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2,035 Research products, page 1 of 204

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Romero-Alvarez, Johana; Lupaşcu, Aurelia; Lowe, Douglas; Badia, Alba; Acher-Nicholls, Scott; Dorling, Steve R.; Reeves, Claire E.; Butler, Tim;
    Project: EC | ASIBIA (616938)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations depend on a combination of hemispheric, regional, and local-scale processes. Estimates of how much O3 is produced locally vs. transported from further afield are essential in air quality management and regulatory policies. Here, a tagged-ozone mechanism within the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to quantify the contributions to surface O3 in the UK from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from inside and outside the UK during May–August 2015. The contribution of the different source regions to three regulatory O3 metrics is also examined. It is shown that model simulations predict the concentration and spatial distribution of surface O3 with a domain-wide mean bias of −3.7 ppbv. Anthropogenic NOx emissions from the UK and Europe account for 13 % and 16 %, respectively, of the monthly mean surface O3 in the UK, as the majority (71 %) of O3 originates from the hemispheric background. Hemispheric O3 contributes the most to concentrations in the north and the west of the UK with peaks in May, whereas European and UK contributions are most significant in the east, south-east, and London, i.e. the UK's most populated areas, intensifying towards June and July. Moreover, O3 from European sources is generally transported to the UK rather than produced in situ. It is demonstrated that more stringent emission controls over continental Europe, particularly in western Europe, would be necessary to improve the health-related metric MDA8 O3 above 50 and 60 ppbv. Emission controls over larger areas, such as the Northern Hemisphere, are instead required to lessen the impacts on ecosystems as quantified by the AOT40 metric.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Zens, Patrick; Black, Samuel; Lund, Kasper Holst; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul;
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    Greenland ice cores provide information about past climate. Few impurity records covering the past 2 decades exist from Greenland. Here we present results from six firn cores obtained during a 426 km long northern Greenland traverse made in 2015 between the NEEM and the EGRIP deep-drilling stations situated on the western side and eastern side of the Greenland ice sheet, respectively. The cores (9 to 14 m long) are analyzed for chemical impurities and cover time spans of 18 to 53 years (±3 years) depending on local snow accumulation that decreases from west to east. The high temporal resolution allows for annual layers and seasons to be resolved. Insoluble dust, ammonium, and calcium concentrations in the six firn cores overlap, and the seasonal cycles are also similar in timing and magnitude across sites, while peroxide (H2O2) and conductivity both have spatial variations, H2O2 driven by the accumulation pattern, and conductivity likely influenced by sea salt. Overall, we determine a rather constant dust flux over the period, but in the data from recent years (1998–2015) we identify an increase in large dust particles that we ascribe to an activation of local Greenland sources. We observe an expected increase in acidity and conductivity in the mid-1970s as a result of anthropogenic emissions, followed by a decrease due to mitigation. Several volcanic horizons identified in the conductivity and acidity records can be associated with eruptions in Iceland and in the Barents Sea region. From a composite ammonium record we obtain a robust forest fire proxy associated primarily with Canadian forest fires (R=0.49).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Droste, Elise S.; Hoppema, Mario; González-Dávila, Melchor; Santana-Casiano, Juana Magdalena; Queste, Bastien Y.; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Venables, Hugh J.; Rohardt, Gerd; Ossebaar, Sharyn; Schuller, Daniel; +2 more
    Project: EC | CARBOCHANGE (264879)

    Tides significantly affect polar coastlines by modulating ice shelf melt and modifying shelf water properties through transport and mixing. However, the effect of tides on the marine carbonate chemistry in such regions, especially around Antarctica, remains largely unexplored. We address this topic with two case studies in a coastal polynya in the south-eastern Weddell Sea, neighbouring the Ekström Ice Shelf. The case studies were conducted in January 2015 (PS89) and January 2019 (PS117), capturing semi-diurnal oscillations in the water column. These are pronounced in both physical and biogeochemical variables for PS89. During rising tide, advection of sea ice meltwater from the north-east created a fresher, warmer, and more deeply mixed water column with lower dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) content. During ebbing tide, water from underneath the ice shelf decreased the polynya's temperature, increased the DIC and TA content, and created a more stratified water column. The variability during the PS117 case study was much smaller, as it had less sea ice meltwater input during rising tide and was better mixed with sub-ice shelf water. The contrasts in the variability between the two case studies could be wind and sea ice driven, and they underline the complexity and highly dynamic nature of the system. The variability in the polynya induced by the tides results in an air–sea CO2 flux that can range between a strong sink (−24 mmol m−2 d−1) and a small source (3 mmol m−2 d−1) on a semi-diurnal timescale. If the variability induced by tides is not taken into account, there is a potential risk of overestimating the polynya's CO2 uptake by 67 % or underestimating it by 73 %, compared to the average flux determined over several days. Depending on the timing of limited sampling, the polynya may appear to be a source or a sink of CO2. Given the disproportionate influence of polynyas on heat and carbon exchange in polar oceans, we recommend future studies around the Antarctic and Arctic coastlines to consider the timing of tidal currents in their sampling strategies and analyses. This will help constrain variability in oceanographic measurements and avoid potential biases in our understanding of these highly complex systems.

  • Research software . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Troupin, Charles; Eliezer, Menashe; Username12; Pasquier, Benoit; Leinweber, Katrin;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | Blue Cloud (862409), EC | SeaDataCloud (730960)

    DIVAnd v2.7.9 Diff since v2.7.8 Closed issues: Bulls eye in region without data (#90) How to leverage other data while gridding? (Enhancement) (#96) Failed test (#104) Merged pull requests: CompatHelper: bump compat for Interpolations to 0.14, (keep existing compat) (#103) (@github-actions[bot])

  • Research software . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Troupin, Charles; Eliezer, Menashe; username12; Pasquier, Benoit; Leinweber, Katrin;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | SeaDataCloud (730960), EC | Blue Cloud (862409), EC | SeaDataCloud (730960), EC | Blue Cloud (862409)

    DIVAnd v2.7.9 Diff since v2.7.8 Closed issues: Bulls eye in region without data (#90) How to leverage other data while gridding? (Enhancement) (#96) Failed test (#104) Merged pull requests: CompatHelper: bump compat for Interpolations to 0.14, (keep existing compat) (#103) (@github-actions[bot])

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kajanto, Karita; Straneo, Fiammetta; Nisancioglu, Kerim;
    Project: EC | ICE2ICE (610055)

    The role of icebergs in narrow fjords hosting marine terminating glaciers in Greenland is poorly understood, even though icebergs provide a substantial freshwater flux that can exceed the subglacial discharge. Iceberg melt is distributed at depth, contributing to fjord stratification, thus impacting melt and dynamics of the glacier front. We model the high-silled Ilulissat Icefjord in Western Greenland with the MITgcm ocean model, using the IceBerg package to study the effect of icebergs on fjord properties, and compare our results with available observations from 2014. We find the subglacial discharge plume to be the primary driver of the seasonality of circulation, glacier melt and iceberg melt. Icebergs are necessary to include to correctly understand the properties of Ilulissat Icefjord, since they modify the fjord in three main ways: First, icebergs cool and freshen the water column within their vertical extent; Second, icebergs depress the neutral buoyancy depth of the plume and the outflow route of glacially modified water; Third, icebergs modify the deep basin, below their vertical extent, due to both increased entrainment of glacially modified water into the fjord, and iceberg modification of the incoming ambient water. Furthermore, the depressed neutral buoyancy depth of the plume limits melt to the deep section of the front of Sermeq Kujalleq (Jakobshavn Isbræ) even during peak summer, and thus promotes undercutting. We postulate that the impact of icebergs on the neutral buoyancy depth of the plume is a key mechanism connecting iceberg melange and glacier calving, independent of mechanical support.

  • Research software . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hassell, David; Gregory, Jonathan; Bartholomew, Sadie L.;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | IS-ENES3 (824084), EC | SEACHANGE (247220), EC | Couplet (786427), EC | IS-ENES2 (312979), UKRI | Addressing the Grand Chal... (NE/R000727/1)

    {"references": ["Hassell, D., Gregory, J., Blower, J., Lawrence, B. N., and Taylor, K. E.: A data model of the Climate and Forecast metadata conventions (CF-1.6) with a software implementation (cf-python v2.1), Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4619\u20134646, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-4619-2017, 2017.", "Hassell et al., (2020). cfdm: A Python reference implementation of the CF data model. Journal of Open Source Software, 5(54), 2717, https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.02717"]} A CF-compliant Earth Science data analysis library

  • Research software . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hassell, David; Gregory, Jonathan; Bartholomew, Sadie L.;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | IS-ENES2 (312979), UKRI | Addressing the Grand Chal... (NE/R000727/1), EC | IS-ENES3 (824084), EC | SEACHANGE (247220), EC | Couplet (786427), EC | IS-ENES2 (312979), UKRI | Addressing the Grand Chal... (NE/R000727/1), EC | IS-ENES3 (824084), EC | SEACHANGE (247220), EC | Couplet (786427)

    A CF-compliant Earth Science data analysis library

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paschen, Marius;
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | OceanNETs (869357)

    This software implements numerically different carbon accounting schemes regarding ocean-based negative emission technologies by using the R software.