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The following results are related to European Marine Science. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.

  • European Marine Science
  • 2018-2022
  • Publications
  • Other research products
  • CH
  • English
  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Waterhouse, Robert M.; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Agosti, Donat; Baldrian, Petr; +15 Authors

    Threats to global biodiversity are increasingly recognised by scientists and the public as a critical challenge. Molecular sequencing technologies offer means to catalogue, explore, and monitor the richness and biogeography of life on Earth. However, exploiting their full potential requires tools that connect biodiversity infrastructures and resources. As a research infrastructure developing services and technical solutions that help integrate and coordinate life science resources across Europe, ELIXIR is a key player. To identify opportunities, highlight priorities, and aid strategic thinking, here we survey approaches by which molecular technologies help inform understanding of biodiversity. We detail example use cases to highlight how DNA sequencing is: resolving taxonomic issues; Increasing knowledge of marine biodiversity; helping understand how agriculture and biodiversity are critically linked; and playing an essential role in ecological studies. Together with examples of national biodiversity programmes, the use cases show where progress is being made but also highlight common challenges and opportunities for future enhancement of underlying technologies and services that connect molecular and wider biodiversity domains. Based on emerging themes, we propose key recommendations to guide future funding for biodiversity research: biodiversity and bioinformatic infrastructures need to collaborate closely and strategically; taxonomic efforts need to be aligned and harmonised across domains; metadata needs to be standardised and common data management approaches widely adopted; current approaches need to be scaled up dramatically to address the anticipated explosion of molecular data; bioinformatics support for biodiversity research needs to be enabled and sustained; training for end users of biodiversity research infrastructures needs to be prioritised; and community initiatives need to be proactive and focused on enabling solutions. For sequencing data to deliver their full potential they must be connected to knowledge: together, molecular sequence data collection initiatives and biodiversity research infrastructures can advance global efforts to prevent further decline of Earth's biodiversity.

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    Authors: Parmar, Tarn Preet; Kindinger, Alina L.; Mathieu-Resuge, Margaux; Twining, Cornelia W.; +3 Authors

    Emergent insects represent a key vector through which aquatic nutrients are transferred to adjacent terrestrial food webs. Aquatic fluxes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from emergent insects are particularly important subsidies for terrestrial ecosystems due to high PUFA contents in several aquatic insect taxa and their physiological importance for riparian predators. While recent meta-analyses have shown the general dichotomy in fatty acid profiles between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, differences in fatty acid profiles between aquatic and terrestrial insects have been insufficiently explored. We examined the differences in fatty acid profiles between aquatic and terrestrial insects at a single aquatic-terrestrial interface over an entire growing season to assess the strength and temporal consistency of the dichotomy in fatty acid profiles. Non-metric multidimensional scaling clearly separated aquatic and terrestrial insects based on their fatty acid profiles regardless of season. Aquatic insects were characterized by high proportions of long-chain PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3); whereas terrestrial insects were characterized by high proportions of linoleic acid (18:2n-6). Our results provide detailed information on fatty acid profiles of a diversity of aquatic and terrestrial insect taxa and demonstrate that the fundamental differences in fatty acid content between aquatic and terrestrial insects persist throughout the growing season. However, the higher fatty acid dissimilarity between aquatic and terrestrial insects in spring and early summer emphasizes the importance of aquatic emergence as essential subsidies for riparian predators especially during the breading season. published

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    Authors: Benedetti, Fabio; Wydler, Jonas; Vogt, Meike;
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    Authors: Benedetti, Fabio; Wydler, Jonas; Vogt, Meike;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fugger, Stefan; Fyffe, Catriona; Fatichi, Simone; Miles, Evan; +8 Authors

    The Indian and East Asian Summer Monsoons shape the melt and accumulation patterns of glaciers in High Mountain Asia in complex ways due to the interaction of persistent cloud cover, large temperature ranges, high atmospheric water content and high precipitation rates. Glacier energy and mass balance modelling using in-situ measurements offer insights into the ways in which surface processes are shaped by climatic regimes. In this study, we use a full energy- and mass-balance model and seven on-glacier automatic weather station datasets from different parts of the Central and Eastern Himalaya to investigate how monsoon conditions influence the glacier surface energy and mass balance. In particular, we look at how debris-covered and debris-free glaciers respond differently to monsoonal conditions. The radiation budget primarily controls the melt of clean ice glaciers, but turbulent fluxes play an important role in modulating the melt energy on debris-covered glaciers. The sensible heat flux decreases during core monsoon, but the latent heat flux cools the surface due to evaporation of liquid water. This interplay of radiative and turbulent fluxes causes debris-covered glacier melt rates to stay almost constant through the different phases of the monsoon. Ice melt under thin debris, on the other hand, is amplified by both the dark surface and the turbulent fluxes, which intensify melt during monsoon through surface heating and condensation. Pre monsoon snow cover can considerably delay melt onset and have a strong impact on the seasonal mass balance. Intermittent monsoon snow cover lowers the melt rates at high elevation. This work is fundamental to the understanding of the present and future Himalayan cryosphere and water budget, while informing and motivating further glacier- and catchment-scale research using process-based models.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Vogt, Meike;
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    Authors: Davies, J.; Mathiasen, A.M.; Kristiansen, K.; Hansen, K.E.; +5 Authors

    The melting of marine terminating glaciers in Northeast Greenland is a visible sign that our climate is changing. This melt has been partly attributed to changes in oceanic heat fluxes, particularly warming of Atlantic Water (AW). Yet our understanding of the interaction between glaciers and the ocean is limited by the length of instrumental records. Here, we present a multi-proxy study (benthic foraminifera assemblages, CT scans, grain size, XRF, and stable isotope data) on core DA17-NG-ST08-092G, located 90 km east of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). Whilst the exact timing of deglaciation is uncertain, it is certain to have occurred at least as early as 12.5 ka cal BP, and likely before 13.4 ka cal BP. The inflow of AW may have played a role in the seemingly early deglaciation on the Northeast Greenland continental shelf. Following deglaciation, the site was overlain by an ice shelf, with AWand Polar Water (PW) flowing beneath until 11.2 ka cal BP. The NEGIS briefly retreated westwards between 11.2 and 10.8 ka cal BP before our site returned to glacier-proximal conditions dominated by colder subsurface water and persistent AW flowing beneath (10.8e9.6 ka cal BP). Between 9.6 and 7.9 ka cal BP the NEGIS retreated westwards; there was a continued presence of AWand PW at the site. A drastic shift in ocean circulation occurred at 7.9 ka cal BP, with a decline in AW flow and dominance of PW flowing beneath perennial sea ice. During the Late Holocene, there was return of AW and likely breakup of perennial sea ice.

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    Authors: Baltar, Lukas Malfertheiner; Clara Martínez-Pérez; Zihao Zhao; Gerhard J. Herndl; Federico;

    The bacterial SAR324 cluster is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean, especially around hydrothermal vents and in the deep sea, where it can account for up to 30% of the whole bacterial community. According to a new taxonomy generated using multiple universal protein-coding genes (instead of the previously used 16S rRNA single gene marker), the former Deltaproteobacteria cluster SAR324 has been classified since 2018 as its own phylum. Yet, very little is known about its phylogeny and metabolic potential. We downloaded all publicly available SAR324 genomes (65) from all natural environments and reconstructed 18 new genomes using publicly available oceanic metagenomic data and unpublished data from the waters underneath the Ross Ice Shelf. We calculated a global SAR324 phylogenetic tree and identified six clusters (namely 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D) within this clade. Genome annotation and metatranscriptome read mapping showed that SAR324 clades possess a flexible array of genes suited for survival in various environments. Clades 2A and 2C are mostly present in the surface mesopelagic layers of global oceans, while clade 2D dominates in deeper regions. Our results show that SAR324 has a very versatile and broad metabolic potential, including many heterotrophic, but also autotrophic pathways. While one surface water associated clade (2A) seems to use proteorhodopsin to gain energy from solar radiation, some deep-sea genomes from clade 2D contain the complete Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle gene repertoire to fix carbon. This, in addition to a variety of other genes and pathways for both oxic (e.g., dimethylsulfoniopropionate degradation) and anoxic (e.g., dissimilatory sulfate reduction, anaerobic benzoate degradation) conditions, can help explain the ubiquitous presence of SAR324 in aquatic habitats.

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      Biology
      Other literature type . 2022
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Upper Indus Basin Horizon Scanning;

    River systems originating from the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are dominated by runoff from snow and glacier melt and summer monsoonal rainfall. These water resources are highly stressed as huge populations of people living in this region depend on them, including for agriculture, domestic use, and energy production. Projections suggest that the UIB region will be affected by considerable (yet poorly quantified) changes to the seasonality and composition of runoff in the future, which are likely to have considerable impacts on these supplies. Given how directly and indirectly communities and ecosystems are dependent on these resources and the growing pressure on them due to ever-increasing demands, the impacts of climate change pose considerable adaptation challenges. The strong linkages between hydroclimate, cryosphere, water resources, and human activities within the UIB suggest that a multi- and inter-disciplinary research approach integrating the social and natural/environmental sciences is critical for successful adaptation to ongoing and future hydrological and climate change. Here we use a horizon scanning technique to identify the Top 100 questions related to the most pressing knowledge gaps and research priorities in social and natural sciences on climate change and water in the UIB. These questions are on the margins of current thinking and investigation and are clustered into 14 themes, covering three overarching topics of “governance, policy, and sustainable solutions”, “socioeconomic processes and livelihoods”, and “integrated Earth System processes”. Raising awareness of these cutting-edge knowledge gaps and opportunities will hopefully encourage researchers, funding bodies, practitioners, and policy makers to address them.

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    Authors: Chevalier, Manuel;

    Statistical climate reconstruction techniques are fundamental tools to study past climate variability from fos- sil proxy data. In particular, the methods based on probabil- ity density functions (or PDFs) can be used in various en- vironments and with different climate proxies because they rely on elementary calibration data (i.e. modern geolocalised presence data). However, the difficulty of accessing and cu- rating these calibration data and the complexity of inter- preting probabilistic results have often limited their use in palaeoclimatological studies. Here, I introduce a new R pack- age (crestr) to apply the PDF-based method CREST (Cli- mate REconstruction SofTware) on diverse palaeoecological datasets and address these problems. crestr includes a glob- ally curated calibration dataset for six common climate prox- ies (i.e. plants, beetles, chironomids, rodents, foraminifera, and dinoflagellate cysts) associated with an extensive range of climate variables (20 terrestrial and 19 marine variables) that enables its use in most terrestrial and marine environ- ments. Private data collections can also be used instead of, or in combination with, the provided calibration dataset. The package includes a suite of graphical diagnostic tools to rep- resent the data at each step of the reconstruction process and provide insights into the effect of the different modelling as- sumptions and external factors that underlie a reconstruction. With this R package, the CREST method can now be used in a scriptable environment and thus be more easily integrated with existing workflows. It is hoped that crestr will be used to produce the much-needed quantified climate reconstruc- tions from the many regions where they are currently lack- ing, despite the availability of suitable fossil records. To sup- port this development, the use of the package is illustrated with a step-by-step replication of a 790 000-year-long mean annual temperature reconstruction based on a pollen record from southeastern Africa.

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    Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Waterhouse, Robert M.; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Agosti, Donat; Baldrian, Petr; +15 Authors

    Threats to global biodiversity are increasingly recognised by scientists and the public as a critical challenge. Molecular sequencing technologies offer means to catalogue, explore, and monitor the richness and biogeography of life on Earth. However, exploiting their full potential requires tools that connect biodiversity infrastructures and resources. As a research infrastructure developing services and technical solutions that help integrate and coordinate life science resources across Europe, ELIXIR is a key player. To identify opportunities, highlight priorities, and aid strategic thinking, here we survey approaches by which molecular technologies help inform understanding of biodiversity. We detail example use cases to highlight how DNA sequencing is: resolving taxonomic issues; Increasing knowledge of marine biodiversity; helping understand how agriculture and biodiversity are critically linked; and playing an essential role in ecological studies. Together with examples of national biodiversity programmes, the use cases show where progress is being made but also highlight common challenges and opportunities for future enhancement of underlying technologies and services that connect molecular and wider biodiversity domains. Based on emerging themes, we propose key recommendations to guide future funding for biodiversity research: biodiversity and bioinformatic infrastructures need to collaborate closely and strategically; taxonomic efforts need to be aligned and harmonised across domains; metadata needs to be standardised and common data management approaches widely adopted; current approaches need to be scaled up dramatically to address the anticipated explosion of molecular data; bioinformatics support for biodiversity research needs to be enabled and sustained; training for end users of biodiversity research infrastructures needs to be prioritised; and community initiatives need to be proactive and focused on enabling solutions. For sequencing data to deliver their full potential they must be connected to knowledge: together, molecular sequence data collection initiatives and biodiversity research infrastructures can advance global efforts to prevent further decline of Earth's biodiversity.

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    Authors: Parmar, Tarn Preet; Kindinger, Alina L.; Mathieu-Resuge, Margaux; Twining, Cornelia W.; +3 Authors

    Emergent insects represent a key vector through which aquatic nutrients are transferred to adjacent terrestrial food webs. Aquatic fluxes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from emergent insects are particularly important subsidies for terrestrial ecosystems due to high PUFA contents in several aquatic insect taxa and their physiological importance for riparian predators. While recent meta-analyses have shown the general dichotomy in fatty acid profiles between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, differences in fatty acid profiles between aquatic and terrestrial insects have been insufficiently explored. We examined the differences in fatty acid profiles between aquatic and terrestrial insects at a single aquatic-terrestrial interface over an entire growing season to assess the strength and temporal consistency of the dichotomy in fatty acid profiles. Non-metric multidimensional scaling clearly separated aquatic and terrestrial insects based on their fatty acid profiles regardless of season. Aquatic insects were characterized by high proportions of long-chain PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3); whereas terrestrial insects were characterized by high proportions of linoleic acid (18:2n-6). Our results provide detailed information on fatty acid profiles of a diversity of aquatic and terrestrial insect taxa and demonstrate that the fundamental differences in fatty acid content between aquatic and terrestrial insects persist throughout the growing season. However, the higher fatty acid dissimilarity between aquatic and terrestrial insects in spring and early summer emphasizes the importance of aquatic emergence as essential subsidies for riparian predators especially during the breading season. published

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    Authors: Benedetti, Fabio; Wydler, Jonas; Vogt, Meike;
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    Authors: Benedetti, Fabio; Wydler, Jonas; Vogt, Meike;
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    Authors: Fugger, Stefan; Fyffe, Catriona; Fatichi, Simone; Miles, Evan; +8 Authors

    The Indian and East Asian Summer Monsoons shape the melt and accumulation patterns of glaciers in High Mountain Asia in complex ways due to the interaction of persistent cloud cover, large temperature ranges, high atmospheric water content and high precipitation rates. Glacier energy and mass balance modelling using in-situ measurements offer insights into the ways in which surface processes are shaped by climatic regimes. In this study, we use a full energy- and mass-balance model and seven on-glacier automatic weather station datasets from different parts of the Central and Eastern Himalaya to investigate how monsoon conditions influence the glacier surface energy and mass balance. In particular, we look at how debris-covered and debris-free glaciers respond differently to monsoonal conditions. The radiation budget primarily controls the melt of clean ice glaciers, but turbulent fluxes play an important role in modulating the melt energy on debris-covered glaciers. The sensible heat flux decreases during core monsoon, but the latent heat flux cools the surface due to evaporation of liquid water. This interplay of radiative and turbulent fluxes causes debris-covered glacier melt rates to stay almost constant through the different phases of the monsoon. Ice melt under thin debris, on the other hand, is amplified by both the dark surface and the turbulent fluxes, which intensify melt during monsoon through surface heating and condensation. Pre monsoon snow cover can considerably delay melt onset and have a strong impact on the seasonal mass balance. Intermittent monsoon snow cover lowers the melt rates at high elevation. This work is fundamental to the understanding of the present and future Himalayan cryosphere and water budget, while informing and motivating further glacier- and catchment-scale research using process-based models.

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    Authors: Vogt, Meike;
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    Authors: Davies, J.; Mathiasen, A.M.; Kristiansen, K.; Hansen, K.E.; +5 Authors

    The melting of marine terminating glaciers in Northeast Greenland is a visible sign that our climate is changing. This melt has been partly attributed to changes in oceanic heat fluxes, particularly warming of Atlantic Water (AW). Yet our understanding of the interaction between glaciers and the ocean is limited by the length of instrumental records. Here, we present a multi-proxy study (benthic foraminifera a