with on-going climate change when the model accounts for driver interactions (-5.0% vs. -9.0%). The response of global coccolithophore biomass to future climate conditions is even reversed when interactions are considered (+33.2% instead of -10.8%). Regionally, the largest difference in the future phytoplankton community composition between the simulations with and without driver interactions is detected in the Southern Ocean, where diatom biomass decreases (-7.5%) instead of increases (+14.5%), raising the share of small phytoplankton and coccolithophores of total phytoplankton biomass. Hence, interactive effects impact the phytoplankton community structure and related biogeochemical fluxes in a future ocean. Our approach is a first step to integrate the mechanistic understanding of interacting driver effects on phytoplankton growth gained by numerous laboratory experiments into a global ocean biogeochemistry model, aiming toward more realistic future projections of phytoplankton biomass and community composition. Global Change Biology, 29 (15) ISSN:1354-1013 ISSN:1365-2486

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Müller, Katrin; Wohltmann, Ingo; Gathen, Peter; Rex, Markus;

    Due to the unique local air chemistry, the transport history of tropospheric air masses above the remote tropical West Pacific (TWP) is reflected by local ozone (O3) and relative humidity (RH) characteristics. In boreal winter, the TWP is the main global entry point for air masses into the stratosphere and therefore a key region of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. However, a long-term in situ monitoring of tropospheric O3 to assess the variability of TWP air masses and the respective controlling processes has yet been missing. The aim of our study was to identify air masses with different origins and pathways to the TWP and their seasonality using the new Palau time series (2016–2019) of mostly fortnightly Electrochemical Concentration Cell ozone and radio soundings. Based on monthly statistics of O3 volume mixing ratios and RH we defined a free tropospheric locally-controlled background and analyzed anomalies for both tracers in the 5–10 km altitude range. We found that anomalously high O3 indicates a remote origin, while RH is controlled by a range of dynamical processes resulting in a bimodality in RH anomalies. The Palau time series confirms a year-round presence of low O3 background air masses and a seasonal mid-tropospheric cycle in O3 with a prominent anti-correlation between O3 volume mixing ratios and RH. We assumed five different types of air masses with differing tracer characteristics and origin which we validated by analyzing backward trajectories calculated with the transport module of the Lagrangian chemistry and transport model ATLAS. The main result is a clear separation of origin and pathways for the two most contrasting types of air masses, i.e. ozone-poor and humid versus ozone-rich and dry air. Both, potential vorticity and air mass origin analyses, reveal no indication for stratospheric influence for the ozone-rich dry air masses. Rather, we found indications for O3 production due to biomass burning or anthropogenic pollution at the origins of these air masses and drying due to clear sky subsidence during long-range transport. The seasonal occurrence is tied to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone which opens a pathway from potential source regions which are confirmed by the trajectory analysis. We conclude, that dominant ozone-poor and humid air masses are of local or Pacific convective origin and occur year-round, but dominate from August until October. Anomalously dry and ozone-rich air is generated in Tropical Asia and subsequently transported to the TWP via an anti-cyclonic route, mostly from February to April. The areas of origin suggest different sources of ground pollution as a cause for O3 production. We propose large-scale descent within the tropical troposphere and subsequent radiative cooling in connection with the Hadley circulation as responsible for the vertical displacement and dehydration.

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    Copernicus Publications
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2023
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    Authors: Sasgen, Ingo; Salles, Annette; Wegmann, Martin; Wouters, Bert; +3 Authors

    AbstractGlaciers in the Arctic respond sensitively to climate change, recording the polar amplification of global warming with increasing mass loss. Here, we use glacier mass balances in Svalbard and northern Arctic Canada to categorize tropospheric variability and the associated summer circulation over the Arctic. We establish a link between annual glacier mass balances and their respective atmospheric forcings since 1950 using GRACE/GRACE-FO satellite data (2002–2021), as well as regional climate models and reanalysis data (1950–2019). We find that asynchronous behaviour of mass balance between the regions has become very likely since the early 2000s, exceeding the range of previous decadal variability. Related tropospheric circulation exhibits more meridional patterns, a greater influence of meridional heat advection and a wavier summer circulation. The traceable impact on glacier mass balances emphasizes the importance of dynamic next to thermodynamic climate changes for the future of glacier mass loss, Arctic ecology and societal impacts.

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    NARCIS
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    Nature Climate Change
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      Nature Climate Change
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    Authors: Henkel, Susann; Köster, Male; Liu, Bo; Staubwasser, Michael; +7 Authors

    Oral presentation

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    Authors: Martin Wegmann; Yvan J. Orsolini; Marta Vázquez; Luis Gimeno; +8 Authors

    Poster for the EGU General Assembly 2015, showing results from Wegmann et al. 2015 Wegmann, M., Orsolini, Y., Vazquez, M., Gimeno, L., Nieto, R., Bulygina, O., … & Broennimann, S. (2015). Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn. Environmental Research Letters, 10(5), 054015. {"references": ["doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/5/054015"]}

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    Authors: N. Mayot; C. Le Quéré; C. Rödenbeck; R. Bernardello; +18 Authors

    The Southern Ocean is a major sink of atmospheric CO2, but the nature and magnitude of its variability remains uncertain and debated. Estimates based on observations suggest substantial variability that is not reproduced by process-based ocean models, with increasingly divergent estimates over the past decade. We examine potential constraints on the nature and magnitude of climate-driven variability of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink from observation-based air-sea O2 fluxes. On interannual time scales, the variability in the air-sea fluxes of CO2 and O2 estimated from observations is consistent across the two species and positively correlated with the variability simulated by ocean models. Our analysis suggests that variations in ocean ventilation related to the Southern Annular Mode are responsible for this interannual variability. On decadal time scales, the existence of significant variability in the air-sea CO2 flux estimated from observations also tends to be supported by observation-based estimates of O2 flux variability. However, the large decadal variability in air-sea CO2 flux is absent from ocean models. Our analysis suggests that issues in representing the balance between the thermal and non-thermal components of the CO2 sink and/or insufficient variability in mode water formation might contribute to the lack of decadal variability in the current generation of ocean models. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Heat and carbon uptake in the Southern Ocean: the state of the art and future priorities'. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 381 (2249) ISSN:1364-503X ISSN:1471-2962

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    Authors: Boetius, Antje;
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    Authors: Strauss, Jens; Wolter, Juliane; Jones, Benjamin M; Fuchs, Matthias; +6 Authors

    Wetlands in drained lake basins are important elements of the Arctic carbon budget. They may store large amounts of carbon while also producing substantial amounts of greenhouse gasses. After lake drainage the former lake bottom is colonized by pioneer graminoids, succeeded by mosssedge-dwarf shrub vegetation, producing a typical peat sequence. However, post-drainage organic matter dynamics are not well studied. We hypothesize that vegetation composition reflects both succession and surface wetness, which in turn determine soil organic matter content and methane production. We propose that vegetation types detected by remote sensing-based landcover classification may be used to extrapolate methane production and organic matter composition across drained lake basin landscapes. We investigated (i) plots along a temporal drainage gradient, surveying vegetation, surface sediment, and pond water. We then used (ii) landcover classification of main eco-hydrological classes to (iii) upscale from plot to basin scale. We found that vegetation and organic matter changed markedly between recently drained basins and older age classes. Overall, vegetation composition differed more between eco-hydrological classes than between age classes. Surface sediments had very high water contents (>80 %), suggesting largely anaerobic conditions favouring methane production. Methane concentrations were indeed relatively constant throughout, and particularly high in sediments beneath few centimetres of water (“wet patches”, up to 200 μmol/L) and in pond water (up to 22 μmol/L). Landcover classification yielded seven classes including five classes we also identified using statistical clustering of vegetation data plus a water class and a bare ground class. We found that 67 % of basin areas were occupied by wet patches with especially high methane production. Our study shows that remote sensing-based landcover classifications are useful for quantifying wet-vs-moist patches and high-vs-moderate methane production in Arctic drained lake basins. The study highlights the potential for future upscaling of methane emissions from these abundant wetland environments.

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    Authors: Bischoff, Verena; Strauss, Jens; Lantuit, Hugues Benjamin; Liebner, Susanne; +1 Authors

    Permafrost carbon pools are vulnerable to a warming climate and bear the potential to alter the terrestrial carbon cycle. In the extensive drained lake basins that span across Arctic lowlands, enhanced degradation of organic-rich deposits upon permafrost thaw could lead to greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Yet, little is known on the geochemical properties of the sediments in these basins and on the rate of release of greenhouse gases. This study investigates processes and intensity of organic matter decomposition and associated potential greenhouse gas production in thawed sediment from drained lake basins on the Yukon Coastal Plain in the western Canadian Arctic. We conducted a three-month low temperature (4 °C) incubation experiment, during which we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production in thawed sediment from two permafrost cores from adjacent drained lake basins. To simulate current and near future greenhouse gas production potential we incubated material from the active layer as well as from the transition layer and permafrost to account for projected active layer deepening. Four replicates of each sample were incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. CO2 and CH4 concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. The experiment was supplemented by a comprehensive lipid biomarker analysis of the same sample material before and after the incubation covering n-alkanes, n-fatty acids, triterpenoids and hopanes. Biomarker concentrations and indices (average chain length, carbon preference index, higher-plant fatty acid index) gave insights on the origin and degradation state of organic matter as well as changes to carbon accompanying the incubation experiment. In a multi-proxy approach, findings are further aligned with biogeochemical and sedimentological parameters. Results will reveal organic matter vulnerability to decomposition and potential greenhouse gas production in sediments after thawing, both of which are key elements in assessing future trajectories of carbon dynamics in drained lake basins.

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    Authors: Nadine Schubert; Lorenzo Alvarez-Filip; Laurie C. Hofmann;

    Ocean acidification (OA) has been identified as one of the major climate-change related threats, mainly due to its significant impacts on marine calcifiers. Among those are the calcareous green algae of the genus Halimeda that are known to be major carbonate producers in shallow tropical and subtropical seas. Hence, any negative OA impacts on these organisms may translate into significant declines in regional and global carbonate production. In this study, we compiled the available information regarding Halimeda spp. responses to OA (experimental, in situ), with special focus on the calcification responses, one of the most studied response parameters in this group. Furthermore, among the compiled studies (n = 31), we selected those reporting quantitative data of OA effects on algal net calcification in an attempt to identify potential general patterns of species- and/or regional-specific OA responses and hence, impacts on carbonate production. While obtaining general patterns was largely hampered by the often scarce number of studies on individual species and/or regions, the currently available information indicates species-specific susceptibility to OA, seemingly unrelated to evolutionary lineages (and associated differences in morphology), that is often accompanied by differences in a species� response across different regions. Thus, for projections of future declines in Halimeda-associated carbonate production, we used available regional reports of species-specific carbonate production in conjunction with experimental OA responses for the respective species and regions. Based on the available information, declines can be expected worldwide, though some regions harbouring more sensitive species might be more impacted than others.

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    Authors: Seifert, Miriam; Nissen, Cara; id_orcid0000-0001-5804-3191; Rost, Björn; Vogt, Meike; +2 Authors

    Phytoplankton growth is controlled by multiple environmental drivers, which are all modified by climate change. While numerous experimental studies identify interactive effects between drivers, large-scale ocean biogeochemistry models mostly account for growth responses to each driver separately and leave the results of these experimental multiple-driver studies largely unused. Here, we amend phytoplankton growth functions in a biogeochemical model by dual-driver interactions (CO2 and temperature, CO2 and light), based on data of a published meta-analysis on multiple-driver laboratory experiments. The effect of this parametrization on phytoplankton biomass and community composition is tested using present-day and future high-emission (SSP5-8.5) climate forcing. While the projected decrease in future total global phytoplankton biomass in simulations with driver interactions is similar to that in control simulations without driver interactions (5%-6%), interactive driver effects are group-specific. Globally, diatom biomass decreases more with interactive effects compared with the control simulation (-8.1% with interactions vs. no change without interactions). Small-phytoplankton biomass, by contrast, decreases less with on-going climate change when the model accounts for driver interactions (-5.0% vs. -9.0%). The response of global coccolithophore biomass to future climate conditions is even reversed when interactions are considered (+33.2% instead of -10.8%). Regionally, the largest difference in the future phytoplankton community composition between the simulations with and without driver interactions is detected in the Southern Ocean, where diatom biomass decreases (-7.5%) instead of increases (+14.5%), raising the share of small phytoplankton and coccolithophores of total phytoplankton biomass. Hence, interactive effects impact the phytoplankton community structure and related biogeochemical fluxes in a future ocean. Our approach is a first step to integrate the mechanistic understanding of interacting driver effects on phytoplankton growth gained by numerous laboratory experiments into a global ocean biogeochemistry model, aiming toward more realistic future projections of phytoplankton biomass and community composition. Global Change Biology, 29 (15) ISSN:1354-1013 ISSN:1365-2486

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    Authors: Müller, Katrin; Wohltmann, Ingo; Gathen, Peter; Rex, Markus;

    Due to the unique local air chemistry, the transport history of tropospheric air masses above the remote tropical West Pacific (TWP) is reflected by local ozone (O3) and relative humidity (RH) characteristics. In boreal winter, the TWP is the main global entry point for air masses into the stratosphere and therefore a key region of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. However, a long-term in situ monitoring of tropospheric O3 to assess the variability of TWP air masses and the respective controlling processes has yet been missing. The aim of our study was to identify air masses with different origins and pathways to the TWP and their seasonality using the new Palau time series (2016–2019) of mostly fortnightly Electrochemical Concentration Cell ozone and radio soundings. Based on monthly statistics of O3 volume mixing ratios and RH we defined a free tropospheric locally-controlled background and analyzed anomalies for both tracers in the 5–10 km altitude range. We found that anomalously high O3 indicates a remote origin, while RH is controlled by a range of dynamical processes resulting in a bimodality in RH anomalies. The Palau time series confirms a year-round presence of low O3 background air masses and a seasonal mid-tropospheric cycle in O3 with a prominent anti-correlation between O3 volume mixing ratios and RH. We assumed five different types of air masses with differing tracer characteristics and origin which we validated by analyzing backward trajectories calculated with the transport module of the Lagrangian chemistry and transport model ATLAS. The main result is a clear separation of origin and pathways for the two most contrasting types of air masses, i.e. ozone-poor and humid versus ozone-rich and dry air. Both, potential vorticity and air mass origin analyses, reveal no indication for stratospheric influence for the ozone-rich dry air masses. Rather, we found indications for O3 production due to biomass burning or anthropogenic pollution at the origins of these air masses and drying due to clear sky subsidence during long-range transport. The seasonal occurrence is tied to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone which opens a pathway from potential source regions which are confirmed by the trajectory analysis. We conclude, that dominant ozone-poor and humid air masses are of local or Pacific convective origin and occur year-round, but dominate from August until October. Anomalously dry and ozone-rich air is generated in Tropical Asia and subsequently transported to the TWP via an anti-cyclonic route, mostly from February to April. The areas of origin suggest different sources of ground pollution as a cause for O3 production. We propose large-scale descent within the tropical troposphere and subsequent radiative cooling in connection with the Hadley circulation as responsible for the vertical displacement and dehydration.

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    Authors: Sasgen, Ingo; Salles, Annette; Wegmann, Martin; Wouters, Bert; +3 Authors

    AbstractGlaciers in the Arctic respond sensitively to climate change, recording the polar amplification of global warming with increasing mass loss. Here, we use glacier mass balances in Svalbard and northern Arctic Canada to categorize tropospheric variability and the associated summer circulation over the Arctic. We establish a link between annual glacier mass balances and their respective atmospheric forcings since 1950 using GRACE/GRACE-FO satellite data (2002–2021), as well as regional climate models and reanalysis data (1950–2019). We find that asynchronous behaviour of mass balance between the regions has become very likely since the early 2000s, exceeding the range of previous decadal variability. Related tropospheric circulation exhibits more meridional patterns, a greater influence of meridional heat advection and a wavier summer circulation. The traceable impact on glacier mass balances emphasizes the importance of dynamic next to thermodynamic climate changes for the future of glacier mass loss, Arctic ecology and societal impacts.

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    Nature Climate Change
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      Nature Climate Change
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    Authors: Henkel, Susann; Köster, Male; Liu, Bo; Staubwasser, Michael; +7 Authors

    Oral presentation

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    Authors: Martin Wegmann; Yvan J. Orsolini; Marta Vázquez; Luis Gimeno; +8 Authors

    Poster for the EGU General Assembly 2015, showing results from Wegmann et al. 2015 Wegmann, M., Orsolini, Y., Vazquez, M., Gimeno, L., Nieto, R., Bulygina, O., … & Broennimann, S. (2015). Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn. Environmental Research Letters, 10(5), 054015. {"references": ["doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/5/054015"]}

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