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38 Research products

  • European Marine Science
  • 2018-2022
  • Open Access
  • Publications
  • Other research products
  • DE
  • English
  • Aurora Universities Network

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Krijgsman, Wout; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Beniest, Anouk; Lyons, Timothy; +15 Authors

    The MagellanPlus workshop "BlackGate"addressed fundamental questions concerning the dynamic evolution of the Mediterranean-Black Sea (MBS) gateway and its palaeoenvironmental consequences. This gateway drives the Miocene-Quaternary circulation patterns in the Black Sea and governs its present status as the world's largest example of marine anoxia. The exchange history of the MBS gateway is poorly constrained because continuous Pliocene-Quaternary deposits are not exposed on land adjacent to the Black Sea or northern Aegean. Gateway exchange is controlled by climatic (glacio-eustatic-driven sea-level fluctuations) and tectonic processes in the catchment as well as tectonic propagation of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the gateway area itself. Changes in connectivity trigger dramatic palaeoenvironmental and biotic turnovers in both the Black Sea and Mediterranean domains. Drilling a Messinian to Holocene transect across the MBS gateway will recover high-amplitude records of continent-scale hydrological changes during glacial-interglacial cycles and allow us to reconstruct marine and freshwater fluxes, biological turnover events, deep biospheric processes, subsurface gradients in primary sedimentary properties, patterns and processes controlling anoxia, chemical perturbations and carbon cycling, growth and propagation of the NAFZ, the timing of land bridges for Africa and/or Asia-Europe mammal migration, and the presence or absence of water exchange during the Messinian salinity crisis. During thorough discussions at the workshop, three key sites were selected for potential drilling using a mission-specific platform (MSP): one on the Turkish margin of the Black Sea (Arkhangelsky Ridge, 400mb.s.f., metres below the seafloor), one on the southern margin of the Sea of Marmara (North Imrali Basin, 750mb.s.f.), and one in the Aegean (North Aegean Trough, 650mb.s.f.). All sites target Quaternary oxic-anoxic marl-sapropel cycles. Plans include recovery of Pliocene lacustrine sediments and mixed marine-brackish Miocene sediments from the Black Sea and the Aegean. MSP drilling is required because the JOIDES Resolution cannot pass under the Bosporus bridges. The wider goals are in line with the aims and scope of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) "2050 Science Framework: Exploring Earth by Scientific Ocean Drilling"and relate specifically to the strategic objectives "Earth's climate system", "Tipping points in Earth's history", and "Natural hazards impacting society".

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Utrecht University R...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Utrecht University R...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Rödenbeck, Christian; DeVries, Tim; Hauck, Judith; Le Quere, Corinne; +1 Authors

    This study considers year-to-year and decadal variations in as well as secular trends of the sea–air CO2 flux over the 1957–2020 period, as constrained by the pCO2 measurements from the SOCATv2021 database. In a first step, we relate interannual anomalies in ocean-internal carbon sources and sinks to local interannual anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST), the temporal changes in SST (dSST/dt), and squared wind speed (u2), employing a multi-linear regression. In the tropical Pacific, we find interannual variability to be dominated by dSST/dt, as arising from variations in the upwelling of colder and more carbon-rich waters into the mixed layer. In the eastern upwelling zones as well as in circumpolar bands in the high latitudes of both hemispheres, we find sensitivity to wind speed, compatible with the entrainment of carbon-rich water during wind-driven deepening of the mixed layer and wind-driven upwelling. In the Southern Ocean, the secular increase in wind speed leads to a secular increase in the carbon source into the mixed layer, with an estimated reduction in the sink trend in the range of 17 % to 42 %. In a second step, we combined the result of the multi-linear regression and an explicitly interannual pCO2-based additive correction into a “hybrid” estimate of the sea–air CO2 flux over the period 1957–2020. As a pCO2 mapping method, it combines (a) the ability of a regression to bridge data gaps and extrapolate into the early decades almost void of pCO2 data based on process-related observables and (b) the ability of an auto-regressive interpolation to follow signals even if not represented in the chosen set of explanatory variables. The “hybrid” estimate can be applied as an ocean flux prior for atmospheric CO2 inversions covering the whole period of atmospheric CO2 data since 1957.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2022
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2021
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    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2022
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Biogeosciences (BG)
      Other literature type . 2021
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Susanne Holtze; Ekaterina Gorshkova; Ekaterina Gorshkova; Stan Braude; +13 Authors

    Most research on mechanisms of aging is being conducted in a very limited number of classical model species, i.e., laboratory mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus domestica), the common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and roundworm (Caenorhabditis elegans). The obvious advantages of using these models are access to resources such as strains with known genetic properties, high-quality genomic and transcriptomic sequencing data, versatile experimental manipulation capabilities including well-established genome editing tools, as well as extensive experience in husbandry. However, this approach may introduce interpretation biases due to the specific characteristics of the investigated species, which may lead to inappropriate, or even false, generalization. For example, it is still unclear to what extent knowledge of aging mechanisms gained in short-lived model organisms is transferable to long-lived species such as humans. In addition, other specific adaptations favoring a long and healthy life from the immense evolutionary toolbox may be entirely missed. In this review, we summarize the specific characteristics of emerging animal models that have attracted the attention of gerontologists, we provide an overview of the available data and resources related to these models, and we summarize important insights gained from them in recent years. The models presented include short-lived ones such as killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), long-lived ones such as primates (Callithrix jacchus, Cebus imitator, Macaca mulatta), bathyergid mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber, Fukomys spp.), bats (Myotis spp.), birds, olms (Proteus anguinus), turtles, greenland sharks, bivalves (Arctica islandica), and potentially non-aging ones such as Hydra and Planaria.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJ-Articlesarrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Thomas, Max; Laube, Johannes C.; Kaiser, Jan; Allin, Samuel; +8 Authors

    We present novel measurements of the carbon isotope composition of CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), and CFC-113 (CF2ClCFCl2), three atmospheric trace gases that are important for both stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. These measurements were carried out on air samples collected in the stratosphere – the main sink region for these gases – and on air extracted from deep polar firn snow. We quantify, for the first time, the apparent isotopic fractionation, ϵapp(13C), for these gases as they are destroyed in the high- and mid-latitude stratosphere: ϵapp(CFC-12, high-latitude) =(-20.2±4.4) ‰, and ϵapp(CFC-113, high-latitude) =(-9.4±4.4) ‰, ϵapp(CFC-12, mid-latitude) =(-30.3±10.7) ‰, and ϵapp(CFC-113, mid-latitude) =(-34.4±9.8) ‰. Our CFC-11 measurements were not sufficient to calculate ϵapp(CFC-11), so we instead used previously reported photolytic fractionation for CFC-11 and CFC-12 to scale our ϵapp(CFC-12), resulting in ϵapp(CFC-11, high-latitude) =(-7.8±1.7) ‰ and ϵapp(CFC-11, mid-latitude) =(-11.7±4.2) ‰. Measurements of firn air were used to construct histories of the tropospheric isotopic composition, δT(13C), for CFC-11 (1950s to 2009), CFC-12 (1950s to 2009), and CFC-113 (1970s to 2009), with δT(13C) increasing for each gas. We used ϵapp(high-latitude), which was derived from more data, and a constant isotopic composition of emissions, δE(13C), to model δT(13C, CFC-11), δT(13C, CFC-12), and δT(13C, CFC-113). For CFC-11 and CFC-12, modelled δT(13C) was consistent with measured δT(13C) for the entire period covered by the measurements, suggesting that no dramatic change in δE(13C, CFC-11) or δE(13C, CFC-12) has occurred since the 1950s. For CFC-113, our modelled δT(13C, CFC-113) did not agree with our measurements earlier than 1980. This discrepancy may be indicative of a change in δE(13C, CFC-113). However, this conclusion is based largely on a single sample and only just significant outside the 95 % confidence interval. Therefore more work is needed to independently verify this temporal trend in the global tropospheric 13C isotopic composition of CFC-113. Our modelling predicts increasing δT(13C, CFC-11), δT(13C, CFC-12), and δT(13C, CFC-113) into the future. We investigated the effect of recently reported new CFC-11 emissions on background δT(13C, CFC-11) by fixing model emissions after 2012 and comparing δT(13C, CFC-11) in this scenario to the model base case. The difference in δT(13C, CFC-11) between these scenarios was 1.4 ‰ in 2050. This difference is smaller than our model uncertainty envelope and would therefore require improved modelling and measurement precision as well as better quantified isotopic source compositions to detect.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: NARCIS
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Keeble, James; Hassler, Birgit; Banerjee, Antara; Checa-Garcia, Ramiro; +27 Authors

    Stratospheric ozone and water vapour are key components of the Earth system, and past and future changes to both have important impacts on global and regional climate. Here, we evaluate long-term changes in these species from the pre-industrial period (1850) to the end of the 21st century in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) models under a range of future emissions scenarios. There is good agreement between the CMIP multi-model mean and observations for total column ozone (TCO), although there is substantial variation between the individual CMIP6 models. For the CMIP6 multi-model mean, global mean TCO has increased from ∼ 300 DU in 1850 to ∼ 305 DU in 1960, before rapidly declining in the 1970s and 1980s following the use and emission of halogenated ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). TCO is projected to return to 1960s values by the middle of the 21st century under the SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, SSP4-3.4, SSP4-6.0, and SSP5-8.5 scenarios, and under the SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios TCO values are projected to be ∼ 10 DU higher than the 1960s values by 2100. However, under the SSP1-1.9 and SSP1-1.6 scenarios, TCO is not projected to return to the 1960s values despite reductions in halogenated ODSs due to decreases in tropospheric ozone mixing ratios. This global pattern is similar to regional patterns, except in the tropics where TCO under most scenarios is not projected to return to 1960s values, either through reductions in tropospheric ozone under SSP1-1.9 and SSP1-2.6, or through reductions in lower stratospheric ozone resulting from an acceleration of the Brewer–Dobson circulation under other Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). In contrast to TCO, there is poorer agreement between the CMIP6 multi-model mean and observed lower stratospheric water vapour mixing ratios, with the CMIP6 multi-model mean underestimating observed water vapour mixing ratios by ∼ 0.5 ppmv at 70 hPa. CMIP6 multi-model mean stratospheric water vapour mixing ratios in the tropical lower stratosphere have increased by ∼ 0.5 ppmv from the pre-industrial to the present-day period and are projected to increase further by the end of the 21st century. The largest increases (∼ 2 ppmv) are simulated under the future scenarios with the highest assumed forcing pathway (e.g. SSP5-8.5). Tropical lower stratospheric water vapour, and to a lesser extent TCO, shows large variations following explosive volcanic eruptions.

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    DLR publication server
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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    Apollo
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2021
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      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: R. Wagner; L. Ickes; A. K. Bertram; N. Els; +5 Authors

    Sea spray aerosol particles are a recognised type of ice-nucleating particles under mixed-phase cloud conditions. Entities that are responsible for the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability include intact or fragmented cells of marine microorganisms as well as organic matter released by cell exudation. Only a small fraction of sea spray aerosol is transported to the upper troposphere, but there are indications from mass-spectrometric analyses of the residuals of sublimated cirrus particles that sea salt could also contribute to heterogeneous ice nucleation under cirrus conditions. Experimental studies on the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of sea spray aerosol particles and their proxies at temperatures below 235 K are still scarce. In our article, we summarise previous measurements and present a new set of ice nucleation experiments at cirrus temperatures with particles generated from sea surface microlayer and surface seawater samples collected in three different regions of the Arctic and from a laboratory-grown diatom culture (Skeletonema marinoi). The particles were suspended in the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber and ice formation was induced by expansion cooling. We confirmed that under cirrus conditions, apart from the ice-nucleating entities mentioned above, also crystalline inorganic salt constituents can contribute to heterogeneous ice formation. This takes place at temperatures below 220 K, where we observed in all experiments a strong immersion freezing mode due to the only partially deliquesced inorganic salts. The inferred ice nucleation active surface site densities for this nucleation mode reached a maximum of about 5×1010 m−2 at an ice saturation ratio of 1.3. Much smaller densities in the range of 108–109 m−2 were observed at temperatures between 220 and 235 K, where the inorganic salts fully deliquesced and only the organic matter and/or algal cells and cell debris could contribute to heterogeneous ice formation. These values are 2 orders of magnitude smaller than those previously reported for particles generated from microlayer suspensions collected in temperate and subtropical zones. While this difference might simply underline the strong variability of the number of ice-nucleating entities in the sea surface microlayer across different geographical regions, we also discuss how instrumental parameters like the aerosolisation method and the ice nucleation measurement technique might affect the comparability of the results amongst different studies.

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    KITopen
    Article . 2021
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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Schmid, F.X.; Kopp, H.; Schnabel, M.; Dannowski, A.; +9 Authors

    The northeastern Lau Basin is one of the fastest opening and magmatically most active back‐arc regions on Earth. Although the current pattern of plate boundaries and motions in this complex mosaic of microplates is reasonably understood, the internal structure and evolution of the back‐arc crust are not. We present new geophysical data from a 290 km long east‐west oriented transect crossing the Niuafo'ou Microplate (back‐arc), the Fonualei Rift and Spreading Center (FRSC) and the Tofua Volcanic Arc at 17°20′S. Our P wave tomography model and density modeling suggest that past crustal accretion inside the southern FRSC was accommodated by a combination of arc crustal extension and magmatic activity. The absence of magnetic reversals inside the FRSC supports this and suggests that focused seafloor spreading has until now not contributed to crustal accretion. The back‐arc crust constituting the southern Niuafo'ou Microplate reveals a heterogeneous structure comprising several crustal blocks. Some regions of the back‐arc show a crustal structure similar to typical oceanic crust, suggesting they originate from seafloor spreading. Other crustal blocks resemble a structure that is similar to volcanic arc crust or a “hydrous” type of oceanic crust that has been created at a spreading center influenced by slab‐derived water at distances <50 km to the arc. Throughout the back‐arc region, we observe a high‐velocity (Vp 7.2–7.5 km s−1) lower crust, which is an indication for magmatic underplating, which is likely sustained by elevated upper mantle temperatures in this region. Key Points: First insights into the crustal structure of the northeastern Lau Basin, along a 290 km transect at 17°20′S. Crust in southern Fonualei Rift and Spreading Center was created by extension of arc crust and variable amount of magmatism. Magmatic underplating is present in some parts of the southern Niuafo'ou Microplate. Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002347

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    OceanRep
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    GEO-LEO e-docs
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: GEO-LEO e-docs
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Rosenbauer, Jakob; Zhang, Chengting; Mattes, Benjamin; Reinartz, Ines; +5 Authors

    During embryogenesis, morphogens form a concentration gradient in responsive tissue, which is then translated into a spatial cellular pattern. The mechanisms by which morphogens spread through a tissue to establish such a morphogenetic field remain elusive. Here, we investigate by mutually complementary simulations and in vivo experiments how Wnt morphogen transport by cytonemes differs from typically assumed diffusion-based transport for patterning of highly dynamic tissue such as the neural plate in zebrafish. Stochasticity strongly influences fate acquisition at the single cell level and results in fluctuating boundaries between pattern regions. Stable patterning can be achieved by sorting through concentration dependent cell migration and apoptosis, independent of the morphogen transport mechanism. We show that Wnt transport by cytonemes achieves distinct Wnt thresholds for the brain primordia earlier compared with diffusion-based transport. We conclude that a cytoneme-mediated morphogen transport together with directed cell sorting is a potentially favored mechanism to establish morphogen gradients in rapidly expanding developmental systems. Author summary How entire organisms develop out of single cells is a long-term challenge in the life sciences. Morphogens are crucial signaling molecules organizing cell fates and patterning by their local concentrations. While many morphogens diffuse freely, specialized cell extrusions can facilitate directed cell-to-cell transport for morphogens of the Wnt/β-Catenin family. We performed simulations of quickly growing tissue take this into account, back to back with in-vivo experiments. Our simulations suggest that stochasticity effects lead to non-physiological fluctuating boundaries of tissue regions if not properly controlled. Such control can be achieved via directed cell sorting and apoptosis. We provide experimental evidence for both mechanisms. We observe a distinct temporal difference between the transport mechanisms, with cytonemes facilitating an earlier establishment of a stable pre-pattern. Overall, simulations suggest that cytoneme-mediated Wnt transport is advantageous over diffusion-based transport and a potential general mechanism to establish morphogen gradients in rapidly expanding developmental systems.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Renner, Gerrit;

    Mikroplastik ist ubiquitär vorhanden und gewinnt weltweit immer mehr an Aufmerksamkeit bei Forschergruppen, in den Medien und der Politik. In vielen Fällen wurde über die Befunde von Mikroplastik in verschiedenen Umweltkompartimenten berichtet und das Risikopotenzial diskutiert. Allerdings fehlen bisher allgemein anerkannte Standardisierungen, angefangen mit einer klaren Definition von Mikroplastik bis hin zu geeigneten Analysemethoden für dessen Nachweis und Charakterisierung. Aus diesem Grund sind die Ziele dieser Arbeit, die bisherige Literatur aufzuarbeiten, um den Status quo der Analytik von Mikroplastik zu ermitteln und neue geeignete analytische und chemometrische Methoden zur Identifizierung und Charakterisierung von Mikroplastik zu entwickeln. Basierend auf vielen überprüften Studien wurde die Fourier-Transformations-Infrarot-Spektroskopie (FTIR) als die am häufigsten verwendete Methode zur Identizierung von Mikroplastik bestätigt. Es konnte jedoch festgestellt werden, dass die Dokumentation der eigentlichen Identifizierung von Mikroplastik meist unterrepräsentiert war, was auf ein mangelndes Bewusstsein für diesen wichtigen Aspekt hindeutete. Daher wurde ein Leitfaden entwickelt, der sich mit der Datenauswertung für spektroskopische Daten von Mikroplastik befasst. Darüber hinaus wurde eine detaillierte Beschreibung der Prinzipien der Infrarotspektroskopie unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Analyse von Mikroplastik entwickelt. Im Kern konzentrierte sich diese Arbeit auf ein neues chemometrisches Konzept mit dem Namen µIDENT, welches zur Identifizierung von Mikroplastik mittels FTIR-Spektroskopie dient. Der entwickelte Algorithmus extrahiert alle Schwingungsbanden eines Spektrums automatisch mit einem sehr robusten und schnellen Verfahren der mehrfachen nicht-linearen Regression. In einem zweiten Schritt werden diese Daten in ein Banden–Intensitäts–Verhältnis–Muster umgewandelt. Dieses ist sehr robust und charakteristisch für jedes Polymer und bildet die Grundlage für einen Datenbankabgleich zur Identifizierung von Mikroplastik. Darüber hinaus wurde ein schnelles und intelligentes Verfahren für die chemische Bildgebung mit µFTIR (µMAP) entwickelt, das das Problem löst, dass solche Messungen normalerweise sehr zeitaufwendig sind. Das µFTIR tastet dafür einen definierten Bereich schrittweise ab und stoppt nur dann für eine Infrarotmessung, wenn sich Mikroplastik im aktuellen Bildausschnitt befindet. Dadurch wird die Anzahl XII an Messungen signifikant reduziert, was bis zu 92% der Gesamtmesszeit einspart. Zum Abschluss der Methodenentwicklung wird ein innovatives Konzept zur Trennung von Mikroplastik aus Sedimentproben für analytische Zwecke vorgestellt (µSEP). Dabei haftet Mikroplastik an feinen Luftblasen und wird so auf einen Filter transportiert und abgeschieden, während Matrixkomponenten im geschlossenen Kreislauf verbleiben. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Trennkonzepten benötigt der vorgestellte Prototyp nur Wasser und Luft, was die Kosten und das Verlustrisiko von Mikroplastik durch aggressive Chemikalien senkt. Zu alle Methodenentwicklungen gab es in ähnlicherWeise von anderen Forschungsgruppen ebenfalls Beiträge. In dieser Arbeit wurde jedoch besonders auf sehr praxisnahe, automatisierbare und robuste Konzepte abgezielt. Im Vordergrund stand immer die Anwendung der entwickelten Methoden, was beispielsweise durch die Veröffentlichung aller Quellcodes unterstrichen wurde. Zusammenfassend lässt sich sagen, dass die bereitgestellten Werkzeuge die aktuelle Analytik von Mikroplastik verbessern und eine wichtige Rolle bei zukünftigen Herausforderungen in diesem Bereich spielen können. Microplastics are ubiquitous and gain increasing attention in research as well as media and politics worldwide. In many cases, the presence of microplastics in different environmental compartments was reported and the risk potential was discussed. However, there is a lack of standardization starting with a clear definition of microplastics up to suitable analytical methods for their detection and characterization. Consequently, this work reviewed the literature to determine the status quo of microplastics analysis, and developed new suitable analytical and chemometric methods for microplastics identification and characterization. Based on the studies reviewed, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was confirmed as the most used method to identify microplastics. However, it could be obtained that the documentation of the microplastics identification process itself was mostly underrepresented, which indicated a lack of awareness of this important aspect. Therefore, a practical guide was developed that addressed data evaluation for spectroscopic data of microplastics. Moreover, a critical examination of the principles of infrared spectroscopy with special regard to the analysis of microplastics was presented. In its core, this work focused on a new chemometric concept to identify microplastics based on FTIR spectroscopy, which is called µIDENT. The developed algorithm automatically extracts accurate vibrational band lists of individual spectra using a very robust and fast multi component curve fitting approach. In a second step, every list is transformed into a peak intensity ratio pattern. This is highly robust and characteristic for each polymer, and is the basis for reference pattern library search to identify microplastics. Furthermore, a rapid and intelligent method for chemical imaging using µFTIR (µMAP) was developed to challenge the problem that those kinds of measurements are very time consuming. Therefore, the µFTIR scans a defined area step-by-step, and only stops to start a detailed infrared measurement, if microplastics are at the current spot. This significantly reduces the number of measurements, which saves up to 92 % of the total measurement time. The method development is concluded by presenting an innovative concept for separation of microplastics from sediment samples for analytical purposes (µSEP). In this context, microplastics adhere to fine air bubbles and are transported onto a filter, while matrix components remain in the closed loop like approach. In contrast to other separation concepts, the presented prototype requires only water and air, which reduces costs and lowers the risk of losing microplastics due to aggressive substances. To all method developments made, there were similar contributions by other research groups. However, this work especially addressed highly practical, automatable and robust concepts. The focus was always on the application of the methods, which was underlined, for example, by publishing all source codes. In conclusion, the tools provided could improve current microplastics analysis, and could play an important role in future challenges in this area.

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    https://doi.org/10.17185/duepu...
    Doctoral thesis . 2020
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.17185/duepu...
      Doctoral thesis . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: B. Stevens; S. Bony; D. Farrell; F. Ament; +196 Authors

    The science guiding the EUREC4A campaign and its measurements is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. Through its ability to characterize processes operating across a wide range of scales, EUREC4A marked a turning point in our ability to observationally study factors influencing clouds in the trades, how they will respond to warming, and their link to other components of the earth system, such as upper-ocean processes or the life cycle of particulate matter. This characterization was made possible by thousands (2500) of sondes distributed to measure circulations on meso- (200 km) and larger (500 km) scales, roughly 400 h of flight time by four heavily instrumented research aircraft; four global-class research vessels; an advanced ground-based cloud observatory; scores of autonomous observing platforms operating in the upper ocean (nearly 10 000 profiles), lower atmosphere (continuous profiling), and along the air–sea interface; a network of water stable isotopologue measurements; targeted tasking of satellite remote sensing; and modeling with a new generation of weather and climate models. In addition to providing an outline of the novel measurements and their composition into a unified and coordinated campaign, the six distinct scientific facets that EUREC4A explored – from North Brazil Current rings to turbulence-induced clustering of cloud droplets and its influence on warm-rain formation – are presented along with an overview of EUREC4A's outreach activities, environmental impact, and guidelines for scientific practice. Track data for all platforms are standardized and accessible at https://doi.org/10.25326/165 (Stevens, 2021), and a film documenting the campaign is provided as a video supplement.

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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    DLR publication server
    Other literature type . 2021
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
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      NERC Open Research Archive
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      DLR publication server
      Other literature type . 2021
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2021
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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      Oskar Bordeaux
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
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38 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Krijgsman, Wout; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Beniest, Anouk; Lyons, Timothy; +15 Authors

    The MagellanPlus workshop "BlackGate"addressed fundamental questions concerning the dynamic evolution of the Mediterranean-Black Sea (MBS) gateway and its palaeoenvironmental consequences. This gateway drives the Miocene-Quaternary circulation patterns in the Black Sea and governs its present status as the world's largest example of marine anoxia. The exchange history of the MBS gateway is poorly constrained because continuous Pliocene-Quaternary deposits are not exposed on land adjacent to the Black Sea or northern Aegean. Gateway exchange is controlled by climatic (glacio-eustatic-driven sea-level fluctuations) and tectonic processes in the catchment as well as tectonic propagation of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the gateway area itself. Changes in connectivity trigger dramatic palaeoenvironmental and biotic turnovers in both the Black Sea and Mediterranean domains. Drilling a Messinian to Holocene transect across the MBS gateway will recover high-amplitude records of continent-scale hydrological changes during glacial-interglacial cycles and allow us to reconstruct marine and freshwater fluxes, biological turnover events, deep biospheric processes, subsurface gradients in primary sedimentary properties, patterns and processes controlling anoxia, chemical perturbations and carbon cycling, growth and propagation of the NAFZ, the timing of land bridges for Africa and/or Asia-Europe mammal migration, and the presence or absence of water exchange during the Messinian salinity crisis. During thorough discussions at the workshop, three key sites were selected for potential drilling using a mission-specific platform (MSP): one on the Turkish margin of the Black Sea (Arkhangelsky Ridge, 400mb.s.f., metres below the seafloor), one on the southern margin of the Sea of Marmara (North Imrali Basin, 750mb.s.f.), and one in the Aegean (North Aegean Trough, 650mb.s.f.). All sites target Quaternary oxic-anoxic marl-sapropel cycles. Plans include recovery of Pliocene lacustrine sediments and mixed marine-brackish Miocene sediments from the Black Sea and the Aegean. MSP drilling is required because the JOIDES Resolution cannot pass under the Bosporus bridges. The wider goals are in line with the aims and scope of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) "2050 Science Framework: Exploring Earth by Scientific Ocean Drilling"and relate specifically to the strategic objectives "Earth's climate system", "Tipping points in Earth's history", and "Natural hazards impacting society".

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    Authors: Rödenbeck, Christian; DeVries, Tim; Hauck, Judith; Le Quere, Corinne; +1 Authors

    This study considers year-to-year and decadal variations in as well as secular trends of the sea–air CO2 flux over the 1957–2020 period, as constrained by the pCO2 measurements from the SOCATv2021 database. In a first step, we relate interannual anomalies in ocean-internal carbon sources and sinks to local interannual anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST), the temporal changes in SST (dSST/dt), and squared wind speed (u2), employing a multi-linear regression. In the tropical Pacific, we find interannual variability to be dominated by dSST/dt, as arising from variations in the upwelling of colder and more carbon-rich waters into the mixed layer. In the eastern upwelling zones as well as in circumpolar bands in the high latitudes of both hemispheres, we find sensitivity to wind speed, compatible with the entrainment of carbon-rich water during wind-driven deepening of the mixed layer and wind-driven upwelling. In the Southern Ocean, the secular increase in wind speed leads to a secular increase in the carbon source into the mixed layer, with an estimated reduction in the sink trend in the range of 17 % to 42 %. In a second step, we combined the result of the multi-linear regression and an explicitly interannual pCO2-based additive correction into a “hybrid” estimate of the sea–air CO2 flux over the period 1957–2020. As a pCO2 mapping method, it combines (a) the ability of a regression to bridge data gaps and extrapolate into the early decades almost void of pCO2 data based on process-related observables and (b) the ability of an auto-regressive interpolation to follow signals even if not represented in the chosen set of explanatory variables. The “hybrid” estimate can be applied as an ocean flux prior for atmospheric CO2 inversions covering the whole period of atmospheric CO2 data since 1957.

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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2022
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    Other literature type . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2022
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2021
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: MPG.PuRe
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
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