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  • European Marine Science
  • 2014-2023
  • Open Access
  • Publications
  • Other research products
  • Wellcome Trust
  • GB
  • English
  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marron, Alan; Cassarino, Lucie; Hatton, Jade; Curnow, Paul; +1 Authors

    The marine silicon cycle is intrinsically linked with carbon cycling in the oceans via biological production of silica by a wide range of organisms. The stable silicon isotopic composition (denoted by δ30Si) of siliceous microfossils extracted from sediment cores can be used as an archive of past oceanic silicon cycling. However, the silicon isotopic composition of biogenic silica has only been measured in diatoms, sponges and radiolarians, and isotopic fractionation relative to seawater is entirely unknown for many other silicifiers. Furthermore, the biochemical pathways and mechanisms that determine isotopic fractionation during biosilicification remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first measurements of the silicon isotopic fractionation during biosilicification by loricate choanoflagellates, a group of protists closely related to animals. We cultured two species of choanoflagellates, Diaphanoeca grandis and Stephanoeca diplocostata, which showed consistently greater isotopic fractionation (approximately −5 ‰ to −7 ‰) than cultured diatoms (−0.5 ‰ to −2.1 ‰). Instead, choanoflagellate silicon isotopic fractionation appears to be more similar to sponges grown under similar dissolved silica concentrations. Our results highlight that there is a taxonomic component to silicon isotope fractionation during biosilicification, possibly via a shared or related biochemical transport pathway. These findings have implications for the use of biogenic silica δ30Si produced by different silicifiers as proxies for past oceanic change.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biogeosciences (BG)arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biogeosciences (BG)arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Sweeting, Michael; +51 Authors

    Background: There is uncertainty about the relevance of animal foods to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs and risk for IHD in the pan-European EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition). Methods: In this prospective study of 409 885 men and women in 9 European countries, diet was assessed with validated questionnaires and calibrated with 24-hour recalls. Lipids and blood pressure were measured in a subsample. During a mean of 12.6 years of follow-up, 7198 participants had a myocardial infarction or died of IHD. The relationships of animal foods with risk were examined with Cox regression with adjustment for other animal foods and relevant covariates. Results: The hazard ratio (HR) for IHD was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06–1.33) for a 100-g/d increment in intake of red and processed meat, and this remained significant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up (HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09–1.42]). Risk was inversely associated with intakes of yogurt (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89–0.98] per 100-g/d increment), cheese (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86–0.98] per 30-g/d increment), and eggs (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88–0.99] per 20-g/d increment); the associations with yogurt and eggs were attenuated and nonsignificant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was not significantly associated with intakes of poultry, fish, or milk. In analyses modeling dietary substitutions, replacement of 100 kcal/d from red and processed meat with 100 kcal/d from fatty fish, yogurt, cheese, or eggs was associated with ≈20% lower risk of IHD. Consumption of red and processed meat was positively associated with serum non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and systolic blood pressure, and consumption of cheese was inversely associated with serum non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Risk for IHD was positively associated with consumption of red and processed meat and inversely associated with consumption of yogurt, cheese, and eggs, although the associations with yogurt and eggs may be influenced by reverse causation bias. It is not clear whether the associations with red and processed meat and cheese reflect causality, but they were consistent with the associations of these foods with plasma non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and for red and processed meat with systolic blood pressure, which could mediate such effects. Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Apollo
    Article . 2019
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    Apollo
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pinharanda, A.; Martin, S. H.; Barker, S. L.; Davey, J. W.; +1 Authors

    Gene duplications can facilitate adaptation and may lead to interpopulation divergence, causing reproductive isolation. We used whole-genome resequencing data from 34 butterflies to detect duplications in two Heliconius species, Heliconius cydno and Heliconius melpomene. Taking advantage of three distinctive signals of duplication in short-read sequencing data, we identified 744 duplicated loci in H. cydno and H. melpomene and evaluated the accuracy of our approach using single-molecule sequencing. We have found that duplications overlap genes significantly less than expected at random in H. melpomene, consistent with the action of background selection against duplicates in functional regions of the genome. Duplicate loci that are highly differentiated between H. melpomene and H. cydno map to four different chromosomes. Four duplications were identified with a strong signal of divergent selection, including an odorant binding protein and another in close proximity with a known wing colour pattern locus that differs between the two species.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Apollo
    Article . 2017
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    Article . 2017
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2017
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      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Otti, Oliver; Deines, Peter; Hammerschmidt, Katrin; Reinhardt, Klaus;

    During wounding, tissues are disrupted so that bacteria can easily enter the host and trigger a host response. Both the host response and bacterial communication can occur through quorum sensing (QS) and quorum sensing inhibition (QSI). Here, we characterize the effect of wounding on the host-associated bacterial community of the bed bug. This is a model system where the male is wounding the female during every mating. Whereas several aspects of the microbial involvement during wounding have been previously examined, it is not clear to what extent QS and QSI play a role. We find that the microbiome differs depending on mating and feeding status of female bedbugs and is specific to the location of isolation. Most organs of bedbugs harbor bacteria, which are capable of both QS and QSI signaling. By focusing on the prokaryotic quorum communication system, we provide a baseline for future research in this unique system. We advocate the bedbug system as suitable for studying the effects of bacteria on reproduction and for addressing prokaryote and eukaryote communication during wounding.

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    Authors: Mocho, Jean-Philippe; Martin, Darren J.; Millington, Mollie E.; Saavedra Torres, Yolanda;

    Health monitoring systems are developed and used in zebrafish research facilities because pathogens of Danio rerio such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Mycobacterium spp., and Pseudocapillaria tomentosa have the potential to impair animal welfare and research. The fish are typically analyzed post mortem to detect microbes. The use of sentinels is a suggested way to improve the sensitivity of the surveillance and to reduce the number of animals to sample. The setting of a pre-filtration sentinel tank out of a recirculating system is described. The technique is developed to prevent water pollution and to represent the fish population by a careful selection of age, gender, and strains. In order to use the minimum number of animals, techniques to screen the environment are also detailed. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on surface sump swabs is used to significantly improve the detection of some prevalent and pathogenic mycobacterial species such as Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium haemophilum, and Mycobacterium chelonae. Another environmental method consists of processing the sludge at the bottom of a holding tank or sump to look for P. tomentosa eggs. This is a cheap and fast technique that can be applied in quarantine where a breeding device is submerged into the holding tank of imported animals. Finally, PCR is applied to the sludge sample and A. hydrophila is detected at the sump's bottom and surface. Generally, these environmental screening techniques applied to these specific pathogens have led to an increased sensitivity compared to the testing of pre-filtration sentinels.

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    Authors: Banni, M; Sforzini, S; Arlt, V; Barranger, A; +10 Authors

    Despite the increasing use of mussels in environmental monitoring and ecotoxicological studies, their genomes and gene functions have not been thoroughly explored. Several cDNA microarrays were recently proposed for Mytilus spp., but putatively identified partial transcripts have rendered the generation of robust transcriptional responses difficult in terms of pathway identification. We developed a new low density oligonucleotide microarray with 465 probes covering the same number of genes. Target genes were selected to cover most of the well-known biological processes in the stress response documented over the last decade in bivalve species at the cellular and tissue levels. Our new 'STressREsponse Microarray' (STREM) platform consists of eight sub-arrays with three replicates for each target in each sub-array. To assess the potential use of the new array, we tested the effect of the ubiquitous environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) at 5, 50, and 100 μg/L on two target tissues, the gills and digestive gland, of Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed invivo for three days. Bioaccumulation of B[a]P was also determined demonstrating exposure in both tissues. In addition to the well-known effects of B[a]P on DNA metabolism and oxidative stress, the new array data provided clues about the implication of other biological processes , such as cytoskeleton, immune response, adhesion to substrate, and mitochondrial activities. Transcriptional data were confirmed using qRT-PCR. We further investigated cellular functions and possible alterations related to biological processes highlighted microarray data using oxidative stress biomarkers (Lipofuscin content) and the assessment of genotoxicity. DNA damage, as measured by the alkaline comet assay, increased as a function of dose.DNA adducts measurements using 32P-postlabeling method also showed the presence of bulky DNA adducts (i.e. dG-N2-BPDE). Lipofiscin content increased significantly in B[a]P exposed mussels. Immunohistochemical analysis of tubulin and actin showed changes in cytoskeleton organisation. Our results adopting an integrated approach confirmed that the combination of newly developed transcriptomic approcah, classical biomarkers along with chemical analysis of water and tissue samples should be considered for environmental bioimonitoring and ecotoxicological studies to obtain holistic information to assess the impact of contaminants on the biota. International audience

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2017
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2017
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2017
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2017
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Rowe, WPM; Baker-Austin, C; Verner-Jeffreys, DW; Ryan, JJ; +3 Authors

    $\textbf{Objectives}$: Effluents contain a diverse abundance of antibiotic resistance genes that augment the resistome of receiving aquatic environments. However, uncertainty remains regarding their temporal persistence, transcription and response to anthropogenic factors, such as antibiotic usage. We present a spatiotemporal study within a river catchment (River Cam, UK) that aims to determine the contribution of antibiotic resistance gene-containing effluents originating from sites of varying antibiotic usage to the receiving environment. $\textbf{Methods}$: Gene abundance in effluents (municipal hospital and dairy farm) was compared against background samples of the receiving aquatic environment (i.e. the catchment source) to determine the resistome contribution of effluents. We used metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to correlate DNA and RNA abundance and identified differentially regulated gene transcripts. $\textbf{Results}$: We found that mean antibiotic resistance gene and transcript abundances were correlated for both hospital (ρ=0.9, two-tailed $\textit{P}$<0.0001) and farm (ρ=0.5, two-tailed $\textit{P}$<0.0001) effluents and that two β-lactam resistance genes ($\textit{bla}$GES and $\textit{bla}$OXA) were overexpressed in all hospital effluent samples. High β-lactam resistance gene transcript abundance was related to hospital antibiotic usage over time and hospital effluents contained antibiotic residues. $\textbf{Conclusions}$: We conclude that effluents contribute high levels of antibiotic resistance genes to the aquatic environment; these genes are expressed at significant levels and are possibly related to the level of antibiotic usage at the effluent source.

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    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
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      Apollo
      Article . 2017
      License: CC BY
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      Apollo
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Richter, Sandy; Helm, Conrad; Meunier, Frederic A.; Hering, Lars; +6 Authors

    This work was supported by Cancer Research UK [GS], a Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator Award (107116/Z/15/Z) [GS], and University College London [GS]. This work was further supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG; grant BL787/7-1) and an EU ASSEMBLE grant (No. 227799; http://www.assemblemarine.org) to CB. We acknowledge support from the German Research Foundation (DFG) and Universität Leipzig within the program of Open Access Publishing. [Background]: We present the first molecular characterization of glycerotoxin (GLTx), a potent neurotoxin found in the venom of the bloodworm Glycera tridactyla (Glyceridae, Annelida). Within the animal kingdom, GLTx shows a unique mode of action as it can specifically up-regulate the activity of Cav2.2 channels (N-type) in a reversible manner. The lack of sequence information has so far hampered a detailed understanding of its mode of action. [Conclusions]: Our results overturn a century old textbook view on the glycerid venom system, suggesting that it is anatomically and functionally much more complex than previously thought. The herein presented GLTx sequence information constitutes an important step towards the establishment of GLTx as a versatile tool to understand the mechanism of synaptic function, as well as the mode of action of this novel neurotoxin. [Results]: Our analyses reveal three ~3.8 kb GLTx full-length transcripts, show that GLTx represents a multigene family, and suggest it functions as a dimer. An integrative approach using transcriptomics, quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry shows that GLTx is highly expressed exclusively in four pharyngeal lobes, a previously unrecognized part of the venom apparatus. © The Author(s). Peer Reviewed

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    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: UCL Discovery
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      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: UCL Discovery
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Jacquot, Maude; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Palmarini, Massimo; Mertens, Peter; +1 Authors

    Spatio-temporal patterns of the spread of infectious diseases are commonly driven by environmental and ecological factors. This is particularly true for vector-borne diseases because vector populations can be strongly affected by host distribution as well as by climatic and landscape variables. Here, we aim to identify environmental drivers for bluetongue virus (BTV), the causative agent of a major vector-borne disease of ruminants that has emerged multiple times in Europe in recent decades. In order to determine the importance of climatic, landscape and host-related factors affecting BTV diffusion across Europe, we fitted different phylogeographic models to a dataset of 113 time-stamped and geo-referenced BTV genomes, representing multiple strains and serotypes. Diffusion models using continuous space revealed that terrestrial habitat below 300 m altitude, wind direction and higher livestock densities were associated with faster BTV movement. Results of discrete phylogeographic analysis involving generalized linear models broadly supported these findings, but varied considerably with the level of spatial partitioning. Contrary to common perception, we found no evidence for average temperature having a positive effect on BTV diffusion, though both methodological and biological reasons could be responsible for this result. Our study provides important insights into the drivers of BTV transmission at the landscape scale that could inform predictive models of viral spread and have implications for designing control strategies.

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    Authors: Emmett, Pauline M.; Jones, Louise R.; Golding, Jean;

    All publications covering diet during pregnancy that stemmed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were reviewed. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Socioeconomic background, maternal mental health, and the health and development of the offspring were assessed using a variety of methods, such as direct measurement, self-completion questionnaires, and assays of biological samples. Differences in diet, including specific food and nutrient intakes and dietary patterns, were associated with maternal educational attainment, smoking habits, and financial difficulty. There were marginal intakes, compared with recommendations, of the key nutrients iron, magnesium, potassium, and folate. Maternal diet during pregnancy was predictive of offspring diet during childhood. There were independent associations between prenatal fish consumption and lower frequency of maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as lower frequency of intrauterine growth retardation. Consistent evidence that fish consumption during pregnancy benefited the neurocognitive development of the child was also found. Two constituents of fish, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and iodine, were associated with these benefits in children. The findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children strengthen the recommendation to eat fish regularly during pregnancy.

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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marron, Alan; Cassarino, Lucie; Hatton, Jade; Curnow, Paul; +1 Authors

    The marine silicon cycle is intrinsically linked with carbon cycling in the oceans via biological production of silica by a wide range of organisms. The stable silicon isotopic composition (denoted by δ30Si) of siliceous microfossils extracted from sediment cores can be used as an archive of past oceanic silicon cycling. However, the silicon isotopic composition of biogenic silica has only been measured in diatoms, sponges and radiolarians, and isotopic fractionation relative to seawater is entirely unknown for many other silicifiers. Furthermore, the biochemical pathways and mechanisms that determine isotopic fractionation during biosilicification remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first measurements of the silicon isotopic fractionation during biosilicification by loricate choanoflagellates, a group of protists closely related to animals. We cultured two species of choanoflagellates, Diaphanoeca grandis and Stephanoeca diplocostata, which showed consistently greater isotopic fractionation (approximately −5 ‰ to −7 ‰) than cultured diatoms (−0.5 ‰ to −2.1 ‰). Instead, choanoflagellate silicon isotopic fractionation appears to be more similar to sponges grown under similar dissolved silica concentrations. Our results highlight that there is a taxonomic component to silicon isotope fractionation during biosilicification, possibly via a shared or related biochemical transport pathway. These findings have implications for the use of biogenic silica δ30Si produced by different silicifiers as proxies for past oceanic change.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Sweeting, Michael; +51 Authors

    Background: There is uncertainty about the relevance of animal foods to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs and risk for IHD in the pan-European EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition). Methods: In this prospective study of 409 885 men and women in 9 European countries, diet was assessed with validated questionnaires and calibrated with 24-hour recalls. Lipids and blood pressure were measured in a subsample. During a mean of 12.6 years of follow-up, 7198 participants had a myocardial infarction or died of IHD. The relationships of animal foods with risk were examined with Cox regression with adjustment for other animal foods and relevant covariates. Results: The hazard ratio (HR) for IHD was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06–1.33) for a 100-g/d increment in intake of red and processed meat, and this remained significant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up (HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09–1.42]). Risk was inversely associated with intakes of yogurt (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89–0.98] per 100-g/d increment), cheese (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86–0.98] per 30-g/d increment), and eggs (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88–0.99] per 20-g/d increment); the associations with yogurt and eggs were attenuated and nonsignificant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was not significantly associated with intakes of poultry, fish, or milk. In analyses modeling dietary substitutions, replacement of 100 kcal/d from red and processed meat with 100 kcal/d from fatty fish, yogurt, cheese, or eggs was associated with ≈20% lower risk of IHD. Consumption of red and processed meat was positively associated with serum non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and systolic blood pressure, and consumption of cheese was inversely associated with serum non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Risk for IHD was positively associated with consumption of red and processed meat and inversely associated with consumption of yogurt, cheese, and eggs, although the associations with yogurt and eggs may be influenced by reverse causation bias. It is not clear whether the associations with red and processed meat and cheese reflect causality, but they were consistent with the associations of these foods with plasma non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and for red and processed meat with systolic blood pressure, which could mediate such effects. Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

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